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INFORMATION 



IN RELATION TO 



DISEASE PREVAILING AMONG SWINE 



OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 



COMMUNICATED 



TO THE SENATE BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, IN COMPLIANCE 
WITH A RESOLUTION OF THE SENATE OF FEBRUARY 20, 1878. 



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WASHINGTON: 

GOVEENMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1878. 



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'45th Congress, ) SENATE. i Ex. Doo. 

2d Session. J ( ^o« 35. 

MESSAGE 



FROJI THE 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



COMMUNICATING, 



In answer to a Senate resolution of Fehruary 20, 1878, information in rela- 
tion to the disease irrevailing among swine and other domestic animals. 



Tkbrvxry 23, 1878. — Eead, ordered to lie on the table, and be printed. 



To the Senate of the United States : 

I transmit herewith, for the information of the Senate, the reply of 
tlie Commissioner of Agriculture to a resolution of the Senate, of the 
20th instant, " relative to the disease prevailing among swine," &c. 

E. B. HAYES. 

Executive Mansion, February 27, 1878. 



Department of Agrtcitlture, 

Washington^ D. C, Fehruary 26, 1878. 

Sir : In compliance with a resolution of the Senate, adopted on the 
20th instant, calling upon me for such information as may be in my pos- 
session relative to the disease i)revailing among swine, commonly known 
as " hog cholera," with such suggestions as I may deem pertinent in this 
connection, I have the honor to herewith transmit a large number of 
letters, from almost every section of the country, relating to this,and 
the many diseases to which all other classes of domestic animals are 
subject. For some years past the local press, and especially the agri- 
cultural journals of the country, have been calling attention to the in- 
crease of diseases among farm-stock, and the consequent heavy losses 
annually sustained by our farmers and stock breeders and growers. I 
regarded the subject as one of such vast importance to the productive 
industries of our country, as to demand the immediate attention of this 
department, and early in the month of August last I caused the follow- 
ing letter to be addressed to each member of the House of Eepresenta- 
tives : 

Department op Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, Anyust, 1877. 

Sir : This department is desirous of making a thorough investigation into the causes 
of the many diseases now, and for some years jtast, prevailing witli such fatal effect 
among the farm animals of this country. lu order that this work may be facilitated, 
aud the department put in possession of information that will enable it to form a cor- 
rect understanding of the extent, nature, and character of these diseases, and of the 
remedies indicated therefor, I would thank you for the names and post-office address 
of some of the more prominent stock and poultry breeders aud dealers of your district, 
and also the address of respectable veterinary surgeons, who have had experience in 



Z DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHEE DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

this direction. These names should include those of persons residing in localities 
where diseases of a general and local character prevail, either among horses, cattle, 
sheep, hogs, or poultry. 

I remain yours, very respectfully, 

WM. G. LE DUG, 

Covunissioner. 

In compliance with the request contained in the foregoing letter, the 
department was promi)tly placed in possession of the names of a large 
number of prominent farmers, stock growers, and veterinary surgeons 
in the various Congressional districts of the country, to whom the fol- 
lowing circular letter was addressed : 

Department of Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, August, 1877. 

Sir: This department being desirous of making an iuvestigatiou into the causes of 
diseases now, and for some years past, prevailing among all classes of farm animals, 
desires your assistance and co-operation in the proper consideration and determination 
of a subject of such great importance to the stock breeders and growers of this country. 
With the view of saving millions of dollars annually by the timely use of such remedies 
and preventives as are now known or may be discovered by this investigation, the de- 
partment desires as speedily as possible to be put in ])ossessiou of such facts as may 
have come under your observation in relation to diseases afi'ecting horses, cattle, sheep, 
hogs, and fowls, either in your own neighborhood or in adjacent localities. Have the 
kindness to give as complete a diagnosis of the disease as possible, stating the dura- 
tion of the attack, its average fatality, what remedies, if any, are used, and with 
what success. In localities where diseases prevail among more than one class of ani- 
mals, separate statements should be made under the name of the animals affected. 

This information will be laid before Congress as the basis of securing an ajipropria- 
tion to meet the expenses of a thorough investigation of diseases of all classes of 
farm animals. 

Very respectfully, &c., 

WM. G. LE DUG, 

Conunissioner. 

The responses to this circular indicated such heavy losses, among 
swine, from the various fatal diseases affecting this class of animals, that 
I at once determined to secure, so far as the facilities within my reach 
would permit, as accurate returns as possible from the various States 
and Territories of the Union the number of hogs annually raised, what 
proportion of those sufler from disease, and what proportion of those 
affected die, the aggregate value of the annual losses among this class 
of animals, and also the aggregate value of annual losses among all 
other classes of domestic animals from the various diseases to which 
they are incident. In order to secure this information a copy of the 
following letter was addressed to one correspondent in each county of 
the United States : 

Departmkxt op Agriculture, 

Washington, D. C, December 21, 1877. 

Sir : This department desires to obtain reliable information in regard to the losses 
of swine by cholera and all other diseases incident to this class of farm animals. We 
would, therefore, thank you i»r early and definite answers to the following questions : 

1. What number of hogs are annually raised in your county ? 

2. What proportion of hogs suffer from disease ? 

3. What proportion of those attacked by disease die ? 

4. What is the money-value annually lost by disease among swine in your county ? 

5. What is the money-value of all other classes of farm animals annually lost by 
disease in your county ? 

Very respectfully, 

WM. G. LE DUG, 

Commissioner. 

Out of two thousand four hundred and forty-seven counties (the num- 
ber composing all the States and Territories of the United States,) 
returns from one thousand one hundred and twentj^-live counties have 
been received. These returns are still coming in slowly, and will, per- 
haps, not be fully reported for some weeks to come. The data, so far 
received, have been condensed into the following tabular statement : 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 3 

Slafement ahmoivg the number of aioine annually raised in the United States, the numhe)' lost 
by various diseafies and the value of such losses; also the value of all other classes of domes- 
ticated animals annually lost by disease. 



Nanips of States and 
Torritoiiea. 



Alabama 

Arizona Territory 

Arkaiusas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticnt 

Dakota Xeiritcry 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho Territory 

Illiuoia 

lodiaua 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michif^au 

Minnesota 

Mississi ppi 

Missouri 

Montana Territory 

Nebraska 

Keva-ia 

New Hampshire 

New Jeraey 

New ilexico Territory. . 

New York 

North Carolina 

Ohio 

Oregon , 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah Territory 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington Territory ... 

"West Virginia 

"Wisconsin 

"Wyoming Territory 



66 

6 

74 

52 

29 

8 

43 

3 

39 

137 
10 

102 
92 
*9 
99 
84 

116 
58 
16 
23 
14 
77 
76 
75 

114 
10 
65 
14 
10 
21 
13 
60 
94 
88 
23 
66 
5 
32 
94 

154 
20 
14 
99 
24 
54 
60 
5 



Total 2,447 1,125 



253, 250 

1,850 

251,176 

173, 339 

10, 635 

74, 748 
17, 500 
20, OUO 
95, 909 
472, ()31 



£3 M 



51,110 



62, 333 
3,110 



2, 406, 449 
1,3S4, 032 



2, 055, 899 
689, 296 
581, 6»1 
206, 542 
46, 767 
202, 972 

27, 600 
401, 127 
200, 426 
310,304 

2, 144, 084 

3,300 

234, 294 

1,000 

12,771 

11,000 

26, 000 

270, 786 

634, 048 
1, 687, 7^8 

28, 345 

635, 387 
11, 848 

133,891 

907, 606 

597, 310 

17, 690 

63, 591 

713, 275 

2, (iOO 

294, 533 

671, 995 

67 



18, 987, 342 2, 599, 542 



1, 2.'0 

150 

1, 000 

18, 550 
62, 473 



491,203 
326, 488 



221, 158 

70,340 

118, 163 

12, 620 
730 

13, 595 
370 

11,013 

2,245 

43, 015 

437, 776 

25 

31, IfiO 

150 

275 

240 

1,240 

10, 387 

140, 724 

24, 690 

"22,' 871 ' 

30 

22, 915 

175, 941 

91, 979 

65 

3,029 

59, 868 

30 

35, 439 

9,622 



. 5877+ 



.6750 

. 6057+ 



.6611+ 
.4375 
.7166 + 
. 6096 + 
. 5878+ 



$88, 740 



142, 095 
8,175 



10, 974 
625 

4,500 

45, 605 

228, 496 



. 6763 

. 7248+ 



.6375 
. .5259+ 

. Gii42+ 
.5250 
. 4528+ 
. 6583+ 
.3900 
.4911 + 
.5758 + 
. 6395+ 
. 6692+ 



.6525 
.9000 
.4233 + 
.8500 
. 7000 
.3901 + 
. 5880+ 
.5960 + 

.'59I6 + 
. 7500 
. 6058+ 
. 6248+ 
. 5147+ 
.4166 
.5237 + 
.5104+ 
.2000 
. 6;28+ 
.5668 + 



1.703,327 
1,446, 798 



•J5 (h.O 

2I1 






$184, 550 



79, 400 

58, 490 

23, 300 

49, 870 

8,898 

8,000 

7.5, ,S40 

300, 155 



B, a " 

gJ.a 

a o a 






$273, 290 



1,884, 175 

217,165 

412, 403 

33, 483 

4, 750 

5.5, 170 

2, 620 

49, 560 

7,985 

112,416 

1,351, 265 



128, 925 

1,300 

2,200 

2,170 

2,500 

32, 210 

42-', 825 

503, 338 

235 

112, 999 

300 

60, 100 

489, 515 

235, 969 

360 

19, 035 

168, 174 

50 

66, 490 

26, 461 



5889+ 10,091,483 



593, 737 
502, 700 



440,165 

208, 290 

301, 487 

52, 700 

47, 532 

120, 525 

5, H50 

319, 625 

100, 207 

366, 065 

419,264 

1,000 

82, 269 

4,300 

34, 100 

16, 720 

17, 000 
165, 934 
1911,544 
334, 608 

15, 500 
155, 000 



64, .300 
311, 5.-)0 
417, 031 

23, 3.50 

42, 850 

217, 544 

1, 000 

6.5, 500 
137, 995 



6,561,945 



221,495 
66, 665 
23, 300 
60, 844 
9,523 
12, 500 
121, 445 
528, 651 



2, 297, 064 
1, 949, 498 



2, 324, 340 

425, 455 

713, 890 

86, 183 

52, 2^2 

175, 695 

8,470 

369, 185 

•108, 192 

479, 081 

1, 770, 929 

1,000 

211,194 

5,600 

36, 300 

18, 890 

19, 500 
198, 144 
599, 369 
837, 946 

15, 735 

267, 999 

300 

124, 400 

801, 065 

653, 600 

23,710 

61, 885 

385, 728 

1,050 

131,990 

164, 456 



16,653, 428 



' Nations. 



While I do not vouch for the accuracy of these returns, they are, per- 
haps, as reliable as can be procured, except by a systematic census of 
each county. In but few cases are the returns based upon the estimate 
of any one individual. In most cases these correspomlents are conver- 
sant with the agricultural interests of the counties in which they reside, 
and in making up their returns they did so only after consultation with 
their neighbors and with the ofticei\s of agricultural societies and local 
granges, where such associations exist. 

Our wide extent of country and its great diversity of temperature 
and variation of climate, the severity of frosts in some sections and the 



4 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

intensity of heat in other localities, render farm-stock liable to the at- 
tacks and ravaj^es of almost every disease known in the history of do- 
mestic animals. So general and fatal have many of these maladies grown 
that stock breeding and rearing has, to some extent, become a i)recarion8 
calling instead of the profitable business of former years. This would 
seem to be especially true as it relates to swine. Year by year new 
diseases, heretofore unknown in our country, make their appearance 
among this class of farm animals, while older ones become ])ermanently 
localized and much more fatal in their results. Farmers, as a general 
thing, are neglectful of their stock, and i)ay but little attention to spo- 
radic cases of sickness among their flocks an<l herds. It is only when 
diseases become general, and consequently of an epidemic and conta- 
gious character, that active measures are taken for the relief of the 
animals alflicted. It is then generally too late, as remedies have ceased 
to have their usual beneficial effects, and the disease is only stayed 
when it has no more victims to prey upon. 

This interest is too great to be longer neglected by the general gov- 
ernment. ;Not only the health of its citizens, but one of the greatest 
sources of our wealth, demands that it should furnish the means for a 
most searching and thorough investigation into the causes of all diseases 
affecting live stock. 

While a large number of the diseases to which farm-animals are sub- 
ject are familiar to skilled veterinary surgeons, it should be borne in 
mind that but few sections of the country are blessed with professors 
in this science, as reference to the letters herewith transmitted will 
abundantly show. In most cases the stock-breeder himself assumes the 
important functions and responsibilities of the surgeon, and without the 
least knowledge of veterinary science he proceeds to diagnose the dis- 
ease and dose the animal with a drug of which he is ignorant, or of the 
effects of which he is unable to judge until the animal has })assed be- 
yond the hope of recovery. Where such is the practice it is not strange 
that nine cases out often prove fatal. 

It may be urged that works on veterinary surgery describe most of 
the diseases to which farm-animals are subject, and point out the best- 
known remedies for the same. Admit this, and yet the desired relief is 
not afforded thereby. These works are expensive and but few farmers 
can afford to purchase them ; a still less nnmber possess the qualifica- 
tions necessary to comprehend them. What would then seem the wisest 
policy is that which may result from an investigation of tiie character 
proposed, and the results disseminated gratuitously through means of 
cheap annual reports from this department. By such means farmers 
and stock-breeders would soon become familiar with the general symp- 
toms of the more prevalent diseases, and also be enabled to apply intelli- 
gently such remedies as science has or may point out. 

Some very interesting investigations in this matter have been com- 
menced, and are now being prosecuted with such vigor as is possible 
with the very insufficient appropriation that can be devoted to the pur- 
pose. 

The correspondence herewith transmitted contains information which, 
if heeded by the fanners and stock-growers of the country, will result 
in a better sanitary condition, and a consequent diminution of disease 
among all classes of domesticated animals. 

I have the honor to remain, very respectfullv, vour obedient servant, 

\VM. G. LE DUC, 

Commissio7ier. 

The President of the United States. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



DISEASES OF E ARM-ANIMALS. 

Tlie following letters i elating to tbe diseases of farm-auimals have 
been received by the Comiuissiouer of Agriculture: 

Mr. John Brooks, of Priucetou, Mass., writes as follows : 

I last year raised fifteen Hereford steer calves. I bouj^ht twenty, and out of this 
number lost five by a disease called " bliud staggers." I think eight or ten of theiu 
in all were aftected ; and I lost five before I discovered the nature of the disease and 
found a remedy. I do not know but there is a better remedy than the one I used. The 
calves, when first attacked, would not take nourishment, but held their heads up and 
■walked around the pen until they were exhausted, and then, in about two or three 
days, would lie down and die. I lost five in that way. Four I saved in the following 
niauoer : I turned new milk down them three times a day — two qu.art8 at a dose. I 
mixed about one half pint of castor-oil with the first dose everj' other moruing. I 
kept this up about six days, when they again commenced to take nourishment. They 
appeared weak for about eight days after they commenced improving. They lost flesh, 
but not to any great extent, and seemed to winter as well as those that had not been 
sick. 

The calves were constipated, and I gave the oil to remove this difficulty. I can de- 
fine no reason for this sickness. 1 have lost calves for a number of years in the same 
way, but now think, if taken in season, they can be cured by the above remedy. 

Theodore S. Very, veterinary surgeon, vice-president of the United 
States Veterinary Association, writes as follows from Boston, Mass. : 

I regret that I cannot, from exiifrieuce, relate facts about the contagious diseases 
of cattle, sheep, hogs, and fowls. Having resided always in this city, somewhat re- 
mote from farming and stock-raising districts, my practice has iucluded for the greater 
part only the treatment of the diseases of the horse. Of these there are not a few 
concerning which a large amount of practical good would arise from a more thorough 
and positive establishment of the causes leading to their development and propaga- 
tion. 

The epizootic influenza of the fall of 1872, caused an immense aggregate loss by 
death, by loss of services while animals were sick, and in depreciation in values where 
the eliects of the disease lessened the vitality of horses for a long time subsequent to 
its first attack. Possibly a thorough search for its causes might prevent a similar gen- 
eral outbreak, and inquiries having such an end in view should receive the attention, 
the support, and encouragement of the general government. 

The diseaj^e known as the cerebro-spiual-mcningitis occurs as an epidemic among 
horses, and is caused by a peculiar poison affecting the system in a specific manner, 
producing like symptoms — differing, of course, in degree — in all cases. Nothing is 
known concerning the exact nature of this poison, any more than of some others pro- 
ducing disease in a similar way. It causes great losses to horse-owners in seasons 
when it prevails, and has occurred extensively in certain localities, at different periods, 
for the past five years. 

Glanders in horses — a most contagious, deadly, and incurable disease — has been quite 
prevalent in Boston and vicinitj' during the past five years. The poisonous particles 
of the disease are seldom entirely removed from stalls and stables where horses having 
the disease have lived. In my opinion this malady might, under certain conditions, 
become quite general. If it should, the danger therefrom would be incalculable. 
Striugent State laws should insist upon killing every animal so affected, and provide 
for the unmistakable removal of eveiy trace of the disease from stalls and stables 
where it has existed, under the supervision of some qualified ijerson. 

A number of other diseases of the horse, the prevention of which is possible and of 
ereat importance to the public welfare, coutinue to exist. 

Mr. F. M. Henderson, Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, says : 

^onie six years ago Mr. J. T. Steadman, of this place, had a flock of fine fowls very 
much aff'ected by chicken cholera, so called. I advised corn burnt on the cob thrown 
to them, and it acted immediately with wonderfully good effects. He not only lost no 
more fowls, but the disease soon disappeared. 

I am told that hogs kept in pens and liberally sui>plied with charcoal very rarely 
have any disease, and I would certainly x>refer the charcoal in the shape of burnt coin 
and cob, as being softer and possessing some real nutriment. 



6 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. R. A. Steele, Lawrence, Kans., says : 

In reply to inquiries in regard to diseases among farm-animals in this neigliborhood, 
I would say that the most serious is a disease among hogs, commonly known as " hog 
cholera." In October, 1876, I had on hand seventy-five hogs, averaging 115 pounds 
per head, for the purpose of feeding with or following cattle. They were mostly of 
the Berkshire breed, and seemed in fine condition. The feed and water were good. 
In December they commenced cougliing, and soon after dying, until I lost over half 
the number. I finally turned them out in a corn-field which contained some wet 
ground, in which they spent most of the time rooting. The disease was arrested, and 
uo more of them died. Tliey visited some of my neigiibors' hogs, but did not convey 
the disease to them. I examined several of those tbafc died, and came to the conclu- 
sion that the lungs were affected. 

I found tiie same disease existing among hogs throughout the country. I do not re- 
gard it as the same disease of which so many hogs died in 187,3 and 1874. I think 
they were affected with worms. 

My opinion is that hogs are forced, and fed, and bred too young — a mushroom growth. 
As a remedy, we should use matured sows and males for breeding, and allow them to 
run in pastures. They should not be fed and fattened until a year or eighteen months 
old. To insure healthy meat and do credit to the hog product, such a system must be 
adopted. 

Cattle as a rule, are healthy, but there is some complaint among calves. Those in 
good condition in the fall seem to be liable, to the attack of a disease known as "black 
leg." My remedy has been a preventive (I have never cured one), as follows: Salt 
"well, with a small quantity of saltpeter. 

Mr. M. B. HiNB, Austerlitz, Kent County, Michigan, says: 

This portion of Mich'gan has thus far been comparatively exempt from any prevail- 
ing disease among onr domestic animals, with the exception of epizootic among horses 
during the fall and winter of 187'2-'73, which was here attended with but little loss by 
the death of the animals themselves, but the produce of the mares then in foal proved 
to be weak and debilitated. Since that time there has been considerable distemver 
occurring annually not unlike the epizootic, but quite mild in form, which readily 
yields to an outward application of some counter-irritant on the glands, at the same 
time keeping the bowels relaxed by feeding bran mashes, meanwhile working lightly. 

Last spring there was a general fatality among the young i)igs, and in some in- 
stances with the autumn pigs in the latter part of the winter, there being no apparent 
sickness discovered i)rior to their death. At least such was the case in this immediate 
vicinity ; but I noticed that this all disappeared as soon as the hogs were turned out 
to grass. The conclusion I arrived at is, we must furnish a greater variety of food for 
our hogsdnring our Jong winters, particularly of roots and vegetables, instead of feed- 
ing all corn, as is usually the practice with most western farmers. 

Robert Vanvoorhis, importer and breeder of thoroughbred Ameri- 
can merino sheep, Monongahela City, Pa., says : 

I have been a breeder of American merino sheep for over thirty years. For six 
years or more the sheep of this vicinity have been afflicted with a disease commonly 
known as " paper skin." It has proved very fatal, especially to young sheep, thou- 
sards having died annually. It is more prevalent and more fatal to young sheep in 
August, about the time of weaning. Sheep of my own breeding have never been 
affected by the disease ; but I have lost a great many lambs that I had purchased of 
others. Those attacked, if they did not die the first fall, were sure to do so the next 
season. I bought twenty-five ram lambs, which I took extra good care of the first 
year. Though they did not thrive as well as those of my own l)reeding, I had hopes 
that they would escape the disease. Lnst July I noticed that they began to show 
symptoms of the malady, and, having a large flock of yearlings, I took out those 
affected and gave them extra good care. I commenced to feed sul[)hur and copperas 
to them, but without any perceptible effect. After five had died I doubled the dose, 
giving a tablespoonfnl of pulverized copperas every other day ; but this did not seem 
to stay the ravages of the disease. I coniinued this until I had but five left. The 
dung of those that died last was white with worms, which Avere from one to four 
inches in length. After my entire ti-ock of twenty-five had died, I thought if I had 
commenced with a heavy dose as soon as the first symptoms were observed, I might 
have saved some of the lambs. In order, therefore, to test the remedy further, I in- 
formed some of my neighbors, who gave it a thorough trial, but without success. 

I was recently in the eastern part of Ohio, where I found the sheep affected with the 
same disease. It seems to be as fatal there as it is here. I am in receipt of a letter 
from Col. J. W. Watts, of Martin's Depot, S. C, who informs me that he has 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 7 

lost a great many sheep from the same disease. I last November visited Vermont, 
where I also found the same disease prevailing to an alarming extent. The diseased 
sheep do not lose flesh. Tbej' seem to lose blood, however, for in a short time their 
skin becomes perfectly white. TLieir eyes also become white, the ears droop, and they 
are apparently much exhausted. They drink water freely, eat salt, gnaw at boiirds, 
and take up whole mouthfuls of dirt, but eat neither grass nor haj'. They seem full 
and in good condition up to the time of their death. When opened no blood is found 
i:i their veius, but the stomach and intestines are full of worms, which have collected 
in bunches or knots. 

Various remedies have been tried here, but without any perceptible effect. If the 
disease is not soon checked many large dealers and breeders will lose entire flocks of 
valuable animals. 

Hon. Harris Lewis, Frankfort, N. Y., says : 

In reply to your favor of the 31st ultimo, I would say that this county (Herkiuier) 
is almost wholly devoted to dairying, and that the only diseases of farm stock affect- 
ing us are those which affect dairy-cows, as but little other farm-stock is kept. Epi- 
demic abortion has pi-evailed here among our herds more or less for the last eighteen 
or twenty years, and a part of this time to an alarming extent in many herds, as high 
as 90 iier cent, of the cows aborting. 

At the annual meeting of the American Dairymen's Association, held at Rome, X. 
Y., in January, 1876, a committee of three was appointed (of which I was one) to peti- 
tion Congress to offer a reward of $10,000 for the discovery of the cause and a remedy 
for abortion. But the committee appointed, believing this sum ten times too small, 
never took any action in regard to the matter, and hence it has rested ever since.* But 
if the dairymen of the United States can rely upon the Commissioner of Agriculture 
to aid them in the work of investigation, we will take new courage and see what can 
be done with his aid to relieve dairymen and stock-breeders of this terrible scourge, 
by which more than a million dollars has been lost each year for the past fifteen years 

\ 

Mr. Eli Avert, Clayville, Oneida County, New York, says : 

Seven years ago I lost seven swine. Nothing unusual in their condition was noticed. 
They were fed in the morning, all eating well, but at noon feeding one was found dead 
and bloated, his legs standing out stiff" like tlae legs of a bench. The others fed well, 
but at night two more were found in the same condition. This continued until seven 
had died. They turned purple as soon as they died. Others were lost in our town at 
that time from the same disease. Mine were principally fed on skimmed milk. 

I have had occasionally, in wet weather, horned cattle affected with hoof-ail, or foul 
foot, as the farmers call it. This disease is very easily cured by cleaning the hoof with 
acid and covering it with tar. 

F. D. RuiCK, La Grange, Intl., says : 

During the prevalence of chicken cholera in this section it is very fiital. Chickens 
attacked with it will sometimes live a day or two, but generally they will die within 
a few hours. I have fed a hundred head in the morning, all apparently in good health, 
and at noon have found half of them dead, and perhaps half of those remaining were 
staggering around like so many drunken men. The disease is no doubt contagious, and 
if the chickens affected are not at once separated from the well ones the entire flock will 
soon be inoculated. 

This year I have lost but three chickens from the malady. As soon as I discovered 
that they were affected I separated them, giving the well ones a fresh coop, and fed them 
freely with red pepper (capsicum) andsulpliur. The result was that I saved the balance 
of my flock. 

The feathers on the breasts of some of the chickens, when first attacked by this dis- 
ease, become ruffled ; the breast hangs down between the legs and appears to be full of 
water, like one afflicted with the dropsy. 

J. B. Bloomer, V. S., Wauconda, Lake County, Illinois, says: 

Horses here suffered severely with epizootic distemper, and for two years thereafter 
were disposed to severe influenza. The epizootic left tlie mticous membrane so much 
inflamed that a slight cold would seriouslj' affect them ; but this would generally yield 
readily to simple remedies. 

With the exception of milk-fever, cows are unusually healthy. For this disease, I 
am sorry to say, I have found no sure remedy. On an average, I have lost about one- 
third of the cows that I haVe treated. However, in no instance have I lost a case 
where I have been called upon in the early stages of the disease. My practice is : 



8 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Counter-irritants of mustard on the back, with very hot cloths changed every five min- 
utes. Medicines : Digitalis, tartar-emetic, and niter. Diagoosis : Total loss of strength 
in their feet within three hours after the attack; high fever, constant moaning, legs 
cold and sprawled out. 

Our sheep suffered throughout last winter with a disease similar to the epizootic. 
In many cases all the yearlings in some flocks died. The older ones were not affect-d. 
The attack would commence with bard coughing, loss of api»etite, general debility, &c. 
The farmers pronounced it fatal. When told what to do to relieve them they answered 
it was no use, as niediciue had failed to have any efl'ect. Should the disease occur 
again during the coming winter I will give it close attention and report. 

Mr. Nathaniel Vose, Whittier, 111., says : 

Last spring, horses here were attacked by what is commonly known as "horse-dis- 
temper," with some difficulty of breathing, &c. Their heads swelled to the point of 
the muzzle, and sores commenced to gather and break on all parts of the head, and 
discharged freelj', with the usual running at the nose. The usual remedies of physic 
and smoking condition-powders with leather, and in some cases roweling and bleediug, 
were resorted to, but they were of no avail, as death ensued after one or two months. 
From my observation of a yearling colt, it seemed to be afl'ected like a person with the 
scarlet fever, excepting there was no difficulty in swallowing food or drink. The gath- 
erings continued and the colt became very much emaciated, yet was able to walk about 
until it died. Two and three year olds have died with it, but no old mares. It seemed 
to be a malignant type of horse-distemper. The disease was similar to others which 
had the distemper very light, only the head swelled enormously in the fatal cases. 

The foot-rot in sheep has heretofore prevailed to some extent, but is about eradicated. 
Sulphuric acid and copperas are the general and successful remedies. 

Last year there were some losses by hog cholera, but no cases came under my per- 
sonal observation. This stock is generally healthy hereabouts. A short time ago I 
noticed one of my pigs had what, I believe, is called the " thumps." This was the only 
case I ever saw. The pig would pant or jerk almost like a person with the hiccoughs, 
only the jerk seemed more in the abdomen than in the chest. It grew thin aud died 
after about six weeks. 

A. M. Dickie, M. D., Dojlestowu, Pa., says : 

I have given some little attention to the ailments of fowls, as I keep a few and am 
interested in them. The diseases incident to the poultry-yard are very little under- 
stood, aud the result is enormous aggregate losses every year. In the general investi- 
gation and study of the diseases of farm-stock, veterinary science has, so far, ignored 
or omitted to study the ailments of poultry, mainly, perhaps, from the fact that poul- 
try are looked upon as inferior, or subsidiary farm-stock, and of little or no account 
anyhow. This is a misapprehension, because the poultry interest is really an impor- 
tant one, susceptible of alm.ost indefinite expansion and usefulness. 

The hiuderances to poultry-keeping may be arranged in three classes: 1. Parasitic 
diseases. 2. Catarrhal diseases. 3. Poultry cholera. 

In the first of these classes, the main trouble is the gape disease, produced by a para- 
sitic worm in the trachea of young chickens and turkeys. 

In the second class the principal diseases is rouj). This is common to all ages, and 
prevails mostly from November to May, and is much more prevalent north of the 
fortieth parallel than south of it. I think there are at least lour distinct diseases 
included in the gen> ral term j'Ohjj. 

The prevailing disease in poultry in the summer months, or from May to November, 
is poultry cholera. This is much the most serious and fatal of the hiuderances, and has 
discouraged many poialtry-keepers south of the fortieth parallel, as it is mainly devel- 
oped south of this line. 

These diseases are all epidemic in character. They extend over large sections, are 
very destructive, and in some localities have greatly discouraged people to the detri- 
ment of the interest iu poultry production. 

If poultry-keepers knew how to manage or control these three classes of ailments, 
most of the hiuderances would be overcome. Any investigation which will tend to re- 
move or overcome them will be gladly accepted by the people as a needed assistance in 
protecting an important and growing industry. 

The general public has no ai>preciation of the importance and value of the poultry 
industry in our couutry, and especially on the Norrh Atlantic slope and Lower Lake 
region. The annual products of the poultry-yards of the uation are variously estimated 
at from $200,000,000 to $450,000,000. The truth is probably between these extreme 
figures. 

The annual poultry products of Bucks County are very near $2,000,000, and amount 
to more in value than any other industry pursued in the county as a specialty. It 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 9 

leads the dairy interest, the grain interest, the fruit interest, and all other kinds of 
live stock put together. But this is probably the leading county in the Union in 
poultry production. There is nothing to hinder the business being generally extended, 
except the drawback resulting from ignorance of the management and the ])rovailing 
diseases. If your department can secure an appropriation to conduct an incjuiry into 
the diseases of domestic animals, fowls included, it would certainly be to the advan- 
tage of our agriculture. 

Mr. S. E. Stowe, Grafton, Mass., says : 

Abortion in cows, here in the central part of Worcester County, is becoming quite an 
alarming disease. Since receiving your letter, by inquiry I find that about one-fourth 
of our cows lose their calves, some at four, but the majority at from six to eight 
months along, causing a loss to the farmers of one-half their value for dairy purposes. 

There has been nothing done in this vicinity, or in the State, to find out the cause 
or discover a remedy. My own conclusion is, that the disease is caused by some weed 
that is eaten bj"^ the cows, both in grazing and in the cured hay. 

Mr. J. S. Duncan, Cross Creek Village, Pa., says : 

In reply to your letter I will say that we have various diseases among our farm- 
stock. The first is among cattle. The prevailing disease is among cows, commonly 
called milk-fever. The symptoms are as follows: About twelve hours after the cow 
drops her calf she becomes restless, switches her tail and moans occasionally as if in 
pain. The treatment is usually to physic the animal, bathe the back with mustard 
and warm water, and give ginger internally. The average loss of animals is about 
three-fourths of all attacked. 

The prevailing disease among sheep is foot-rot. It commences between the toes. It 
first appears like a scald, and spreads, until finally the entire foot becomes affected. 
The remedies are, butter of antimony, blue vitriol, and nitric acid. Various other 
remedies have been tried, but without effecting a perfect cure. 

The disease most common among poultry is cholera. The first sympton is extreme 
dullness. As a general thing they will sit on the roost until they drop off dead. They 
are usually sick from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. When this disease enters a 
flock it is so contiigious and fatal that but few, if any, escape. Various remedies have 
been tried, but none have proved effectual. 

Mr. J. B. Kendrick, Monticello, Ky., says : 

We suffer here mostly from hog cholera. It is impossible to give any diagnosis of 
the disease, for it manifests itself ia numerous ways. I have seen them linger for 
months and ultimately recover, while others would die very suddenly. Again I have 
seen them in apparent good health, and, while eating, suddenly jump up, squeal, and 
fall over dead. Hogs turned on the mast or acorns last winter did very well appar- 
ently, but when killed many of them were found to be affected with worms. la 
numerous cases worms an inch or more in length had penetrated the heart and bowels. 
Cholera has generally been worse among our hogs after a good mast-year than any 
other time. 

Chickens are also affected with what is known here and elsewhere as cholera. The 
part affected most seems to be the liver, which enlarges to two or three times its natural 
size. The fowl is always fat when attacked. The disease is very fatal. Guinea-fowls 
and geese are occasionally attacked. 

Horses are comparatively free from diseases, except such as are brought on from bad 
treatment. I have known two or three mares unable to bring forth their foals, for 
Avhich no cause could be assigned by their owners. * # » What produces the 
water-bag in colts after they are castrated ? Several that I have castrated have been 
BO affected, but I can assign no cause for it. It greatly injures the sale of young horses 
in the South. 

Mr. Le Grand Byington, Iowa City, Iowa, says : 

In my thirty years' experience as a farmer no subject has worried me so much as the 
" diseases prevailing with such fatal effect among my farm-animals," and upon no sub- 
ject, let me add, is so lamentable ignorance prevailing, among those of my occupation, 
as upon the causes, preventives, and treatment of these prevailing diseases. In all 
that time I do not remember an instance of an animal of mine, of the cattle or swine 
species, that ever recovered from a serious illness. If you succeed in disseminating 
valuable information on this important matter, you will be remembered with grati- 
tude J and iu the effort you can rely upon my co-operation. 



10 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
Mr. J. B. Eeid, Macon, Teun., says : 

I will say here that no one in this locality pretends to know the causes of the vari- 
ous diseases which from time to time afflict our farm-stock. Intelligent planters seem 
to think there is no cure for any of them, and it would seem true, as they invariahly 
prove fatal. Within a radius of a half mile of this little villajje twenty head of milch 
cows have died in the last three or four months. The disease proved fatal in every in- 
stance. The government will act with wisdom in making an eUbrt to stay these dis- 
eases, as the loss annually is immense. 

Dr. J. E. WooLFOLK, writing from the same place, says : 

In answer to your inquiry, "What is the nature of the disease which now prevails 
among the hogs of your community ?" I must say that from the verj' casual examina- 
tion I made of one that died of the disease, I am not prepared to give a satisfactory di- 
agnosis, and will only say that I found complete engorgement of the liver, with en- 
largement of the same. The lungs presented no indications of disease, nor did the 
intestines. There was a collection of serum or bloody water in the pericardium or 
investing membrane of the heart. There were no indications whatever of inllamma- 
torj- action on any of the abdominal or thoracic viscera, except the liver. There was 
positive passive congestion of the capillary circulation generally, which I have reason 
to believe was not stasis anajmia, as might reasonably be supposed,. It is the same 
disease which prevailed to such a destructive extent among the hogs in this country 
in the year 1868. From what I can learn the same may be said iu relation to the dis- 
ease among cows. There is an appearance of congestion of the capillaries; they are 
also infested with ticks. Some of the farmers say it is bloody murrain, while others 
believe it to be dry murrain. 

Mr. H. Sevison, Constantino, Mich., says: 

We have had no diseases among horses, cattle, or sheep for several years past, but 
our hogs have been seriously affected with what is generally known as cholera. The 
disease has been a very peculiar one here. Some were aifected in their hind limbs, 
others in their fore legs ; some died very suddenly, while others would linger for 
months, and, after becoming mere skeletons, would lie down and die. The loss has 
been very heavy. No cause for the disease has as yet been discovered or remedy found. 
Some have thought that pure, clear water would iirove a preventive, but such is not 
the case. 

Mr. T. J. McDaniel, breeder of standard and fancy poultry, Hollis 
Centre, Me., says: 

The greatest drawback we have in poultry-raising in New England is roup (Ci/iiancJie 
trachealis), and canker or catarrh ( Uza'na). The former is characterized by a difficulty 
of respiration, particularly at each inspiration, while the expiration is less difficult. 
The fowl will raise and extend its head at each breath, thereby inducing coughing. 
This is sensibly increased at night, and will end in suppuration, during which stage it 
is highly contagious. Fowls so afflicted should be immediately killed or isolated from 
all others. 

The causes of roup are insufficient ventilation or damp roosting-plaees ; food that 
will induce catharsis, such as potatoes, sour milk, i)articularly buttermilk, overfeed- 
ing with fresh meat, &c. Last fall I got out of corn, and for three days fed boiled 
potatoes with a little meal ; getting out of meal, I fed potatoes alone for three more 
days. At the end of this time we were visited by a storm of snow and sleet, and 
nearly every one of my fowls took cold. Several of them choked to death. Finally 
breathing with most of them became easier, when a purulent oft'ensive discharge be- 
came established at the nostrils, and from the mucous membrane of the throat fauces 
in particular. Knowing the disease had become highly contagious at this stage, I at 
once separated them. I observed among those I had bred to standard (for fancy 
points exclusively) that tlie disease proved fatal in far the greater number of cases. 
For instance, among my brown Leghorns that were bred for exhibition purposes only, 
one cockerel had red ear-lobes — as nature designed — and he alone escaped, though 
confined with the worst cases, which were among and included nearly all the line-bred 
birds. 

In-breeding is another cause of failure in rearing pure-bred fowls. With common 
or native breeds it proves less disastrous, though it should never be contiuued for any 
length of time with these, as stamina is thereby decreased and the fowls rendered 
more susceptible of disease. The old adage holds good iu the case of roup especially, 
that "an ounce of prevention is worth a iiound of cure." However, my advice is to 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 11 

separate the fowls immediately upon discovering the least symptom, snch as coughing, 
loud breathing, or a " wet beak." Fowls become contaminated much sooner if fed 
dough, as the dough that adheres to the beak will bo picked off by others. Tho 
disease will also be communicated by drinking from tho same vessel. The germs of 
the disease will float on the water and soon infect all. 

I never knew of a case of roup in a flock that roosted in trees. If a flock (part of 
whoso numbers have the roup) are -at liberty, aud are fed Avith corn scattered on tho 
ground, not in the immediate vicinity of their pens, and should drink from a running 
stream of water, there need be but little to fear even if some of them should contract 
the disease ; yet the affected cases should be separated, their roosting places thoroughly 
whitewashed^ and all excrement removed. The f iitnes of burning tar during the night 
prove quite efficacious, if persisted in three nights in successiou. Sulphate of irou 
(an ounce to one gallon of drinking-water) is the best remedy. 

Fowls are most susceptible to diseases during the moltiug-season, or when the first 
snow-storms occur. Roup will soou be brought on by roosting in low and damp apart- 
ments during the winter months. Farmers who allow their fowls to roost high in 
their barns are seldom troubled by this malady. 

Sulphur and lard rubbed on the heads of young chicks for the purpose of killing 
lice, though effective in destroying this pest, will soon bring on ronp — sore eyes 
especially. I have had a dozen little chicks moping around with their eyes closed, 
and if they had not been fed by hand would soon have died of starvation. If roosting- 
houses become infested with lice, whitewash is the sovereign remedy, for a flock of 
poultry covered by these pests will, sooner or later, take rouj) aud its concomitant 
troubles. 

Mr. Ealph W. Mills, Webster Groves, Mo., breeder of poultry, says : 

My experience with fowls extends through a period of eight consecutive years, 
prefaced by a familiarity with this portion of the feathered race during boyhood. I 
have bred successfully, and in the order named, the varieties classed as games — White 
Crested, White Polish, Light Brahmas, Bufl' Cochins, White Booted Bantams, Gold 
Laced Sebrights, Partridge Cochins, Black Breasted Red Game Bantams, Plymouth 
Rocks, and Silver Spangled Hamburgs — all being of the kind poijularly termed " fancy 
fowls." 

As regards diseases affecting fowls coming under my observation, they are chiefly 
two in number, viz., cholera and roup ; and what may prove as great a scourge as either, 
the plague of lice. 

Cholera is in its symptoms not unlike the disease similarly named in the human dis- 
ease. It is first observed in the character of the droppings, green in color, growing 
thinner, clearer, and more liquid with each subsequent evacuation, until, utterly weak- 
ened and prostrate, in a course of from twelve to forty-eight hours' duration, the fowl 
succumbs to death. During the attack great thirst is manifested, but indifference to 
food. I have been unable to learn thatany person has ever positively determined the 
cause of this disease. My own opinion is that it is a generated poison (atmospheric), 
not unlike malaria, and dependent for its development upon certain favoring con- 
ditions in certain localities at certain seasons. It is contagious in some degree ; and 
fowls having the disease should be promptly separated from those not affected, and 
those dying of it should be carefullj^ buried at once, or burnt with brush or litter, to 
obviate tlie danger of infection. 

I have but little faith and have had but indifferent success in "doctoriug " the dis- 
ease with anything in the nature of drugs given in doses. Four cases in five will result 
fatally. Dry, warm, clean, well-ventilated quarters, other than those lately occupied 
by the sick fowls, a complete change in the food olfared and in the order of feeding, 
freely incorporating ground red or black pepper in all soft food given, with the "Doug- 
lass mixture" jjut in all the water placed before them to drink, will accomplish, to- 
gether with an occasional disinfection of their premises by the use of carbolic acid in 
solution, and fumigation of their houses with roll brimstone and rosin placed on live 
coals, about all that can be done to cure and eradicate the disease. 

Reference is made in this connection to the " Douglass mixture," a tonic in general 
use among experienced poultrymen everywhere, the formula of which originated with 
Mr. John Douglass, of the Walesley Aviaries, England. It is as follows: 1 pound sul- 
phate of iron, 1 ounce sulphuric acid, 1 gallon water. Give a teaspoonful in each ijint 
of water placed before the fowls to drink occasionallj' in health as a preventive; 
frequently in disease as a corrective. It is inexpensive and very efficacious. Upon 
the reasonable hypothesis that " prevention is better than cure," the suggestion is 
made that so far as they can be known, the scants of fowls should be supplied in order 
to keep them in health. Gravel, lime, grass, vegetable food, insects or animal food, 
liberty, fresh clean water, regularity in feeding, &c., are all essential to the healthful- 
ness of domestic poultry. 

The disease second in order, viz., roup, is well known, and, in its incipiency, can be 
successfully treated. It is the result of a cold, attacking tho head ; is similar to nasal 



12 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

catarrh in the human species. The disease arises from exposure to uneven and un- 
■wholesome temperatures, especially as luaiutaincd iu the fowl-houses. Dampness here, 
want of lii^ht and ventilation, draughts of air, &c., are fruitful causes of its api)ear- 
ance and favorable to its perpetuatiou. The symptoms of an attack are, first, a thin, 
clear, mucous discharge from one or both nostrils, sneezing, and froth in the corners of 
the eyes. This froth can be seen to bubble when the fowl breathes. As the disease 
progresses (which it will certainly do if neglected), the discharge becomes more pro- 
fuse, and changes in color and consistency, becoming decidedly yellow and thick, and 
eventually i)utrid — offensive to the sight and to the smell. The whole head becomes 
involved; the parts swell and become iullamed; the eyes close, and the ])atient, con- 
stantly falling olf in condition, becomes helpless and unable to supply its wants, and 
finally dies. The disease may result fatally in two weeks, and may continue three 
months. I have cured two obstinate cases ; in one of these, however, one eye was 
entirely lost. I once checked the disease that had attacked at least twenty of my fowls 
at one time by the timely use of vigorous sanitary measures alone — a thorough clean- 
ing ; fumigating (for like cholera it is contagions) ; changing of feed, &c. ; .the use of 
the Douglass mixture in the drinking-water, and a thorough cleansing of the parts 
aifected in this disease — eyes, nostrils, mouth, and face — with " Lavrabaque's solu- 
tion" of chlorinated soda (to be had of any druggist), diluted with an equal part of 
tepid water, ai)plied with a small piece of sponge. In the instance referred to one 
application sufficed. In cases more advanced two applications per day, morning and 
evening, should be made until improvement follows. Warm water and vinegar, in 
equal parts, are useful cleansing agents instead of the solution mentioned. I have no 
confidence in the use of internal medicines in this or other diseases affecting poultry, 
except the "tonic" before mentioned. Change in the fowls' living-quarters, extreme 
cleanliness, disinfection and fumigation, are the general agencies that are to be em- 
ployed in disease, so far as my observation goes. 

As to the " plague " alluded to in the beginning of my letter (that of lice), in the lan- 
guage of a brother poultryman, " they are simply a disgrace," and perhaps after all, 
■when allowed through neglect to multiply ad libitum, become the greatest of all ob- 
stacles in the waj' of successful poultry -raising. It may be set down as a rule that 
fotvh are never thrifty when infested tvith lice. They are out of condition, and therefore 
especially liable to any of the diseases which infect their species. Prevention in this, 
as in the case of disease, is better than cure. Clean premises, dust-baths to wallow 
in ; flowers of sulphur in the litter composing the nests ; saturation of roosting-poles, 
or perches, with coal-oil ; fumigation ; application of hot whitewash to ail parts of the 
fowl-houses, are effectual preventives of this scourge. 

If the vermin have already obtaibed a lodgment upon fowls and in henneries, the 
same measures much more vigorously employed, in addition to those suggesting them- 
selves as serviceable in improving the general condition of the flock, with the use of 
flowers of sulphur (a tablespoouful to a quart), in all the soft feed giyen them for a 
few days, will banish and destroy the nuisance. 

This pest, of which I have definite knowledge, is of two varieties; a large kind, a 
sixteenth of an inch and over in length, quite in appearance like the genus that at- 
tacks squalid and untidy children, not verj' numerous on a single fowl, but leaving old 
fowls to prey upon young ones as fast as they appear. This kind is very damaging to 
little chicks, usually fastening upon the poll, and around the vent, and under the wings. 
Grease will kill them. 

The other variety is far more troublesome in a general way, by reason of their great 
numbers, swarming in myriads iu the places occupied by the poultry, and in places 
contiguous, literally overrunning the fowls, and almost deterring the keeper from en- 
tering the premises devoted to them, for they will get upon one's hands and clothes and 
are so iufiuitesimally small that they are with difficulty got rid of. This kind will 
drive a setting hen from her nest, and cause all the fowls to dread their quarters. 
They multiply to this extent through neglect. The remedy has been suggested. 

It may be remarked in concluding, that the care, management, and treatment of 
fowls, in health and in disease, are essentially the same iu the case of the choice, pure 
breeds in the yards of the *' fancier" and mongrels produced by any sort of cross be- 
tween varieties that are found in numbers upon the fixrmer's premises. In either in- 
stance, any measure adopted with a view to supplying the natural requirements of the 
creatures will be the most eftectual means of improving their condition and enabling 
them to ward off disease, which in most cases, in my opinion, results from neglect. 

George Y. Parry, V. S., Newtown, Bucks County, Pa., says ; 

Typhus or Texas fever and pluro pneumonia in cattle are the only diseases that 
exist in this section of Pennsylvania that we have any trouble iu managing. The 
usual diseases have prevailed for the past few years that are common to horses and 
cattle, too numerous to write out a diagnosis. 

If anything can be done by Congress to wipe out the two first-named diseases, I 
■will he glad to assist in any way to accomplish it. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 13 
Mr. n. Shackleford, Woodbury, Tenn., says: 

I have to remark that no disease of a fatal character exists amoiifj any of onr farm 
animals except hogs. The disease generally known as bog-cholera has been i)revail- 
ing in this connty and other counties contiguous to it to an alarming extetit, many of 
the farmers in the community having lost nearly their entire stock, so fatal has beea 
its ravages in many localities. 

As to a diagnosis of the disease, nothing defiuite or satisfactory has been arrived at so 
far as my investigation or information extends. The disease is developed in the same 
herd of hogs in various forms. For example: Some among the herd, apparently iu 
good health, will be suddenly attacked with vomiting and purging, and will die iu 
from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. With others the disease will assume a differ- 
ent form of attack. Some will make constant efforts to disgorge the contents of the 
stomach, which seems to be locked up iu their bowels. This constipation continues 
Avith many of them from the time they first take the disease until they die. Many of 
them thus afflicted will live from one to two weeks, and I have known a few to wear 
out the disease and recover ; but the few that survive rarely ever make thrifty hogs. 
I may further state that a great many hogs of different ages and sizes sicken and die 
without exhibiting the aym[)toms above pointed out. In a majority of cases which 
have come under my notice within the last two years, the disease can be easily de- 
tected in any herd of hogs by the symptoms indicated, opart from the vomiting, purg- 
ing, &c. Whenever a farmer discovers among his hogs any that move around as 
though they were too lazy to get out of each other's way, afflicted with a squeaking 
cough, stiff iu their joints, and when standing or walking hang their heads near the 
ground, with a most offensive effluvia exuding from their mouths and nostrils, accom- 
panied by loss of appetite but insatiable thirst; also, manifesting a strong desire to 
^ifind a warm place in which to lie down, and, when lying down, lie on their bellies in- 
' stead of on their sides, they should be at once separated from the well ones; or, per- 
haps, the owner would be no worse oft' in the end to kill all such to prevent dthers from 
taking the disease from them. 

I am of opinion that it will be needless for me to write anything on the subject of 
preventives and cures, as all the remedies heretofore introduced and tried in this sec- 
tion of country have been pronounced a failure by the most of those who have tried 
them. I am well satisfied iu my own mind that not oue of the many remedies which 
have been introduced and vouched for can be relied on as a cure, from the fact that 
what is commonly termed hog-cholera I believe to be a variety of diseases, and it is 
just as absurd to suppose that one remedy will cure all the diseases of hogs as that 
one remedy will cure all the diseases of man. Nevertheless, of the many remedies 
which have been brought to public notice, I doubt not but much good has been done 
by at least preventing disease, if not in some abstract cases effecting a cure. 

I am an old man, and a firm believer in that old trite. maxim, "An ounce of prevent- 
ive is worth a pound of cure." If, therefore, the Department of Agriculture can, by 
further investigating the subject, discover a remedy which will check up or effectually 
stop a disease whose ravages hitherto have not been confined to any locality or cli- 
mate, it will confer a lasting benefit on our nation. 

Mr, James M. Mayo, Whitaker's, Nash County, North Carolina, 
says: 

Iu response to your circular letter of the 10th instant, I report as follows : 
Horses. — One-half of 1 per cent, are subject to what is kuown among the planters 
as " Staggers." The animal seems sluggish and sleepy, eyes dull and sunken, ears 
cold, and pulse quickened. This continues from two to four days. The animal, at 
intervals, suddenly starts and walks, or rather staggers around iu a circle, with head 
down. Of those affected, 99 per cent. die. It is noticed that there is more ot this dis- 
ease when we have a rainy spring than when the reverse is the case. The writer has 
cured one case. I drenched tlie animal with a solution or decoction of red pepper and 
salt once each day, and cut the forehead about two inches above and between the eyes, 
then running the blade of the knife down and up looSL-ned the skiu, thereby getting up 
a counter-irritant. I know of another horse cured by a similar process. I think this 
disease is due in a great measure to defective forage, bad and early grazing, when the 
animals are not accustomed to it — in short, when the planter, in anticipation of a short 
crop, desires to economize in feed and stints his animal. In 1867, we had an unusual 
amount of rain and bad crops, and the death rate by staggers was fisarful. Iu Hyde 
County the rain-fall has been very great, and hence (crop prospects exceedingly poor, 
and the fatality this season has been much heavier than usual, as doubtless you have 
seen from the reports from that county. I state this much to show that with judicious 
management this fatal disease might be avoided. We also have the snuffing epizootic, 
that " comes on the wings of the wind." I use, and have seen used with good effect, 
carbolic acid, pine-tar, and other disinfectants. We have, in isolated cases, other dis- 



14 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

oases as cited in the books, and used tbo remedies as suggested, with the ordinary x^er 
centa^e of failure and success. 

Cattle. — We can almost say our cattle are free from disease. We give them no care 
at all, even in winter, and what few die is the result of old age or starvation. The 
same may be said as regards 8heei». There are but few in the county, and they take 
care of themselves. 

Hogs. — Cliolera, as we know it, is the disease that promises to make the raising of 
pork dililicult in this country. The animal is taken with vomiting and running off of 
the bowels, no disposition to eat, geneial languor and listlessnesN. Of The old (one 
year and ever) affected, 35 per cent, die ; of the young pigs and shoats, % por cent. die. 
I do not think that the disease, once in the system of the boar or sow, ever leaves it 
entirely ; for upon the sow having pigs again she will either have very few, or what she 
does have will soon die with this cholera. 

Remedies. — 1st. Put a small quantity of spirits of turpentine on the corn or in their 
feed three times each week or oftener, as it will do no liarm. 2d. Feed all the slops and 
bwill-feed you can, in which put saltpeter, red pi'i)per, and salt. 3d. Keep salt at all 
times where the hogs can get all they want, and, by the way, keep it where all the 
animals can get at it at all times. 

This dreadful disease was almost unknown in the days of our forefathers, and I have 
almost arrived at the conclusion that the raising of cotton has bred it. It is known 
that the eating of cotton-seed by hogs while tlie seed are in the process of fertuenta- 
tiou will certainly kill them; and this, in my opinion, has brouglit a';out the disease. 
But the question is asked, " How does the cholera get up in Iowa and th-3 Northern 
States, where thej' rai&e no cotton ? " They buy the oil-cake, which is made of cotton- 
seed, and feed it to their hogs. A small percentage may die from eating poisonous 
mushrooms, but I do not believe that many die from that cause. On one of my plan- 
tations, on which I have raised agreat number of hogs, I never knew a case of cholera, , 
or any disease, until this year, when I lost between fifty and sixty pigs. The reason 
was this: My suporiuteudent had made a compost-he ip in which he had put a large 
IJerceutage of cotton-seed, and the hogs had free access to it. So sooa as the se^^d com - 
menced to tot, the hogs eating them were taken with the cholera. If the farmers of 
the North will keep their hogs from cotton-seed and oil-cake, my word for it, they will 
never be troubled with cholera. 

Fowls. — We denominate the main disease with them here " cholera." The fowl droops 
for a short time, and then commence spasms, from which they soon die. They are 
found dead under the roost and about the yard. I think this disease is partially due 
to inattention. The loss from cholera is about 5 jier cent. For a remedy, feed them 
on small grain in moderate quantities. Mix in dough and feed once a week, or as the 
flock seems to need it, alum, red pepper, onions, and coppt^ras. Keep marl or carbo- 
nate of lime where they can get it, and they will eat as they need it. Turkeys, ducks, 
geese, and peacocks are quite healthy, and I never knew one diseased. 

Mr. GEORaE S. Selvidge, Wheatland, Mo. says : 

Before proceeding to answer the interrogatories contained in your favor of the 24th 
ultimo, permit me to urge upon Congress, through your department, the absolute 
necessity of making such appropriations as will be required to meet the expenses of an 
investigation into the causes of the various diseases affecting farm-animals. 

Horses are very healthy in this locality ; no epidemic or contagion since the epizootic 
in 1872. 

Since the passage of State laws prohibiting the grazing of Texas cattle on the 
j)rairies, mature cattle have been healthy. Calves are often affected with a disease 
known as " black-leg." About 90 per cent, of those attacked die. The symptoms are 
lameness in one leg (more generally, I believe, the right forward leg), ears pitched 
forward, and nose dry. This condition lasts from ten to thirty-six hours, when one in 
ten will probably begin to recover; the other nine, of course, die. I have tried blood- 
letting and active cathartics without effect. I have not known any other remedies 
tried. A rather remarkable feature of this disease is that the fat, well-fed calves are 
generally the tirst attacked ; and if any escape, it is the lean ones. This feature of the 
disease has led some breeders to adopt as a pre\ entive a seaton passed through the 
loose skin on the under side of the neck, b^' which a slight suppuration is kept up. 
Those who have tried it claim that this is an absolute preventive. 

Shee]> are htalthy here, with the exception of an occasional case of scab or foot-rot, 
diseases too well known to require mention. 

Under the head of diseases among hogs many pages might be written. In 1876 our 
farmers lost heavily, probably one-fourth of what should have been their income for 
the year. Some lost all, after feeding out the enormous crop of ld75. 

The disease is what is generally known as hog-cholera. It presents itself in three 
disiiuct forms: One in vomiting and purging, presenting something of the symptoms 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 15 

of cholera in the human system. In another, severe constipation ; and in yet another, 
the symptoms of quinsy, without the swelling uader the throat. And yet we call it 
all cholera f 

It would be hard to enumerate half the medicines that have been tried aTid found 
wanting as remedies for this disease. But after all wo know absolutely nothing of 
the seat of the disease or its causes. Those who have not " doctored" at all have fared 
as well as those who have. 

Till' same remarks are applicable as to fowls ; we have suffered much and learned 
nothing. I have talked with a number of our best informed stock-men, and oven with 
lihysiciaus, and find their theories differ so widely that I hardly think it worth while 
to give them. 

Mr. W. B. Flippen, Yellville, Ark., says: 

Our horses are afflicted with no other diseases than distemper and blind-staggers. 
Farmers attribute the latter to feeding new ground corn or late corn, which is gen- 
erally worm-eaten. Others attribute it to the horses eating unsound corn and worm- 
dust. I know of no certain remedy. 

Cattle are occasionally affected with murrain, and what is here called black tongue. 
The tongue becomes red and raw on the upjMir side, and if not attended to promptly, 
turns blown or black on top, cracks open, and becomes so sore that the animal cannot 
feed, and in a short time will die. This disease i)revails only at intervals. It is easily 
cured by washing the tongue two or three times with a solution of salt and copperas. 
I suppose the copperas aloue would etlect a cure, as those herds are never aU'ected 
with it where co^jperas is mixed with their salt in the summer aud fall mouths. 

Cattle are also occasionally affected with what is here called Texas fever, but it is 
not incident to this locality, aud prevails only along the line or route where droves of 
cattle from Texas have passed. The disease is very fatal, and I know of no remedy. 

I have observed in this locality, twice within a period of forty years, a disease called 
" mad itch." I have never known a case cured. At first the animal appears feverish 
and not inclined to feed. In a day or two the eyes assume a reddish color, and the 
jaws, or skin on the sides of the jaws, become much swollen. When opened with a 
knife yellow water drops out freely. The animal commences rubbing the sides of 
its jaws against a tree, or anything it can get access to, and will continue to rub 
until both sides of the head are raw. In two or three days death ensues. Before it 
dies it becomes to all appearances perfectly mad and furious, but continues to rub its 
jaws until death relieves it of its sufferings. 

Mr. H. CoNLY, Cheyenne, Wyo., says : 

We have some losses of horses, caused by their eating " poison- weed," properly 
known as " larkspear," which makes its appearance about the middle of April, and on 
or immediately after the 1st of May, in advauce of the grasses. A hungry or jaded 
animal will eat a quantity of it, and within a few hours will begin to bloat, and if ex- 
ercised or excited will tremble violently and fall down. If immediate relief is not 
oV)tained the attack will prove fatal. The remedies commonly used are lard aud bleed- 
ing by slitting the animal's ears. Many of them will have all these symptoms and 
recover without any assistance. I am not prepared to give you the approximate losses 
caused by this weed. It is not so great as formerly, owing to the fact that stock-men 
guard against grazing upon lands where it abounds. I have taken some pains to test 
its properties, bat owing to limited means have only found it to be acid, increasing in 
acidity as it grows older. I shall be pleased to send some of this weed at the proper 
time, should you desire it. If you could obtain an analysis of it, a simple autidote 
would follow, thereby saving us great losses. 

Poultry seems to suffer about the same as in the States with diseases such as cholera 
and roup. All of the minor complaints come under the head of roup. We lose about 
50 per cent, from the former. I believe there has been no sure remedy discovered. I 
have found that coal-oil will check the spread of the disease as speedily as anything, 
but that will not cure a fowl when attacked. I give it to them twice a week by satu- 
rating their corn aud feeding them abundantly. 

Messrs. Crawford, Thompson & Co., cattle-dealers, Eranstou, Wyo., 
say: 

We have no general sickness of any kind among cattle, sheep, horses, or hogs. This 
is strictly a healthy country. The only disease among any of the above-named animals 
which has come under our observation is scab on sheep, which we very easilj' manage 
by washing with sulphur and tobacco. 



16 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. Freeman Walker, North Brookfield, Mass., says: 

On some of onr farms a larjije percentage of the cows abort their calves from one to 
four mouths before the time of calving. In some towns this has taken place from year 
to year, and the farmers know of no cause or remedy. I am expecting to come in con- 
tact with some of our farmers who have suffered in this way, and if I can get any 
facts of importance, I will communicate them to you. 

Mr. T. N. Braxton, Paoli, Ind., says : 

In this locality all classes of farm-animals, except hogs, have thus far escaped all 
diseases. The hogs in Southern Indiana have been diseased for the last year Avith what 
is known as cholera. Sometimes they are constipated, and at other times affected 
■with vomiting and purging. Different remedies have been tried, but none of them 
have been attended with success. I have been feeding three hundred head this sum- 
mer, in a lot in wliich there is a spring of ruiiniag water. The water is very brackish, 
and leaves a sediment in the branch that looks like copperas. I also give my hogs 
ashes and salt. I have not lost one out of my entire lot with this disease. Other farmers 
in my neighborhood have had the disease among their hogs and have lost a great 
many. Salt and ashes may be a preventive, or the water from the spring may be ; or, 
possibly, good luck alone may have caused my hogs to escape. 

Mr. Joseph Hole, Butlerville, Ind., says: 

I am pleased that you are taking steps toward having an investigation of the causes 
of the fearful maladies to which farm-animals are subject. I shall be very glad to 
render you any assistance in my power for the furtherance of so laudable an object. 
Horses, "cattle, and sheep are comparatively Jiealthy. Chicken-cholera prevails to some 
extent, but not sufficiently to affect the interest. 

The hog disease has prevailed in this and adjoining counties for several years, more, 
I think, as an epidemic than as a contagious disease. Cholera is a misnomer, so far, 
at least, as a large majority of the cases coming under my observation are concerned. 
Perhaps erysipelas or diphtheria would better describe the disease, although neither of 
these would, in all cases, be correct. What renders a description of the disease more 
difficult is, that while there are some general symptoms, such as loss of appetite with 
6trong febrile tendencies, yet in a herd of hogs there will be a great variety of forms 
of attack. Thus several cases of sudden and complete paralysis have occurred. While 
the hog, previously in good health, was running for the feed prepared for it, it has beea 
stricken down precisely as when shot in the brain with a bullet. In such cases, post- 
mortem examinations fail to discover any unnatural appearance of the intestines; but 
the condition of the lungs generally indicates strong symptoms of congestion. 

One of the common symptoms that precede an attack of the disease is a dry, hack- 
ing cough. This, however, may continue for months without any further manifesta- 
tion of the disease, though generally it is followed by the next symptom, a loss of ap- 
petite. And here any of the forms incident to the disease, and which no one can fore- 
tell, may set in. Intestinal fever is a common attendant of the maladJ^ In my own 
observation the bowels, as a rule, are constipated, the animal passing only small, hard 
pellets. Very rarely fetid diarrhea is observed. About 70 or 80 per cent, of the 
cases prove fatal. Of those that recover, complete convalescence is not established 
under six or eight weeks, and even then no one will buy ihem if those that have 
never been affected can be had. 

No panacea has been found for this terrible disease, nor has any treatment been tried, 
so far as I know, that can be recommended. The use of antiseptics is perhaps the 
best treatment. Bisulphate of soda, sulphate of iron, turpentine, charcoal, opium, 
nitrate of silver, carbolic acid, and creosote, have all been tried, and all have failed in 
bad cases. Preventives are better than cures. As a rule, those who give their hogs 
the best feed while in health, and look most carefully to their sanitary condition, escape 
•with less loss than those who are less careful. 

D. W. VoTLES, M. D., New Albany, Ind., says : 

I am in receipt of your letter of the 10th instant, asking my assistance and co-op- 
eration in furnishing certain information in regard to the diseases coming within the 
range of my observation that affect the domestic or farm animals in this section of the 
country, and in reply would state that I fully appreciate the necessity of such a move- 
ment, looking, as it does, to the protection of the interests of such a large and impor- 
tant class of onr population. The assistance I may be able to render you will prove of 
but little practical value at present, but may serve as an argument for the necessity 
of your undertaking, if argument is needed. 

There has been no prevailing epidemic in this section of the State within the past 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 17 

few years aflfectins; any class of farm-auimals, except swine and fowls; and in these 
cases almost all complaints resulting in death are summed up by the people as " hog " 
or " chicken " cholera. In few cases of disease of this kind that have come under my 
immediate observation are found any symptoms analogous to the disease of that name 
as affecting the liumau species. The treatment has been as empirical and irrational as 
the diagnosis has been erroneous. 

As to swine, the diseases, whether one or many, have created or caused a fearful loss 
to our farmers, and discouraged them in the further pursuit of that branch of stock-rais- 
ing ; and while almost all sections are more or less affected, there seems to be more dis- 
ease and greater fatality among the farmers operating in the rich valleys of White and 
Wabash Kivers ; and the disease and loss has been, I think, greatest during those years 
of great overflow, and greatest during the years in which the overllow occurred late 
in the season, leaving with its sediment the luxuriant growth of vegetation to decay 
and evolve miasuiatic effluvia. From these facts I think much of the loss is caused 
from diseases brought on by exposure to miasmatic influence. 

I am not conversant with any scientific investigations that throw much light upon 
the cause of these diseases, or the pathological conditions found on posi-mortem exam- 
inations in such animals as have died. No treatment has yet been discovered by 
our farmers so certain in its curative effect as to inspire them with the belief that hog- 
raising is sufficiently safe from loss to insure prolitable results. I am fully persuaded 
that so long as they content themselves in ascribing to all deaths the one common 
cause, "hog-cholera," and adhere to the present plan of empirical treatment, instead of 
patiently and scientifically investigating the causes producing disease in swine, and 
the various kinds of disease to which that animal is liable, giving to each its distinct- 
ive rational treatment, the subject will remain a mystery, and the fearful mortality 
continue to increase. That the farming population of the country, as a class, are not 
sufficiently educated to undertake this work, is a fact too well known to be disputed ; 
and inasmuch as the great loss from that class of animals alone is not merely an indi- 
vidual loss, or the loss of a particular class of our people, but through them a great 
national loss, it is unquestionably within the range of the duties of the general gov- 
ernment to undertake the extensive investigations which alone can accomplish this 
result. 

What I have said in a general way in regard to swine applies with equal force to 
fowls. The loss, from whatever cause, is due to "cholera, "in the opinion of most farmers, 
and astringent drinks and iron mixtures are given, whether the fowls are purging or 
are constipated from congestion from overfeeding, dying from starvation, or eaten up 
by vermin, or diseased from the foul air that arises from the filthy excretions remain- 
ing in their pens, unmoved for months, or from any of the many other causes affecting 
their health. 

No fatal disease has prevailed epidemically among horses in this part of the country 
within the last few years, and this animal, therefore, is admitted by common consent 
to be liable to quite a number of ailments, requiring different causes for their produc- 
tion and slight modification in the administration of remedies for their cure ; but in 
the case of the horse, the naming of a prevailing epidemic a few years since has unfor- 
tunately caused all bronchial and catarrhal affections to be grouped under one common 
class and name — " epizootic." In the treatment of this animal for whatever disease, 
we generally witness the heroic empiricism practiced upon the iron constitutions of 
the people of two centuries ago (who sometimes triumphed over both the disease and 
the doctor), by a selection of remedies from among the most poisonous and potential 
that can be found described in materia medlca. All structural enlargements that do not 
warrant their removal by the surgeon's knife, instead of being slightly stimulated 
locally, in addition to such internal treatment as is calculated to favor their absorption 
and natural removal, are plied with blisters and the cautery until the countrj^ is filled 
with valuable animals scarred and crippled for life — living monuments of the igno- 
rance and savagery of their owners and masters. 

These facts, which I think are not overdrawn, show the impossibility of my giving 
you any tabular statement of diseases properly classified, and the treatment given 
under any proper head, because the several diseases affecting each class of animals 
have not been investigated, and are neither understood nor rationally treated. What 
I have been able to contribute, therefore, can serve only to show the great necessity 
for scientific investigation. The treatment of domestic animals in the West is geu- 
ei'ally committed to self-styled veterinary surgeons, whose experience is alone their 
guide, and that often founded upon the service of keeping some gentleman's horse, 
observation in a livery-stable, or as a common loafer around the neighborhood of breed- 
ing establishments. 

Dr. H. J. Detmers, vice-president of tbe American Berkshire Associa- 
tion, Bellegarde, Kans., writes as follows : 

A thorough investigation of the epizootic, enzootic, and contagions diseases of live- 
stock is certainly a step in* the right direction, and will be, if judiciously conducted, 
S. Ex. 35 2 



18 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

of more beuelit to the farmers and stock-raisers of our country, and add more to the 
natioual wealth, thau anything that has ever been undertaken or accomplished by the • 
Department of Agriculture duriug its existence. I take the liberty of expressing my 
opinion thus freely, because of my almost constant residence in country towns and 
among farmers, my past connection with throe ditferent agricultural colleges in this 
country, and with one in Europe as professor of veterinary science, and still more, my 
extensive correspondence on the subject of live-stock and its diseases, with a great 
many farmers, and stock-men in nearly every State in the Union, Avbo ask my advice 
as the conductor of the veieriuary department of the Chicago Weekly Tribune, have 
given me ample opportunities to study the real wauts and needs of the American 
stock-raisers. 

With your permission I will remark that a rational and successful treatment, and 
still more a prevention of a disease, will be comparatively easy if the diagnosis is 
correct, and if the nature and the causes of it are understood and well known. If 
they are not, and if the diagnosis is doubtful, a successful prevention is impossible, 
and a rational treatment is out of the question. The best and most scientific prescrip- 
tions can do no good in the hands of any one who does not know what to do with 
them, and still the average American farmer craves for prescriptions like a child for 
sweetmeats, because he has the erroneous idea, fostered by quacks and charlatans, that 
experimentation will reveal a specific remedy for every disease, and that medical sci- 
ence has nothing to do but to label each disease and to search for a specific. Even 
learned medical men have made grave mistakes, aud have delayed the progress of 
science considerably by their great confidence in drugs and their search after specific 
remedies which do not exist. In all diseases, but especially in epizootic, enzootic, and 
contagious diseases, a removal or a destruction of the causes, constitutes the only 
rational and effective prevention. Therefore, if the nature and the causes of those 
diseases are thoroughly investigated, and the result is laid before the public in lan- 
guage comprehensible to any man with the usual amount of intellect, a great many 
millions of dollars may be saved every year. 

When our agricultural colleges were called iuto existence and most liberally endowed 
by act of Congress, I hoped and expected that a chair for veterinary science would be 
cheated in every one of them. Instead of that, men who have no interest whatever in 
agriculture, though some of them may be learned enough, become the presidents in nearly 
every institution. The machinery became very complicated; a great many things 
were taught which are of no use, either to the farmer or the higher mt chanic ; ex- 
jicnses accumulated, aud no money remained available to teach those sciences most 
intimately related to agriculture. ##**■** 

The investigation which you propose would have been made long ago, and many 
millions of dollars would have been saved to our farmers, if the agricultural colleges 
had complied with the law of Cougres which commands them to teach those sciences 
related to agriculture, &c., or if a veterinary school worthy of the name were in ex- 
istence in our country. 

Mr. Elisha Gridley, Half-Day, Lake Couuty, Illiuois, says: 

stock here is generally healthy. Sheep were seriously affected with foot-rot a few 
years since. The diseased flocks were either cured or removed. A strong solution of 
pulverized blue vitriol, applied after thoroughly paring the feet, is one of the remedies 
used. 

Cholera has not affected the hogs in this locality, but has destroyed large numbers 
of common fowls, turkeys, &c. Asafetida-gum, inclosed in a mosquito-bar and placed 
in the water they drink, has been used as a preventive, aud, I believe, with favorable 
results. 

Mr. John E. Thomas, Sheboygan Falls, Wis., says : 

Farm-animals in this region are free from contagious and other prevalent diseases 
to which they are subject. Since the prevalence of "epizootic," some years since, our 
farm-stock have measurably escaped diseases of every description. Foot-rot in sheep, 
cholera in hogs, pip, &c., in fowls, aud contagious diseases amoug horses, have all given 
us the go-by in later years. ' ' Epizootic " is so well known that I do not regard a diag- 
nosis necessary. 

Mr. T. Bacon, Waucouda, 111., writes as follows : 

Farm-animals in this county, so far as my knowledge extends, have been blessed 
with an almost entire absence of all diseases, exceptiug cholera amoug chickens. 
Poultry-yards have sulfered terribly. All the nostrums have been tried, but with very 
poor success. Probably three-fourths of all the flocks infected have died. Even 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 19 

Guinea fowls, roostiug iu trees, far away from all other fowls, have snflered iu like 
ratio. 

I have sometimes thought that hog-cholera was partially of a local nature, as we do 
not suffer to any great extent from it iu Northern Illiuoia and iu Wisconsin. If the 
ringer was abolished, and Iho hog allowed to use his natural propensity, I have no 
doubt the disease would be greatly abated. 

Mr. Waller Brodie, Wbitaker's, N. C, writes as follows : 

The only disease existing among any class of farm-animals in this section at present 
is hog-cholera. We have been troubled a great deal this year with the disease. Over 
.'SO per cent, of our hogs have died, and a great many are now affected. The first 
symptoms of the disease are manifested iu the way of a fever, followed by a diarrhea, 
which continues about three weeks, when death ensues. But few infected hogs recover. 
The disease is more fatal with young than with grown hogs. A good many remedies 
have been tried, l)ut with indifferent success. In my hands sulphur has jiroved more 
beneficial than anytliiug else. 

Our fowls have also been affected with cholera for five or sis years past. This disease 
is also very fatal, and plays sad havoc iu the poultry-yords. Calomel has been used, I 
learn, with some success. The disease is not so general as it is among the hogs. 

Mr. Jacob Groves, Boston, Mass., says : 

The first symptoms of roup are those of severe catarrh or cold, followed by a peculiar 
and offensive discharge from the nostrils. Froth appears iu the uuder corners of the 
eye ; the lids of the eye swell, and in severe cases the eyeball is entirely concealed. The 
nostrils become closed by the discharges, which appear to be about the same as the 
excrements of the fowl when suffering with diarrhea. This last sym]itom is so well 
known that a description is deemed unnecessary. The cause of rou]5 is a too scanty 
supply of grain, which necessitates an excess of green food. 

Mr. J. Earl Lewis, Pendletou, S. C, writing under date of Septem- 
ber 16, gives the following case of bloody murrain in a valuable young 
bull owned by him, and bis manner and successful treatment of the 
same: 

His urine was of a dark, muddy color, and it seemed to give him great pain to uri- 
nate, which he did iu very small (piantities. After eating he would become very sick, 
and was not disposed to move about much. When he did so it would apparently give 
him much pain, and he would travel but a short distance, when he would again lie 
down. I gave him, iu the evening, one pound of Epsom salts, three tablespoonfuls of 
saltpeter dissolved iu fiaxseed tea, usiug for the same about one-half pint of flaxseed. 
In the morning I gave the same drench, except that I reduced the Epsom salts to one- 
half pound. There was not much change in his condition, save in the appearance of 
his eyes and a freer discharge of urine. It was a week before any decided change was 
observable. I continued to give him daily a little flaxseed tea and saltpeter, which 
seemed to briug back the natural color of the urine. At the end of a week he recov- 
ered his appetite and would eat heartily, but his food seemed to make him sick, and 
he would vomit like a human being. I then gave him, once a day for two days, red- 
pepper tea and salt, which had the desired effect. He gradually recovered, but has 
never been in as good couditiou as before the attack. 

Mr. Thomas Rudd, Waukegan, Wis., says : 

We have a disease here among cows called milk-fever, which has proved very fatal. 
The loss has been greater than from any other disease. "Bloat" and "dry murrain" 
also exist to some extent, but these diseases, I think, are attributable to irregular feed- 
ing. Many other diseases prevail here from timeto time among farm-auimals, a descrip- 
tion of which I will endeavor to send you soon. 

Mr. F. M. Coryell, Brewersville, Ind., says : 

Cholera exists among both hogs and fowls in this section of the State, and has 
proved very fatal among both classes of animals, i)robably nine cases out of every ten 
having proved fatal. In the first stages of the disease, as it atfects swine, the symp- 
toms widely difi'er. In most cases a loss of appetite is first noticed. Sometimes the 
animal is constipated, while in other cases exactly the reverse may exist. No cure has 



20 DISEASE AMONG SWiNE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

been found, and the only preventive of any value is to separate the sick from the well 
boijs at once, and j^ive those not affected an abundance of salt. 

The disease auaong fowls is equally fatal, the loss being about nine-tenths of those 
infected. Like symptoms prevail as in hogs, loss of appetite, followed by diarrhea, 
which continues two or three days, when the fowl dies. No remedy has been discov- 
ered. 

Mr. Z. T. Miller, Ray wick, Ky., says : 

Hog-cholera is the most destructive disease we have to contend with here in Kentucky. 
It will attack a lot of, say, one hundred head of hogs, and in two or three weeks it 
will not leave a victim to prey upon. The disease is more general and much more fatal 
in some localities than in others. A gentleman living in Nelson, an adjoining county 
to this one (Marion), has not had a case in a lot of two hundred head of hogs, while 
his neighbors have lost from three hundred and fifty to four hundred head. Whj' 
should this be the case ? Perhaps feeding has something to do with it. Upon inquiry, 
I learn that the gentleman whose hogs have escaped the disease feeds cooked meal, 
in which is mixed wood ashes, char and stone coal, sulphur, copperas, and coal-oil. 
This has been a successful preventive. His neighbors, who feed nothing but dr5' corn, 
have suffered severely. Dry corn is too stimulating, and produces fever. This is soon 
followed by loss of appetite, and the next symptoms are those of cholera. It is then 
too late to commence drugging them, as they are almost sure to die. However, a few 
might be saved if the sick were separated from the well ones as soon as the first symp- 
toms of the disease were discovered. If hogs liable to infection were fed on cooked 
meal with the mixtures above named, I am inclined to think they would escape the 
disease. 

A peculiar disease has recently broken out among the horses in this locality. Its 
first symptoms are observed in a severe stiffuess of the joints of the animal, so much 
so, indeed, as to render him unfit for service. In a week or ten days his body will 
become greatly swollen, and he will break out in sores from which an ott'ensive matter 
will be discharged. The disease does not seem to prove of a fatal character, but the 
horse is seldom worth anything after a severe attack. 

Hon. Daniel M. Henry, Cambridge, Md., says : 

From time to time I have heard of the diseases commonly known as "blind-stag- 
gers " in horses, and " hog-cholera " and " chicken-cholera," prevailing in localities of 
greater or less extent with great fatality, but they do not seem as yet to have pro- 
duced a professional veterinary surgeon. 

Mr. Thomas Sturgis, of the firm of Sturgis & Goodell, cattle-breed- 
ers, Cheyenne, Wj'oming, says : 

Among cattle but one disorder is recognized by stockmen here. It is known as 
" blackleg." It occurs but seldom, and is confiued solely to large cattle and yearlings. 
Its attacks are most frequent among fat cattle. It kills in twenty-four to thirty-six 
hours. The symjjtoms are stiffness of shoulders and chest, and swelling of legs from 
above downward. Recoveries are few, if any. No treatment has been found success- 
ful. The largest loss known was that sustained by Edward Creighton, of this Terri- 
tory, who, some years ago, lost two hundred head of calves aad yearlings. 

Spanish or Texas fever is unknown here. Tbe probable cause of escape is owing to 
the state of nature in which cattle live — absence of prepared food or shelter and 
extensive ranges, where they are widely scattered. 

Horses have suffered greatly from an epidemic closely resembling the epizootic dis- 
temper exiierienced in the States two years ago. They grow very weak and thin, 
cough, and discharge at the nostrils. Some die. In most cases recovery takes place 
in three or four months. 

Scab in shee]) is known here, but the disease is not widespread. The remedy em- 
ployed seems effectual, viz., a solution of tobacco used as a dip, and repeated until h 
cure is effected. A dip made of a solution of carbolic acid and water is also em- 
ployed, as are other dips in which arsenic mingles. 

Any remedies known to be valuable for diseases of poultry will be gladly received. 
The symptoms of commonest trouble are dull eyes, unwillingness to move, failure 
to eat, and death in about three days. 

Mr. Daniel Chaplin, La Grande, Oreg., says : 

There is no prevailing disease among domestic animals in this county except that of 
scab in sheep. This parasitic disease has heretofore prevailed to considerable extent 
on the Pacific coast, but it is getting to be better understood and is now fast disap- 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 21 

pearing nnder close watchfulness and timely remedies. I have had considerable 
experience with the disease, and have succeeded in exterminating it as follows : 

First, I sheared my sheep very close, and peeled off all scabs or sores, and at the 
time of shearing I spotted every diseased ])lace with a strong wash of corrosive subli- 
mate and water. I then dipped them three times in a strong decoction of tobacco, 
using one-half pound of stem-tobacco to each sheep. The dip was heated to 120"^ F., 
and the sheep held in it at least two minutes. The dipping should be performed at 
intervals of fourteen days. 

After several years of exi)erimeiiting, I found this a sure remedy. Many otlier pre- 
scriptions were used, but without success. The sheejt should be put on fresh pasture 
after dipping, and not allowed to run on the oUl one for one year thereafter. Scab is 
the only disease to which sheep are subject on tiiis coast. Foot-rot and other diseases 
so prevalent in other localities are entirely unknown in Oregon. There is no prevail- 
ing diseases among other animals. 

Mr. J. y. Smalls, Scotland Neck, K C, says : 

We have but very few diseases among farm-animals in this section of the State, with 
the exception, perhaps, of the disease known as cholera among hogs. This disease as- 
sumes ditierent forms or symptoms. Some are attacked with vomiting, and linger 
about one week ; others lose their appetite, become sleepy, and their eyes become in- 
flamed and exude an otfensive matter. Cases of the latter class have been known to 
die within six hours after the attack was first observed. Many remedies have been 
tried, among others salt and ashes, tar, saltpeter, and bluestone. While some of these 
remedies have proved of value on one farm, on an adjoining one they have been found 
of no service whatever. The disease is not so prevalent as in former years, though it 
is, perhaps, more fatal. One farmer has lost sixty-three head out of a lot of sixty-five. 

The disease among fowls is also called cholera. The first symptoms are drooping, loss 
of appetite, &c. They die within a few days. A lady friend has used calomel and 
opium with success. She administers it in small doses three times a day. 

Mr. Donald Murchison, Toulon, Stark County, Illinois, says: 

For several years past the hog-cholera has annually been destroying immense num- 
bers of hogs throughout various sections of this country. The probability is that 
$2.50,000 would not cover the losses in this county alone, since the disease first made 
its appearance. I am a farmer, and have been extensively engaged in hog-raising, and 
therefore have given the disease a great deal of careful thought and study, and I be- 
lieve I have now found a sure remedy, if given in the first Stages of the disease. The 
recipe is as follows : 

Make a strong tea of smart-weed. After the weeds are separated from the solution, 
add one-eighth of a pound of arsenic and one-fourth of a pound of concentrated lye, 
and from one-fourth to one-half spoonful of flaxseed to the hog (according to the 
size of the animal). It is best to have the solution boiled over again after the 
flaxseed is added, or else have the flaxseed cooked in a smaller vessel and thor- 
oughly mixed with the tea after the weeds are separated from it. Then mix a sufli- 
cient quantity of oats in the tea to soak it all up, and feed to the infected hogs night 
and morning as much of it as they will eat. Give them no other food for a week or 
ten days, or until they begin to show unmistakable signs of returning health, when 
this feed may be gradually lessened and corn given in its place, gradually at first, and 
increased as the other is diminished. 

The flaxseed is not necessary unless the bowels are constipated, which is generally 
the case in advanced stages of the disease. Some farmers use salts when the bowels 
become constipated ; but it is about the worst thing that can be given, as it is a blood- 
cooler and a blood-weakener. Although it may give temporary relief it prostrates the 
system, and in a few days the hog will be in a much worse condition than it was at 
first. The flaxseed is a good laxative, and at the same time is very nourishing and 
strengthening to the system. The lye seems to be a good tonic as well as a good rem- 
edy for cough in hogs. The arsenic also acts as a tonic ; besides it kills the worms 
with which all hogs (with very few exceptions) are troubled. The smart-weed is prob- 
ably about the best remedy for inflammation that we have. It is warming and 
strengthening to the system, and gives tone to and equalizes the circulation of the 
blood, just what seems to be needed, as the disease is a congestion of the lungs. 

Mr. A. B. McKee, Vincennes, Knox County, Indiana, says : 

There are but two diseases, so far as I know, that prevail as epidemics in this section 
of country, viz., hog and chicken cholera. The hog-cliolera has become one of the 
most serious diseases with which the farmer has to contend. He may think he has a 
fine killing for the winter, but the cholera enters and in a few weeks he finds himself 



22 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

left without enough for his own family supply. The disease presents so many different 
phases as to prevent me, with the little iuvestiffation I have given it, from attempting 
a complete diagnosis. A drooping of the head, loss of appetite, and an indisposition 
to move are among the first symptoms noticed. Sometimes there is a running off at the 
bowels, and sometimes constipation prevails; sometimes they die in a few days, and 
then again they may linger for weeks. I confess I do not understand either the pathol- 
ogy or the workings of the disease. As to the cures recommended, they are numerous, 
and generally based not upon a scientific analysis of the remedies prescribed but upon 
the vague conceit of the party recommending them ; and then, again, all the different 
remedies in turn have proved failures. If Congress would do anything to throw light 
on this subject, and especially if a specific could bo found, it would i>rove of incalcu- 
lable benefit to the whole country. 

I have used, and I have thought with some benefit, alum and Venetian red — alum as 
an astringent and Venetian red as an absorbent. During the past summer, I have used 
poke-root, given in slop, in such doses as to secure its alterative effects, and as a pre- 
ventive rather than a cure. From its known effect as a preventive in other diseases I 
have no doubt as to its beneficial effects in this. 

Mr. W. W. WooDYAED, Morristown, Shelby County, Indiana, says : 

We have no disease aftectiug farm-animals in our locality, except cholera among 
hogs, or a disease making its appearance in many different forms, called cholera. In 
some cases the pig, when quite young, will become affected about the eyes, and partial 
or total blindness will follow in a few days. A high state of inflammation about the 
mouth and throat next makes its appearance. Perhaps 90 per cent, of such cases will 
prove fatal in from six to ten days. 

In other cases the hog, at a greater age, will first show signs of inflammation about 
the ears and neck, the ears becoming sore, with a yellowish mucus making its appear- 
ance about the root of the ear. Very few of those attacked in this manner recover. 
Some will simply show a sleepy, sluggish appearance, refuse to eat, and usually die in 
from twelve to twenty-four hours. 

Many remedies have been used, but the best informed men will say, almost unani- 
mously, without the least benefit whatever. The disease is prevailing to a fearful ex- 
tent in some localities at this time. The president of the First National Bank at Rush- 
ville, Ind., who has large opportunities of knowing, says that Rush County alone will 
lose |500,000 by this disease the present year. Our own county will perhaps be equally 
as heavy a loser. 

Mr. James Ferguson, Ashborough, Clay County, Indiana, says: 

For fifteen years, at intervals, what is known as hog-cholera has been very de- 
structive among this class of farm-animals here. Personally, 1 have had but little ex- 
perience with it. In some the symptoms are refusal of food, stupor, apparently neai'ly 
deaf and blind, constipation, and death within from one to five days. Others have 
vomiting and lax evacuations, of which seven-tenths die soon. 

Of the cause of the disease I know nothing certain, nor have I heard a rational 
theory from our farmers. Various drugs are administered as long as the hog survives 
the disease and the doctoring. I know of no reliable remedy. 

Apparently it is safe to assume that worms, and, possil)ly, other parasites on the 
digestive oigans are the cause of most hog diseases. Hogs that have frequent doses ot 
sulphur, copperas, turpentine, and arsenic, with free access to wood-ashes and charcoal, 
are usually healthy, and almost exempt from cholera. 

Chicken-cholera is not unknown among us, but I think its cause and remedy are 
alike unknown in this locality. 

Mr. Lewis J. Eeyman, Salem, Washington County, Indiana, says : 

We have no prevailing disease among farm-stock in this couuty, except hog and 
chicken cholera, which has prevailed for quite a number of years, and is prevailing to 
some extent at this time. Two years ago this fall I turned thirty-five hogs of my own 
raising in a corn-field, and they fattened very fast for about three weeks. About this 
time I bought twelve head that were raised on low, wet, river-bottom land, about 
twelve miles from my own land. In a few days some of them were attacked with 
cholera, and two died. In a few more days those of my own raising took the disease, 
and nine of them died. The balance lost flesh for a time, but gradu.ally recovered. I 
fed them sulphur and ashes, calomel, May-apple root, and a number of other remedies 
recommended. 

There are various symptoms of the disease. In some instances they vomit and purge, 
and in others their lungs seem to be affected, and they are constipated. When the 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 23 

lungs and' bowels are affected they seldom if ever recover. Those that are attacked 
with vomiting nnd purging get well, and soon go to fattening again. 

The same fall (two years ago) I bad thirty pigs tiiat were just woanod. They were 
taken with purging, and all died. I also had about thirty spring shoats that were 
affected in the lungs and bowels. They all died but four or Ave. Two lingered for 
some days and would not eat graiu, but would driuk a little milk. I concluded I 
would experiment a little with these, and I gave them each one tablespoouful of sul- 
phur every morning iu their milk for two weeks, when thej' commenced eating cora 
again, and gradually got well. 

Mrs. L. J. Retman, of tlie same comity, says : 

Chicken-cholera has prevailed in this neighborhood for years, iu a majority of cases 
proving fatal to the wlude dock. Tbree y«ai"s ago our fowls had it for the lirst time, 
and out of about forty heus and several dozen young chickens (that were hatched late 
in the season), I had but ten heus and a few chicks left. I tried several remedies, 
feeding them asafetida, Cayenne pepper, alum, &c., but do not know that they had 
any effect, as the chickens mostly dropped dead off" the roosts iu the night, being ap- 
parently well the day before. 

About two months ago my ilock were again attacked with the disease. Only sis or 
eight died. A few of them dropped oft' the roost dead, and some lingered near two 
weeks, eating a little, but gettiug weaker until they died. A few recovered after being 
sick several days. I used nothing but a little cayenne in their feed and alum-water 
by them constantly, mixing their feed with it also. About the same time a tenant on 
another part of the farm lost about forty large fat hens and some turkeys. She saved 
about one-fourth of her flock, including the young chicks. I do not know what rem- 
edies she used, but I do not think she used any alum. This disease, for the last few 
years, has had a depressing effect on the market of poultry and eggs iu this county, 
and we are needing a remedy badly. 

Mr. DuNEHEW, Trinity Springs, Martin County, Indiana, says : 

There seems to be no serious disease among any class of farm animals in the county 
now, excepting among swine. Mr. F. F. Sholts, an experienced farmer and stock- 
dealer, says in regard to lung diseases of hogs, that it begins with a cough, which in- 
creases for two or three weeks, and if not arrested by that time the lungs will be so 
decayed that death will ensue. The cough generally begins by a kind of snuffing, as 
if dust had been inhaled. At this stage, a few doses of his medicine will cure every 
case. The longer it runs the more difficult it is to cure. " The old-fashioned cholera,' 
he says, " puking and purging," is also readily cured by him, and if promptly handled' 
the cure is speedy aud effective. He claims that if the medicine is given as a jirevent- 
ive no case will occur. Mr. Sholts will not make public his remedies, as he has persons 
now traveling engaged in selliog his medicines. 

Mr. W. Daniels, Huntington, Huntington County, Indiana, says: 

There is no disease among farm stock here, except cholera in hogs, and this is not so 
prevalent as in former years. No remedy has been found. 

Mr. John M. Barnett, Somerset, Pulaski County, Kentucky, says : 

Aside from hog cholera, our farm animals have been free from disease, except the 
nsnal amount of cholic and grub in horses. Our cattle have been entirely free from 
disease. My experience, as well as that of others in this section, is, that pine-tar given 
to hogs will act as a preventive in localities where hog cholera is prevalent. 

Mr. J. B. Miller, Hartford, Ohio County, Indiana, says: 

We have in Southeastern Indiana a disease among hogs and chickens called cholera. 
It is sometimes very destructive among hogs. I have found the disease, by dissection, 
to be confined principally to the lungs. This soon produces a dry, scorching fever, 
which thickens the blood and causes death. The disease is caused by worms and an 
accumulation of dust in the lungs. It can be prevented by putting soap-suds in the 
slop-barrel and feeding them a quantity of it once or twice a week. Soap is a good 
remedy for worms, and also cleanses the bowels. I have cured several in the lirst 
stages of the disease with turpentine and coal-oil, using it in equal parts and giving 
three drachms once a day. I also rub it on the center of the back behind the shoul- 
ders once a day. If these remedies are properly used the disease need not be feared. 



24 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Hogs in the Western States do not have proper attention. Too many are allowed 
to sleep together, when they get overheated and die of thumps, which is also called 
cholera. If people would take better care of this stock, and use soap in slops as above 
recommended, hog cholera would soon pass away. 

Chicken cholera is a dibcase of the liver. Ouly one cure is now in use in this 
county, which, if taken in time, is a specific. Take May-apple root and boil a weak 
solution. Add a teacupful to a quart of meal and feed. Corn lime is a good pre- 
ventive 

Mr. J. Harbison, Charlestown, Clarke County, Missouri, says: 

I would have answered your letter sooner, but I have been waiting to see some of 
my neighbors, one of whom has lost eight head of stock cattle in the last three weeks; 
but he could not tell me much about them, only that they were covered with ticks, 
that they would not eat or drink, and that they would stand for hours at a time with 
their heads to the ground, in which position they would remain until they died. The 
cattle were bought at the Louisville (Ky.) stock-yards by Mr. H. J. Crum. 

I have lost some fowls from roup and cholera. Of the two diseases I dread roup the 
most, as it does not show as unmistakably as the cholera. A fowl with the roup will eat 
heartily, and to all appearances look well, until the disease will break out among the 
entire flock. They hardly ever die with it, but they lose their eyes and look so disgust- 
ing, that I generally cut their heads otf as soon as I find them affected with it. In 
fact, that is my remedy for all diseases, especially cholera. Cholera usually shows 
itself by the fowl moping around, generally with a full crop, sometimes with nothing 
in its craw ; will not eat, but drink often ; the comb and wattles become a dark red — 
nearly a black color ; the discharges at first are a pale green color, then dark green, and 
sometimes yellow, like the yolk of an uncooked egg. They are generally fat when 
taken, and seem to die sooner than when in a lean condition, I have sometimes found 
the fowls with their craws so full of dry grass that it would not pass beyond. By cut- 
ting open the craw and taking out this food, washing with warm water and sewing 
it up again, they will soon get over the disease and in a few days will begin to eat 
heartily. 

Mr. James A. Lee, Dowagiac, Cass County, Michigan, says: 

Stock in Michigan is subject to but few diseases. Horses generally have th" dis- 
temper when growing, which runs from one to two weeks. It commences with a slight 
cough, watering of the eyes, and loss of appetite. As the disease progresses the cough 
increases. The throat and jaws swell, gather and break, when the horse becomes 
unable to swallow, and dies of suffocation. The disease will yield to mild treatment, 
such as sweating of the head and throat with bitter herbs, viz: wormwood, catnip, 
hops, &c., and smoking the head with sulphur and old shoe-leather. Take a ball of 
good sweet butter as large as an egg and put it down the hoi'se's throat twice a day. 
Give mild physic if the case needs it, and keep the horse warm. 

The most common complaint among horses is cholic. The sj'mptoms are extreme 
uneasiness. The horse paws, lies down and rolls, gets up and lies down again, groans, 
begins to bloat, and continues in this way until death ensues unless relieved. This 
can invariably be eftected, if taken in time, by a dose of one-half pint of salt dissolved 
in a quart of water. Ifc should be administered every ten minutes until relief is 
afforded, which generally occurs after the third dose. 

Worms of different kinds alfect the horse and are very troublesome. The symptoms 
are tight skin, rough coat, irregular appetite, and the appearance of a yellowish mucus 
under the tail. The horse lifts one hind foot to the belly, draws himself up, partly lies 
down — perhaps entirely down — on his belly, gets up immediately and goes to eating, 
stops suddenlj', and does the same thing over again. Give a common tablespoonful of 
copperas in a ball, followed by a bran-mash once a day until relieved; then give a 
light physic or turn to grass. 

We have nine head of cattle affected with horn distemper to one aftected with any 
other disease. I am well aware that there are many learned men who say there 
is no such disease, yet I know by forty years' experience the truth of what I write. 
The animal has a staring look and a yellowish deposit in the corners of the eyes next 
the nose, grinds its teeth, hair stands up, tail soft two or three inches from the end, 
bowels varying from costive to laxative. This continues sometimes for years, and is 
attended at times with loss of ai)petite and strength. The pith of the horn decays 
and is discharged at the nose, and finally the membrane over the brain gives way and 
death ensues. Cure: Cut two inches off the end of the tail to start the blood, and the 
bone will be found lacking. Take one-half pint of sharp cider vinegar, put in a table- 
spoonful of black peper and same of salt ; dissolve well. Then take the animal by the 
horn and nose while some one injects one-half gill of the liquid in each ear. If very 
bad, so that the animal is down, bore the horns with a spike-gimlet, and inject some of 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 25 

the liquid with a syringe. Give a tablespoonful of copperas and saltpeter in a ball or 
mash every day for a week, then every other day for another weeli. Sometimes a cow 
will be in full liosh and drop a calf in midsummer, give plenty of milk, and do well 
for a few days ; the next day give no milk, and perhaps not be able to get up at all. 
For this trouble give the above treatment, with an occasioual slice of fat pork. Let 
the chill be taken from the water she driuka, and a cure will be effected. Garget is a 
very troublesome disease in milch cows. The cow becomes feverish, the udder espe- 
cially. Sometimes the milk will be streaked with blood, and again appear hunjjy, or 
both. Wash the bag with bitter herbs steeped in vinegar. Give a tablesi»oouful of 
poke-root, pounded tiue, in a bran-mash, twice a day. Also, insert a seaton in the 
brisket with a piece of poke-root. 

Hog cholera is increasing to an alarming extent. The first symptom is generally 
observed in the animal carrying his uose near the ground, with a generally dull ap- 
pearance, slight cough at first, and swelling under the throat. Some are first takeu 
with severe purging. All these symptoms increase in intensity until death ensues, 
which usually occurs in from twenty-four to thirty-six hours. No cure has yet been 
found. Strong wood-ashes and copperas are regarded as jireventives. I have cured 
some by drenching with copi^eras, sulphur, and asafetida. 

James C. Dustan, Y. S., Morristown, Morris Coimty, IsTew Jersey, 
says: 

The appearance in this section of a new and uunsually fatal disease among hor.ses 
has prompted me to report to you some of the facts connected therewith. It may be 
more common in other parts of the country, but here it is new to our profession. The 
first case occurred about the middle of last month in the adjacent village of Madison, 
and up to the present time twenty-one horses have been attacked by the disease in that 
place. Of that number eight were under my professional care. Four of these have 
died and the others have recovered. Of the remaining thirteen, ouly one has recov- 
ered. The disease is of short duration, lasting, in the cases that prove fatal, from two 
or three days to one week. The general symiitoms are as follows : For the first day or 
two the horse seems inclined to droop, and, without any apparent cause, acts tired. 
Then a difficulty in swallowing is noticeable, which increases as the disease advances. 
The fever is high ; obstinate constipation ot the bowels, and almost complete suppres- 
sion of the urine, the latter fact being ascertained by means of the catheter. The man- 
ner in which the act of swallowing was effected made it clear to ray mind that the 
inability to do so was caused by a partial paralysis of the muscles of deglutition. 
Generally, when the horse lies down, he is unable to rise without assistance. There is 
also a marked tremor in the left fore shoulder, and, although not constant, has been no- 
ticed by me in all the cases I have seen. Post-mortem examinations in four cases have 
disclosed the following anatomical lesions: The most prominent is an intense inflam- 
mation of the larynx, extending for some distance down the trachea. The kidneys 
were found to be in a state of congestion, and in one case considerably hypertrophied. 
There was also found inflammation in the nasal fossic, but more particularly in the 
left. The brain, oesophagus, and spinal cord were found in a state of perfect health, as 
were also all the other organs of the body. I regard the disease as one of blood-poi- 
soning, introduced into the system from the atmosphere, and, as far as I have been able 
to ascertain, it resembles in a striking degree diphtheria in the human being. 

My treatment con.sists, first, of a blister of cantharides applied to the larnyx region, 
and kept open for several days by mild mercurial ointment; dry cuppingover the kid- 
neys ; the administration of linseed-oil as a laxative, aided, if necessary, by injections, 
and the following prescription given every four hours, viz : five drops extract of bella- 
donna, one ounce of water, and one-half drachm of iodide of potassium. This is for 
one dose. 

To the above prescription was added, for fever, tincture of aconite, and after a day or 
two, dropping the aconite, I gave quinine sulph. grs. x, every three hours. The use 
of iodide of potassium should be continued until the functions of the kidneys have 
been fully restored. I also found benefit from the free use of chlorate of potash. The 
diet should be of the most nourishing kind, and by every possible means the sti'ength 
of the animal should be .supported. As a drink, hay-tea is preferable to plain water. 
But the best treatment I could give, together with careful nursing, shows as a result 
a fatality of 50 per cent. 

Hod. a. L. Pridemore, Jonesville, Lee County, Virginia, says : 

The hog cholera has been among us for years. It was first brought here by drovers 
from Kentucky. It prevails to a greater or less extent every year ; some years kill- 
ing all (or nearly all) the hogs in some neighborhoods. I have known instances where 
three hnndred head of bogs were turned in upon corn-fields, the usual mode of feeding 
here, say August 20, and by the 1st of September the disease would break out and 



26 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

they would die at the rate of eight or ten daily, until, perhaps, there would not he 
twenty hogs left. Some of the diseased auiiuals would plue away and dry up, as if 
with a fever; some would die with spasms; in others, the flesh would, so to speak, 
rot and slough oft' to the very bone; a foot, ear, tail, or nose drop off'. Some wonld 
have symptoms like a person with violent vomiting and purging. These rarely ever 
recovered with us. This year in this county the disease, thus far, has been very mild. 
Poultry are subject to a disease also called cholera here. They drop off the roost 
dead, and fall over suddenly in the day-time. Sometimes the disease will kill all the 
fowls on a farm at the rate of eight or ten per day. No remedy has ever been found 
for either of these diseases. Their causes are wholly unknown to us, though there 
are many conjectures. 

Mr. A. C. Ellis, Hartford, Van Buren County, Michigan, says : 

Hogs have been affected with various diseases in this locality. The disease com- 
monly known as cholera is, perhaps, the most fatal. Its duration is generally .short, 
fatted hogs usually surviving but a few hours. The remedies have been various and 
generally unavailing, so far as my own information extends. As the result of frequent 
experiments I am prepared to give, as the most effective remedy I have ever seen tried, 
a simple receipt furnished me by one of the largest hog-dealers in this county. It 
consists of one pound of lime, one ounce of spirits of turpentine, and one-half ounce 
of pulverized saltpeter, mixed with soaked coru or slops. This amount is sufficient 
for twenty hogs, and, for a cure, should be given every other day ; as a preventive, 
about twice a week. 

There is also a fatal disease among hogs here similar to quinsy, affecting the throat 
principally. It is genarally confined to young hogs. I know of no remedy. They 
usually survive from ten to fifteen days. At least 50 per cent, of the cases prove fatal. 

No disease is common among sheep, save the old one, known as rot. Experience has 
proven that one of the best recipes for this trouble is the killing off or clearing out of 
the older ones of the flock, and frequent changing and crossing of stock. 

Of the feathered tribe, chickens and turkeys are both subject to a disease known as 
cholera. The remedies used are various but unavailing. The duration of the disease 
is generally short ; in fact, the attack is frequently instantly fatal. At least 90 per 
cent, of those attacked die. 

Mr. S. Woodward, Ohio County, Kentucky, says : 

There is but one class of animals in this locality subject to diseases which have not 
been common for years, and that is swine. A great many of these animals have died 
of a disease called cholera. The symptoms are various. Sometimes the hog will be 
attacked with purging, and again extreme constipation will prevail. Sometimes the 
hog will die suddenly, and in other cases it may linger until it becomes a skeleton. On 
an average about one-half of those attacked with the disease die. There are seldom 
any remedies tried, as we think they do no good. The disease is not confined to any 
certain season of the year. In this locality we have had none of it since January and 
February last, but we hear it mentioned as existing in other localities. 

I am of the opinion that a great many hogs die from the eff'ects of lice, especially 
those lingering cases. These vermin find them an easy prey in their v.-eakeaed and 
emaciated condition. 

Mr. G. H. Lucas, State Line City, Warren County, Indiana, says : 

A prevalent and fatal disease among hogs in this locality is known as cholera. The 
first symptoms are running off at the bowels, which is generally accompanied by a 
hacking cough. The animal becomes stupid, and refuses to eat. As the disease pro- 
gresses it becomes very poor and emaciated, and stands around with its body drawn 
up as if in pain. The disease usually proves fatal in from one to four days. The fol- 
lowing remedy for the disease has been used with moderate success in this neighbor- 
hood, viz : 

One pound each of sulphur and madder, one-half pound of saltpeter, one-fourth 
pound of antimony, and one ounce of asafetida. This should be mixed with a pail- 
ful of slop or milk, and three tablespoon fuls given once a day. 

I am satisfied the disease is contagious, and all infected hogs should be removed 
from the well ones, and those that die should either be burned or buried very deep in 
the ground. 

Mr. H. Shugart, Marion, Grant County, Indiana, says : 

There is a very destructive disease among hogs here, called cholera, but in my opin- 
ion it is lung-fever. No remedy has been discovered that I am aware of. It is 
eaid that hogs do best, and are less liable to be attacked by the disease, that have 
clear, running water to drink, and are kept from a mud-wallow. This is a mistake, 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 27 

as more hogs die from the disease tliafc are kept along water-courses than among those 
that are kept at a distance from creeks. 

We also have what is called cholera among fowls. Many of those engaged in rais- 
ing poultry are of the opinion that most of the diseases among fowls are brought on 
by the presence of lice. A thorough and frequent wash of the coops and sheds with 
strong lime-water will soon cause the disappearance of tliis vermin. The hoards of 
the sheds shonld bo set upright, and the edges not allowed to touch each other ; then, 
if the roostiiig-poles are smootlily shaven and the above wash frequently used, the 
fowls will never bo troubled with lice. 

Mr. George W. Adams, Leavenworth, Crawford County, Indiana, 
says : 

There is no prevailing disease among farn\-animals in this county at present, except 
among hogs, in which class an occasional case of cholera is reported. 

Mr. John K. Bevis, Taylorville, Bartholomew County, Indiana, says : 

I will give yon my own experience with the hog-cholera, as it is called. It first 
made its appearance on my farm in September, 1857, when I lost sixty head. I ex- 
amined quite a number, and found them all spotted on the belly, and the throat full 
of clotted blood. It appeared again on my farm in June, 1875, when I lost ninety 
Lead. The disease worked different from its coui'se in 1857. Some would lose their 
appetite and dwindle away to mere skeletons before death eusiied, while others would 
die in a few hours; some would sqneal as if in great pain, and would soon die; others, 
again, would take spasms, which would last for some days, and then die. I used cop- 
peras, sulphur, madder, turpentine, antimony, coal-oil, in fact all the remedies that I 
could hear of, but without effect ; at least, all that I doctored died. 

Recently, I have come to the conclusion that the rooter on the nose was put there for 
a purpose, and have not rung or cut the nose of any swine since. I have no reason to 
complain, as my hogs have since done well. 

As to chickens, they seem to all die on the roost, as they are found dead in the morn- 
ing. Since I commenced giving them copperas and sulphur in their feed and water I 
have had very good luck. 

Mr. Elizur Smith, Lee, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, says : 

My cows are more or less subject to fouls in the feet in wet weather. I make use of 
tar and spirits of turpentine, but if you have a better remedy I would bo glad to 
huve it. 

Mr. C. A. Adams, Chillicothe, Livingston County, Missouri, says: 

This year the diseases among swine have proved more fatal among young pigs and 
fat hogs, farmers having lost from one to one hundred head. The remedies are so vari- 
ous and unreliable that they are not worth mentioning. It is very doubtful, indeed, 
if a remedy ever will be discovered until the sanitary condition of the hogs is improved. 
The animals are affected in different ways — some purge and vomit, while others cough 
violently. Some refuse to eat, and soon pine away and die. As the disease is most 
fatal in large herds and in filthy surroundings, it would seem to the interest of the 
farmers to look to the natural cause; and, if possible, remove it by confining a less 
number together and keeping their surroundings clean. Feed charcoal freely, and on 
the first symptoms of a cough give one teaspoonful of red pepper to each one hundred 
pounds weight of the animal. Given in slop, it has proved very snccessfnl with me. 

I have lost but few hogs since I removed thera from the old straw-stacks, manure- 
piles, old sheds, and from under old buildings, where their quarters could not be cleaned 
out. A change of feed from corn will always prove beneficial among hogs when dis- 
eases are prevalent. 

Poultry will come under about the same conditions as hogs. Too many are kept 
together, and too little attention is paid to cleanliness. 

There is no veterinary surgeon here who has given any particular attention to dis- 
eases incident to hogs and chickens. 

Mr. U. r. Click, Columbus, Bartholomew County, Indiana, says : 

Hog cholera, the prevailing disease among swine in this locality, is generally caused 
by impurity of air, foul feeding, filthy pens, &c. The disease is soon banished by clean 
pens, pure water, and cleanly habits. 

Cholera is also prevalent and very fatal among fowls. This disease is also the result 
of foul pens and improper feed. 



28 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. A. M. Sanderson, Leesburg, Kosciusko County, Indiana, says: 

A friend of mine had a fine lot of hogs this fall, varying from pigs to fat hogs. He 
has lost nearly all of them by some disease, probably the cholera. They were on wheat 
stubble after harvest, and then on clover pasture. When first taken their evacuations 
were dry and hard. This condition continued about three days, when diarrhea would 
set in, and they would die within a few hours thereafter. Nothing was found to do 
them anj' good. 

There is a new disease in this locality among horses, called by farriers pink-eyed 
distemper. The horse, within a few hours after the atiack, will become stone blind. 
Some get over it, while others only partially recover their sight. The eyes matter and 
run a great deal. The treatment thus far has been merely experimental — what would 
seem to relieve one would not benefit another. 

Chickens in some localities have nearly all died of cholera. In my own experience 
I have found sulphur the only remedy. Mix with corn-meal and feed. With this rem- 
edy I have cured fowls that could not stand up. 

Mr. O. W. Hannum, Leavenworth, Crawford County, Indiana, says : 

I have been dealing in stock in four or five different counties, and find all classes of 
farm auiaials healthy except hogs. A disease exists among this class of stock which 
carries them off very fast. Many people regard it as a malignant type of lung fever or 
pneumonia. I lost forty-five head of hogs by this disease one year ago. No remedy is 
known. 

Mr. James A. Martin, Salem, Washington County, Indiana, says : 

I know of no disease among horses as fatal as the lung fever. I had one die with it 
some time since. It was taken with a hacking cough and difficult breathing, and lived 
seven days. I know of no remedy that I cau recommend, for all die that are attacked 
by the disease here. This disease is not as common as the bots, but is more fatal. A 
lump of alum, the size of a walnut, given to a horse, will generally cure the bots. 

The only disease existing among hogs is cholera, and there are various cures for it. 
Equal parts of sulphur and copperas, mixed in sweet milk, is the most effective remedy 
I have tried. Some have tried coal-oil, castor-oil, poke root, and also patent medicines. 
None of these remedies, however, are regarded as a sure and permanent cure. 

Chicken cholera is common among the poultry here. Soot mixed with corn dough 
is the best remedy we have tried. 

Mr. J. D. Guthrie, Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky, says : 

Hog cholera, in its incipient state, with shoats and half-grown hogs, usually begins- 
with constipation, a symptom easily discoverable by their droppings, which are hard 
and marble-like. This is followed by a dry, hacking cough and internal fever, which 
increases as the disease progresses. These symptoms are attended with a gradual loss 
of appetite. At this stage of the disease their movements become listless ; they droop 
their noses toward the ground, and are shy of approach. The duration of these symp- 
toms depends upon the severity of the attack. In some cases they continue six or eight 
days, and in others two or three weeks, with gradual loss of flesh until they look like 
walking skeletons. I refer now to the premonitory symptoms. After the disease be- 
comes epidemic they frequently die within twenty-four hours after the first indication* 
manifest themselves, without any regard to flf-sh or previous condition. In the latter 
stages of the disease they have a loose, discolored discharge, which soon terminates 
with thumps. This is a palpitation iu the flank at the drawing of each breath. At this 
stage the disease is easily imparted toothers, having become epidemic in form, and so 
fatal as to carry its victims off within a few hours. The remedies that prove effica- 
cious in the first stages of the disease are worthless in the last. I would here recom- 
mend the removal of the diseased hogs from the rest of the herd, aud the remedies 
hereafter mentioned given to the remainder. From my standpoint I am of the opinion 
that cholera in swine, in the last stages, is incurable, uuless it be iu isolated cjxses. I 
hold that constipation of the bowels is cholera in an incipient state, aud whatever 
remedies would remove the cause the effect must necessarily follow. I speak only from 
my own experience and observation, which practice has fully demonstrated to be, in 
the main, correct. 

I have been very succe.ssfnl in relieving my herd of constipation by giving one-half 
pound of calomel to fifty shoats, on corn moistened so that it would adhere to the 
grain. This should be repeated at intervals of twenty-four hours, until the bowels 
are opened by the medicine. Old bacon, grease, or linseed-oil will have the same effect,, 
the only difference being that calomel will regulate the liver, while the others will 
only relieve constipation. Grease or linseed-oil, if given in doses of one-half pint, will 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 29 

cure thumps, which is the last stage of cholera in a constipated form. Hog3 fed on 
apples, pumpkins, or following after cattle fed on corn, are not liable to cholera. A 
neighbor last spring purchased one hundred head of stock-hogs from the pens at Louis- 
ville, Ky. Soon after getting them home they commenced dying at the rate of four or 
live per day. He procured a large kettle and connnenced cooking and feeding the dead 
to the living hogs. Tlie result was that he saved sixty out of the lot of one hundred. 
Others have fed the dead carcasses of sheep, cattle, and horses to hogs aifected with 
cholera, and the result was a cessation of the disease. Another acquaintance keeps 
his hogs well 8Ui)plied with wood-aslies and salt, at the rate of two parts of ashes to 
one part of salt, which he says is a certain preventive. As all these remedies have the 
same tendency, namely, the opening of the bowels, we can consistently arrive at but one 
conclusion, and that is that, the premises are correct and the applications act as au 
antidote to the disease known as hog cholera. I sincerely trust your inquiries may 
result in the discovery of something that will stay the further progress of a disease 
fraught with so jnnch injury to the agricultural interests of our country. 

Tlie first symptoms of chicken cholera are observed in discharges of a thin, yellow 
nature, followed by an iucliuatioa to sleep, whether sitting or standing. These condi- 
tions continue until two or three days before death, and during this time the disease 
is very contagious. The most simple remedy is to give the flock water well impreg- 
nated with alum. This will usually stay the malady. The sick ones should be given 
a pill of pulverized alum the size of a small pea, inclosed in wheat dough. If the first 
does not produce the desired result, repeat the dose at intervals of a few hours. The 
fowl, when laboring under the disease, has a high internal fever and insatiable thirst, 
but no appetite or desire to eat. 

Mr. John Q. A. Sieg, Corydon, Harrison County, Indiana, says : 

We have but few malarious or contagious diseases among farm-animals in Southern 
Indiana. Incident to the hog, we have what is known as cholera, quinsy, and measles. 
The cholera, in my judgment, is typhoid fever, and is very contagious. I have exam- 
ined some hogs that died with what was called cholera. The symptoms seem, from 
what I have noticed, to be about as follows : First, prostration with dullness and stu- 
pidity ; in most cases diarrhcea with chilliness and iri'egular fever. Subsequently there 
is an increase of the cerebral difiSculties, dry skin, tenderness of the abdomen, partic- 
ularly the sides of the same, au eruption of purple spots on the abdomen and thorax, 
and generally a cough. Usually, in eight or ten days, mortification of the bowels sets 
in, and the hog dies. Now and then a hog gets well, bnt it is an unusual occurrence. 
All remedies so far are failures. I would advise keeping all hogs inclosed and not per- 
mit them to run at large ; then if a hog should become diseased, isolate it immedi- 
ately. Before adopting ttiis plan I lost a great many hogs, but since practicing it I have 
lost but very few, and what I did lose were infected from hogs lying around inclosures 
where mine were confined. I am therefore of the opinion that if this rule was adopted 
by farmers generally, that what is known as hog cholera would almost disappear. 

Quinsy, I think, is the same disease as that which afflicts human beings, and requires 
about the same treatment. Maasles never kills a hog, but if butchered while afflicted 
with the disease, the meat is unfit for use. 

In sheep no disease except foot-rot prevails, and that ouly occurs in low, damp 
ground or by stabling in a damp, unhealthy shelter. As a remedy, the sheep shbuld 
be removed to high, dry ground and separated from the well ones. Then take carbolic 
acid, weaken it with water, and inject the solution into the feet of the sheep every 
other day until a cure is effected, which usually takes from six to ten days. 

Chicken cholera prevails to a greater extent than any other disease, and causes more 
loss. It is not confined to chickens alone, but aftocts ducks, gaese, and turkeys alike. 
No remedies have been discovered that have proved of any banefit. I think good, 
clean, healthy apartments, with plenty of nutritious food and a good range, will greatly 
tend to prevent the disease. I have noticed that during the butchering season on the 
farm fowls are entirely free from disease, and I would infer from this that plenty of 
meat tends to prevent many of the maladies to which they are subject. 

Mr. W. H. Teobinger, Whitesborough, Tex., says : 

Cattle are very healthy, except those imported from Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Ohio, &c. These are nearly all attacked with a fever within one or two months after 
their arrival, and at least one-half of them die. The symptoms are high fever, costive 
bowels, loss of appetite, and general listlessness. The duration of the disease is from 
one to two weeks. Remedies are various, but none very successful. Post-mortem ex- 
aminations usually show signs of enlargement of liver and spleen, with inflammatory 
action of stomach and bowels. We have no reliable remedy. 

Hogs have been very liable to disease for five or six years. Almost every disease that 
attacks animals of this class is pronounced cholera, but I have seen but few cases that 



30 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

could legitimately be thus called. The symptoms of the majority of cases that have 
come under my observatiou seem to bo somethiug like the disease called " qaiusy," a 
swelling of the glands of the jaw. The duration of the disease is usually ouly a day 
or two. The remedies are such as calomel, scarification of the afl'ected parts, mix vom- 
ica, and even strychnine. 

We are very much troubled with disease among all kinds of fowls, which, I think, is 
■well named cholera. The symptoms are excessive purging of the bowels and loss of 
appetite. They die within one or two days. The remedies are .as various as the whims 
of men. The most successful that have couie under my observation are madder, capsi- 
cum, calomel, and the mineral acids. Nitro-muriatic acid has considerable reputation 
as a preventive. Dose from one to two dro])s. 

Mr. T. M. Scott, Melissa, Collier County, Texas, says : 

All classes of farm animals are singularly free from diseases here. Occasionally a 
horse dies from blind staggers, brought on by carelessness in feeding nusonud corn ; 
very rarely one is lost by colic from eating unripe corn. With the exception of tho 
epizootic some years since we have had no i>revailing diseases among horses iu this 
county for fifteen or twenty years. Native cattle are also free from any prevailing 
diseases. Aged imported cattle are very apt to die within the year they are brought 
here; it is not known from what cause. Cattle under one year old are almost sureta 
live and do well. 

I have heard of cholera now and then among hogs, but could never trace it to a re- 
liable source. There has been none to my knowledge iu this neighborhood for twenty- 
five years. In some neighborhoods cholera prevails among chickens. This is the only 
disease known among fowls here. No remedy is known or used. 

Mr. J. A. Applegate, Mount Carmel, Franklin County, Indiana, 

says : 

The symptoms of hog cholera, so called, as given in the Agricultural Rei)ort for 
187.5, page 429, is better than I could give, and is an exact description of the malady 
■which robs the country of millions of dollars annually. All other stock are exempt 
from any particular form of disease in this county, except fowls, which die of cholera, 
a disease which I am not able to properly describe, but which, on my farm, we have 
always counteracted by placing copperas iu the driuking-troughs. It has not, however, 
proved a specific among my neighbors. 

We regard hog cholera as very contagious and incurable. It may be prevented. It 
would be greatly lessened if swine were not permitted to run on the highways. 

Mr. Nixon Henley, Monrovia, Morgan County, Indiana, says : 

Among sheep we have a disease known as paper-skin, which has proved fatal in most 
cases. Scours is the first symptom of the disease. The sheep loses flesh and dwindles 
away very rapidly ; the skin becomes thin and apparently rotten — at least it is very 
tender. The disease is more prevalent among lambs than among older sheep. Those 
attacked usually die within two or three weeks. No remedy has been discovered. 

The all-prevailing disease among hogs is cholera. It is ^'■ery fatal, the losses being 
at least 50 per cent, of those attacked. No remedy has been found that will do to rely 
upon as a certainty. 

Among chickens there are several prevailing diseases, the most prominent and fatal 
of which is known as cholera. Roup and gapes prevail to a limited extent. 

Mr. Charles Laramore, Knox County, Indiana, says : 

A few cases of hog cholera have occurred in this vicinity recently, but the disease is 
so well known that a description is not deemed necessary. 

There have also been a few cases of a disease known as " black leg " among cattle. 
The animal generally becomes atifected in one or the other of its legs, is very dull, and 
does not seem desirous of moving about. The part aflected is usually swollen, and on 
removing the hide, after death, the diseased part presents a bloody and almost black 
appearance. Sometimes a fluid substance is found beneath the skin, aud the flesh is 
then of a yellowish or pale bloody color, and presents the appearance of jelly. 
Animals attacked wi'th the disease generally linger from one to three days. 

A few horses have died of a disease whicli puzzles the horse-doctors of this locality.. 
It has generally proved fatal. The symptoms are a loss of appetite and wasting of the 
flr-sh without any ajiparent show of pain. The result is generally death within from 
two to six weeks. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 31 
Mr. B. I. Van Court, O'Fallou, Saint Clair County, Illinois, says : 

The only disease amonj^ the farm auimals in our section, that gives the fiirniers 
much couceru, is that aiiccting our liogs. There is no other disease of an uncommon 
character ali'ecting at present any otlier chiss of our domestic animals. There has 
been some Texas fever in a few exposed localities, but nothing serious, and no spread 
of the contagion. The effects of the catarrhal epidemic (epizootic) among our horses 
is very plain in the entailment of a disease resembling in many cases bronchitis. There 
have been some cases of this disease, when taken in its early stages, that have yielded 
to the usual remedies, and where the animals have been handled with ])roper intelli- 
gence ; but where there has been neglect in early and prompt treatment the disease 
soon passed into a chronic stage, and thence from bad to worse until the lungs became 
involved, and a disease generated as dangerous and equally as contagious as glanders, 
and, indeed, very much like that fearful malady. On the discover}^ of those secondary 
symptoms the animal should be at once removed to some isolated portion of the farm, 
where contact with other animals would be impossible, or the animal destroyed at 
once, which, perhaps, would be best. 

Our swine are affected by two apparently well-marked diseases. In one case the 
bowels are very much relaxed, and the stomach weak and unable to perform its func- 
tions. This disease is called hog cholera. It can be cured, and will yield to the usual 
remedies if taken in its early stages. Tlie other disease is exactly the reverse. Instead 
of a relaxed state of the bowels, there is a stubborn constipation and very high fever. 
The animal is droopy in the early stages of the disease; it lies around in isolated 
places and is hard to arouse ; but at this stage it can be induced to eat, and if proper 
remedies are immediately administered the disease can be controlled. However, if 
neglected, death closes the scene in about ten days. 

In 1874, my hogs (Black Berkshire breed) became affected with the disease. I had 
twenty head, twelve of them being about eighteen months old, and the others about 
ten. They were running in a wood-pasture in which there was a verj^ heavj^ acorn 
mast that season, upon which diet they seemed to be doing well, and it was my inten- 
tion to let them run there until about the middle of October and then put them up to 
fatten. About the tenth of October I found some of them sick. I drove them up 
home and gave them some corn, of which but few of them would eat. I sep.aratedthe 
sick ones and turned the others oat into the pasture again. I discovered that the hogs 
had high fever, and were laboring under a verj^ costive state of the bowels. I noticed 
their efforts to evacuate, but with the most scanty results. Indeed, the bowels seemed 
almost totally obstructed. They had a hacking cough also, which is always a dangerous 
symptom in all hog diseases. 

I concluded that the main trouble, or a very patent cause at least, was the obstructed 
condition of the bowels, caused by the stringency of an exclusive acorn diet. I pat 
up one hog in the pen for treatment, after all efforts had failed in inducing them to eat. 

I drenched the hog I had in the pen with common epsom salts, without any effect. I 
then repeated the dose, which soon produced the proper result. The animal seemed to 
be very weak — it could not stand upon its feet. I then gave it adecoction of Peruvian 
bark, calumba root and a little iiaregoric. This seemed to strengthen and quiet the 
bowels. After the animal had rested a few hours and had somewhat recovered from 
the effects of the severe purging, I gave it some corn-meal mixed with milk, made 
quite thin ; but I had to force it down its throat. The hog soon began to revive. I 
gave it corn-meal and milk and added a little sulphate of iron, of which it would eat. 
In a few days it was well, and required no more extra care. The other hogs all died. 
I would here state that I have had no disease among my hogs since, but I attribute it 
to the fact that I have given them pulverized sulphate of iron about twice a week, 
mixed in corn-meal or bran mash, during the fall season. 

In conclusion I would state that I will always believe that the constipated con- 
dition of the bowels was a prominent predisposing cause in the development of this 
disease, while malarial influences were acting at the same time. There are evidences 
abundant, to me at least, that the malarial condition of our atmosi^here, particularly 
in the fall season, has mnch to do with diseases of farm animals, in this locality at least. 
Wiieu the immense growth of vegetation has attained its highest degree and begins to 
decay, there are miasmatic conditions of the air that not only very seriously affect 
human life, but animal life as well ; and while we are aware that the internal organ- 
ism of the hog comes nearer to that of the human than any other animal of the farm, 
I cannot see why they would not be affected with like conditions of the atmos- 
phere. Ptrmit me to call you attention to another fact which, I think, is well worth 
consideration, viz : There are but few, if, any, of the diseases common among our hogs 
found north of what may be termed the malarial line, say 43° north latitude. 

Mr. T. H. Collins, Paoli, Orange County, Indiana, says : 

There is no disease which affects farm animals in this section except that generally 
known as hog cholera, which is very prevalent. The animal affected lirst refuses to 



32 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

eat, appears restless, and after the first day becomes stupid and inclined, when let 
alone, to lie in its bed; is feverish, aud appears to be afflicted in much the same way 
as a human being suft'ering with typlioid fever. About one-half of those affected 
die. The others improve very rapidly after the disease is worn out, which takes about 
two weeks. Tliere is no known remedy. Some practice feeding fresh meat, which, in 
a few cases, is reported as having proved beneficial. A change of location has, in 
nearly every instance, produced a cure. I have, for the past teu years, been surrounded 
on all sides by the disease, yet have had no case of this or other maladies among my 
hogs. I attribute this to the fact that my hogs have had good care and plenty to eat, 
a clean bed and large range, and pure water to diiuk, witli an abundauca of skim-milk 
and other refuse n-om the dairy, together with a feed of refuse from the slaughter- 
house once a month. 

Mr. M. W. WiLMETH, McKinuey, Collier County, Texas, says : 

Among horses, we have all the old diseases known to farriers, such as botts, colic, 
&c. ; but our most fatal local disease is known as blind staggers. An attack of this 
disease, on an average, lasts about twelve hours. The animals, so far as my observa- 
tion enables me to judge, always die of the disease. Boring into the lower part of the ■ 
forehead, between the eyes, has been tried, but without success. All other remedies 
have alike proved abortive. Spanish fever Jalso prevails at times. The animal has fever, 
and is much affected in the loins ; lingers sometimes months before dying. In some 
cases the disease is cured by bathing the loins in strong brine. This disease is not so 
common as formerly. 

We have, among cattle, the common diseases known as bloody and dry murrain, both 
of which may be cured by purging the animal with rhubarb. This disease proves very 
fatal unless attended to in time, say within twenty-four hours after the attack. We 
have, also, what is known as Spanish fever. The animal is taken with a high fever, is 
much affected in the loins, and has short breathing. Cured by using a strong tea made 
of Jamestown weed, either of the seeds or leaves, and drenching the animal with a 
quart. 

We have had cholera here recently among our hogs. It is a thing of late date with us, 
and is always fatal, as no cure has as yet beeu discovered. We also have among our 
hogs a kiud of lung fever, which is very destructive. It makes its attack like Spanish 
fever among horses and cattle. Some cases have been cured by the use of calomel 
and arsenic. 

Among fowls we also have what is known as cholera, though this name seems to be 
applied to all diseases among chickens. Alum, cojiperas, &c., are used with some 
effect. 

Mr. Samuel Warmoth, Princeton, Gibson County, Indiana, says : 

The only animals affected with diseases in this county this year, or for several years 
past, are the hogs. The disease is known as cholera, aud has this year carried off at least 
one-half the hogs in the county. Young pigs are generally the tirst to be attacked, aud 
very often they all die. Then it attacks the older hogs, and, as a rule, half of them 
die — sometimes more and sometimes less. 

The disease does not act the same in every case. Some of them are severely purged 
and lose their appetites aud refuse to eat. Some die suddenly, while others will live 
for weeks moping about without eating anything. Some of tiiem will lose a portion 
of their flesh, which falls off the bones while they are yet alive. 

Farmers have different ways of treating the disease, but I believe there is no cure 
after the malady has passed a certain stage. I thiuk it is brought on by worms, aud 
therefore, if the worms could be kei)t oat of the liogs they would not be liable to the 
disease. Salt and hickory ashes, with sulphur and copperas, will be found good pre- 
ventives. Any one who will find a sure cure or preveutive will deserve the thanks of 
the American people. 

Mr. J. D. McClanahan, Falmouth, rentUeton County, Kentucky, says : 

The best preventive that I have tried for hog cholera is soda-ash and barilla. I give 
a tablespoonful of this mixture to every six hogs. The way to prepare the mixture is 
to put the drugs in a kettle, add two or three gallons of water, heat until the medicine 
is dissolved, then make bran mash with the water. One dose a week is sufficient to keep 
hogs in a healthy condition ; however, last fall I found it necessary to give my fatten- 
ing-hogs a feed of this kind every day, for the reason that some of them showed con- 
tinued symptoms of disease. I lost but oue out of thirty-three, and that oue died on 
the same day that I put them up to fatten. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 33 

Mr. W. S. Haviland, Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky, says : 

In Augast, 18r>6, 1 lost about 30 per cent, of my hogs by cholera. I removed the re- 
mainder (about 85 head) from a blue-grass woodland panture, supplied with a creek 
of running water, to a dry u{)laud clover and timothy pasture having no water in it. 
They all seemed, at the time, to be more or less affected with the disease. I gave 
them all the corn they would eat, and regularly fed them six pounds of salt well stirred 
and mixed with fifty pounds of half-rotted, strong wood-ashes every seven days. They 
all got well, and I have never had any hogs do better than those eighty-five head did after 
their recovery. Of late years, while the disease is prevailing on adjoiniug farms to 
my own, I carefully notice my hogs, and when I discover lice or nits on theui I wash 
them with soap-suds made of strong country soap, about once in ten days until all ap- 
pearances of lice and nits have been removed. I then use soft soap, diluted with hot 
water to the thickness of thin molasses, besmear it over the head and neck of the hog, 
and put as much in the ears as I can, in order to drive out the lice. With this treat- 
ment I have succeeded in warding otf diseases among my hogs. I salt regularly every 
seven days, especially in dry hot weather, giving seven pounds of salt stirred and well- 
mixed with about fifty-five pounds of damp, half-rotted, strong wood-ashes to each ona 
hundred head of hogs. 

Mr. O. G. Brogle, Sparta, "White County, Tennessee, says: 

The only disease that has ever affected sheep in this locality is a kind of distemper, 
brought on I think by running on one pasture too long. In fact I am of the opinion 
that they are rather starved into it by having to graze over ground covered with their 
own filth. It is called rot by some persons, and snoffeLs by others. As a remedy, 
nothing will be found better than a change of pasture. For a severe case of snoffela 
a strong decoction of tobacco-juice, injected into the nostrils with a syringe, will 
relieve the animal very speedily. A second application is rarely necessary ; but should 
it be, once a week will be often enough to apply it. 

The most terrible and fatal disease we have to contend with is that of cholera among 
hogs. Its ravages are fearful during some seasons. As preventives, bluestone and 
copperas are used to some advantage. The preparation is made by dissolving one 
pound each of these ingredients in hot water, then mix a bran or meal mash and feed 
to one hundred head of hogs. A little salt should be added to make it palatable. If 
cholera prevails in a herd the above amount should be given twice a week, as it will 
perhaps be found as good a remedy as anything else. Ouce every ten days is oftea 
enough to use it as a preventive. 

For lice and scab in hogs, a preparation composed of equal parts of tar and lard, 
rubbed on the hog, and sulphur given internally, will soon free the animal of ver- 
min. Another remedy is to empty about one gallon of turpentine into their wallow, 
which will also soon free them of lice. 

Cholera among fowls also prevails here. We have used alum and sulphur, both as a 
preventive and cure, with good success. I give one-fourch of a pound of each in 
dough, to every one hundred grown chickens, once in two weeks, aud oftener if the 
disease prevails to an alarming extent. I also keep an abundance of fresh lime about 
their resting-places, where they can get at it without trouble. 

Mr. H. GooDLANDER, Milford, Kosciusko County, Indiana, says: 

Farm animals have fall range here and an abundance of mast, and consequently are 
free from disease. However, a few hogs died last spring of quinsy. Since locating 
here I have induced my neighbors to use sulphur freely as a preventive of disease 
among stock, with apparent success. Garlic is extensively used as a preventive of 
chicken cholera. 

Hog cholera is prevailing to some extent a few miles northeast of here, but an in- 
vestigation into the causes of the disease would be attended with some expense, which 
the owners of the stock would not be able to bear. If the goverament will pay the 
necessary expenses the investigation will be made. Your proposed investigation da- 
serves the highest commendalion. 

Mr. M. S. PuLLiA:vr, Melissa, Collier County, Texas, says: 

Farm stock of all kinds properly cared for in this vicinity are remarkably healthy. 
Chickens are subject to cholera. We use a handful of alum in their watering-troughs 
as a remedy, with apparent success. 

Mr. W. P. Render, Point Pleasant, Ohio County, Kentucky, says : 

Horses here are subject to various diseases. The first is weak eyes, which >eems to 
behereditary. As a preventive I \'^iuld recommjud more care in broddiug. Th^j sec- 
S. Ex. 35 3 



34 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

ond is fistula, which is an nlceratiou of the top of the withers, caused by a hurt or 
bruise of the main sinews of the neck where it joins the top of the shoulders. This 
disease is not necessarily fatal, though it re([uires a great deal of care and nursing 
after it has commenced running. There are various reniedif s. Some veterinarians 
burn with soft soap and whisky before the pus has formed, while others rub with tur- 
pentine and warm in with a hot iron. After the fistula has commenced running, a 
liniment made of May-apple root is the most effectual remedy. It should be used 
two or three times a day, with repeated washings with soap-suds. The third is te- 
tanus or lock-jaw, which is a fearful disease. The horse, when taken, shows a very 
restless disposition ; the head protrudes forward ; the eyes roll back and seem to siuk 
in the head; the hind feet are drawn under; the tail is extended, while all the muscles 
seem drawn to their utmost tension ; some fever, with short and hurried breathing. It 
Is caused sometimes by a hurt and at other times by overheating. Full 75 per cent, 
of the cases end fatally. Tlie attack is of short duration, lasting only from two to 
four days. We often bleed freely from the neck vein, which, in cases caused by over- 
heating, is sometimes etiectual. In cases caused by a hurt I am of the opinion there 
is no remedy whatever. 

With the exception of a few cases of abortion in cows, cattle and sheep are gener- 
ally healthy. 

Hogs are affected with a lameness which seems to be a forerunner of the cholera. 
They become lame in one or more of their feet ; have ulcers on their joints, which last 
in some cases twelve mouths. Some have sores at every joint and finally get well and 
make good hogs. We have no remedy. 

I have known some instances of chicken cholera whei'e all the fowls on a farm have 
died. They fall from their roosts and die during the night. Like cholera in the hog, 
there seems to be no remedy. 

The followiog elaborate paper on the "epizootic and enzootic dis- 
eases of swine," commonly known as " hog cholera," is from the pen of 
Prof. H. J. Detmers, V. S., Bellegarde, Kans. : 

It is well known that some very fatal and destructive diseases of an epizootic and 
enzootic character have been, and are yet, prevailing among swine in several parts of 
the Mississippi and Missouri valleys. The farmers, not understanding the morbid 
proceses, and not knowing or rather not seeing the causes which produced the mischief, 
and finding the diseases to be very malignant and epizootic (affecting many animals 
at the same time), bring them all under one head and give them the rather strange 
and decidedly improper appellation of " hog cholera," a name which has wrought a 
great deal of mischief. It conveys the very erroneous idea that the disease or dis- 
eases so called must be identical with, or at least similar to, the cholera of men, con- 
sequently very contagious, and a product, not of common and local, but of very un- 
common and extraordinary agencies and influences. As a natural consequence, the 
real causes, although near enough at hand, are overlooked and entirely disregarded, or 
considered as something innocent or out of the question ; and improbable, imagin- 
ary, and unknown or mysterious influences and agencies are looked upon as the possi- 
ble causes. As a further consequence, almost every one who suffers losses, instead of 
looking the facts squarely in the face by investigating the causes, endeavors to dis- 
cover specific remedies which do not exist and can never be found. Even State legis- 
latures have offered high premiums for such a discovery. All this diverts attention 
from the existing facts as revealed by the morbid process and by the morbid changes 
found at 2J08<-»ior<eJ/t examinations, which prejudices the minds of a great many ob- 
servers. 

About a year ago I spent (at the request of the Missouri State Board of Agriculture) 
nearly a month, from August 11 to September 4, in several counties of Missouri for the 
purpose of investigatiug those diseases of swine known to the farmers as " hog cholera." 
I examined several hundred sick animals in the counties of Jackson, La Fayette, and 
Saint Charles, and made, during the time mentioned, almost daily po^t-mortem exam- 
inations, not only of hogs that had just died, but also of animals affected with disease 
in every stage of development, which were killed by bleeding for that special purpose. 
The premises on which the diseased animals had been kept were carefuUy examined, 
and the care and treatment which they had received before getting sick, and the mode 
and manner in which they had been kept, were ascertained by diligent inquiry and 
observation. Hence considerable material, sufBcient to form an ox)inion aa to the 
nature and real causes of the disease, or rather diseases, was collected. 

Before I proceed further I wish to remark that I intend to restrict my report or com- 
munication to what I have seen and observed myself, knowing very well that still 
other diseases of swine, such, for instance, as various forms of anthrax, and even mor- 
bid affections caused by the presence of intestinal worms, are also called hog cholera 
by a great many farmers, and— one should scarcely believe it, but it is true — by a large 
number of agricultural papers. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 35 

Intestinal worms are a very common occurrence in an omnivoi-ons animal like a hog, 
but the same, if trachina spiralis and ci/sticercus ceUulosw (the well-known bladder- worm 
of td'nia solium) are exce])ted, seldom canse very serions damage, provided the hog is 
otherwise healthy, and is well kept and well fed. As to anthrax diseases, I do not 
think they are very freqnent in the West ; at any rate, I have had no occasion to ob- 
serve any of the various forms of anthrax plainly developed in swine since I have lived 
in Kansas (nearly five years). Excluding anthrax diseases, and disorders caused by 
intestinal worms, I have said tliat diseases (more than one) are called hog cholera, be- 
cause the symptoms of disease, and especially the morbid changes found at the post- 
mortem examinations, differ so much in ditfenmt patients as to make it impossible to 
assign them all to one and the same disease. Still, as the morbid process is essentially 
the same in every case, and the differences presented are mainly due to the fact that 
the seat of the disease is sometimes in one organ, or set of organs, an<l sometimes in 
another, the diseases may be considered as closely related to each other, and, from a 
practical standpoint, it may be advisable to treat the same as members of one family, 
or as different forms of one and the same morbid process. 

The nature of the diseases. — In a majority of cases the morbid process presents 
itself as a catarrhal- rheumatic, and in others as a gastric-rheumatic, or bilious-rheu- 
matic inHammation, and exhibits always, more or less plainly, a decidedly typhoid 
character. As a catarrhal-rheumatic inflammation it has its principal seat in the mu- 
cous membranes of the respiratory passages, in the substance of the lungs, in the pul- 
monal plenra, or serous membrane coating the external surface of the lobes of the lungs, 
in the costal pleura, or serous lining of the internal surface of the chest, in the dia- 
phragm, and in the pericardium or serous sac inclosing the heart. As a gastric-rheu- 
matic inflammation the principal seat of the disease is found in the abdominal cavity, 
but especially in the liver, in the spleen, in the large and small intestines, in the kid- 
neys and ureters, and in the peritoneum or serous membrane lining the interior surface 
of the abdominal cavity, and constituting the external coat of most of the organs sit- 
uated in that part of the body. The name of " hog cholera," therefore, as has been said 
before, is, in more than one respect, an ill-chosen one. It should be abolished at once, 
and a more appropriate one should take its place. As such an one I have proposed 
"Epizootic influenza of swine," for two reasons : 

First, the disease bears, in all its morbid features, and especially in the diversity of 
its forms, produced by the differences of the parts or organs which in different animals 
become the seat of the morbid process, a striking resemblance to the yet well-remem- 
bered epizootic influenza of horses, which, a few years ago, swept the whole country 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Still I do not wish to be understood as saying that 
the epizootic influenza of swine is identical with the epizootic influenza of horses. 
The resemblance, besides the epizootic spreading and the typhoid character, is limited 
to the symptoms and to the morbid changes. An important difference is presented by 
the greater malignancy of the disease of swine. 

Secondly, a name derived from a consjiicuous or characteristic symptom, or from an 
important and constant morbid change — pleuro-pneumonia of swine, for instance — 
might be more convenient if the main seat of the morbid process were always in the 
lungs and the pleura, or invariably the same in every patient; but, as the seat of the 
disease is not limited to the respiratory apparatus, but is also frequently formed in the 
parts and organs situated in the abdominal cavity, and sometimes even in the centers 
of the nervous system, a name should be chosen comprehensive enough to cover all the 
different forms in which the disease is able to make its appearance, and, at the same 
time, snfBcieutly distinct to prevent diagnostic confusion. Epizootic influenza of swine 
will, I think, answer the purpose. 

Symptoms and morbid changes. — As the morbid process has its seat in various 
parts or organs of the animal body, the disease presents itself in different forms and 
manifests itself by different symptoms, so that, at any rate, besides other complica- 
tions, two principal and two subordinate forms or varieties must be discriminated. 

1. The catarrhal-rheumatic form. — Thisis the most frequent of the two principal 
forms. The morbid process has its main seat in the respiratory organs ; the disease 
presents the features of a respiratory disorder, and either the catarrhal or the rheu- 
matic character predominates, or both are equally develojied. If the latter is the case, 
the whole respiratory apparatus may be found diseased. If the catarrhal character is 
the one most developed, the principal seat of the disease will be found in the larynx, 
in the windpipe, in the bronchial tubes, and, to a greater or less extent, in the sub- 
stance of the lungs. If the rheumatic form is the predominating one, the principal 
morbid changes occur in the serous membranes of the chest (the costal and pulmonal 
pleura and the pericardium), and also to some extent in the tissue of the lungs. In 
most cases, however, the catarrhal and rheumatic character are blended with each 
other, and the respiratory passages, the tissue of the lungs, and the serous membranes, 
or portions of them, are more or less diseased. Animals affected with the catarrhal- 
rheumatic form indicate the presence of the disease by a short and more or less hack- 
irg cough— generally one of the first symptoms— by difficulty of breathing,Ja parting 



36 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

or drawing motion of tlie flanks at each breath, by holding the head in a peculiar, 
stretched, and somewhat drooping position, by a slow and undecided gait, a peculiar 
hoarseness when caused to squeal, &c. The attending fever is severe enough to an- 
nounce its presence by unmistakable symptoms, such as accelerated pulsation, change- 
able temperature, &c. Some of the sick animals show at the beginning of the disease 
a tendency to vomit, and have diarrhea, while others are more or less constipated from 
the first, and remain so until the disease is ready to terminate in death. If the catarrhal 
character is the most prevailing, but especially if the morbid process has developed 
principally in the throat and in the windpipe, more or less outside swelling (quinsy) 
will make its appearance. 

At j>08<-mo»'/eni examinations some important morbid changes are fonnd invariably 
in the lungs. Portions of the same have become impervious to air by being gorged 
■with exudation. The diseased tissue has lost its spongy texture — has become heavier 
and more morbid, and similar in consistency to a piece of liver, a condition called 
" hepatization." In some cases the diseased or hepatized parts of the lungs present a 
uniform red or reddish-brown color, an indication that the exudation has been pro- 
duced and deposited in the tissue of all the diseased lobules at the same time, or with- 
out interruption. In other cases the diseased portions of the lungs present different 
colors ; some are red, some brown, and others gray or yellowish-gray, which gives the 
whole hepatized part a soiuewhat marbled appearance, and shows that the exudation 
has been produced and deposited at different periods. The gray hepatization, which, 
in such a case, is the oldest, and the brown, which comes next in age, frequently con- 
tain a few tubercles, and even here and there a small ulcer interspersed. Otherwise 
neither ulceration nor suppuration has been observed. Important morbid changes are 
usually also formed in the serous membranes of the thorax. The same consist in a 
more or less firm coalescence between parts of thepulmonal pleura and the correspond- 
ing parts of the costal pleura, or of the diaphragm, and in an accumulation of a larger 
or smaller quantity of straw-colored water or seruiu in the chest. In some cases, es- 
pecially those in which the rheumatic character has been very predominating, the 
morbid products of the diseased serous membranes are frequently very copious ; the 
adhesion between the costal and pulmonal pleura, or between the internal surface of 
the walls of the thorax and the external surface of the lungs, is usually very exten- 
sive, and parts of the posterior surface of the lungs are sometimes found firmly united 
with the corresponding surface of the diaphragm, or membranous partition between 
the chest and the abdominal cavity. The quantity of serous exudation or straw-col- 
ored water deposited in the chest is often very large, and the pericardium, too, in 
most cases, contains a larger or smaller quantity, sometimes enough to interfere seri- 
ously with the functions of the heart, and to constitute in that way the immediate 
cause of death. The blood is found to be thin and watery in every case, coagulating 
rapidly to a uniform but rather pale-red clot of a loose texture. Its quantity is always 
very small. 

2. The GASTPac-RHEUMATic FORM. — This form presents itself not quite so often as 
the catarrhal rheumatic, but is fully as malignant, and constitutes the second main 
form which the disease is found to assume. The morbid process has its principal seat 
and produces the most important morbid changes in some of the organs situated in 
the abdominal cavity, but especially in the liver, in the spleen or milt, in the kidneys 
and ureters, in the intestines or guts, ayd almost invariably in the peritoneum or 
serous membrane which lines the interior surface of the abdominal cavity and con- 
stitutes the external coat of nearly every intestine. 

The symptoms which present themselves while the animal is living differ not very 
conspicuously from these observed in the catarrhal-rheumatic form. The short, hack- 
ing cough, characteristic of the latter, is more or less wanting ; thediflficalty of breath- 
ing is less plain ; the weakness in the hindquarters, and the staggering or unsteady 
gait observed only in a limited degree in the catarrhal-rheumatic form are more con- 
spicuous, and the fever is fully as high in one form as in the other. In some cases the 
affected animals arch their backs, or rather the lumbal portion of the same, to a very 
high degree, and form an outline similar iu shape to an ~'. I observed this especially in 
such cases as those iu which the seat of the disease was found to be in the kidneys and 
in the ureters, and in which a large quantity of serum or water had accumulated in 
the abdominal cavity. Animals affected with the gastric or bilioue-rheumatic form are 
usually more or less constipated. The dung, which is voided in form of small, irregu- 
lar-shaped balls or lumps, is often coated with a layer of grayish or discolored mucus, 
and has the consistency of shoemaker's wax. Toward the end, however — that is, if 
the disease has a fatal termination — the costiveness usually disappears, and is followed 
by a profuse and very fetid diarrhea, which may be looked upon in every instance as 
a forerunner of death. 
The principal morbid changes, as I have found them, are as follows : 
1. Degeneration of the liver, lirought about by a copious exudation infiltrated into 
the tissue of that organ. Such a degeneration, although not a constant morbid change, 
is found quite often. In some (not very frequent") cases a few tubercles, and in others 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 37 

(still less frequent) even a few very small abscesses have been found imbedded in the 
diseased substance of the liver. 

2. Morbid enlargement of the spleen or milt. I found this change in nearly every 
case. In some cases the enlargement was not very conspicuous, but in others the spleen 
was more than three times its natural size, was perfectly gorged with blcod, presented 
a dark or blacli-browu color, and was so soft that a very slight pressure with a finger 
■was sufficient to sever its tissue. 

.3. In quite a large number of cases I found either one or both kidneys diseased and 
enlarged, and presenting an inflamed appearance. In one case both kidneys and both 
ureters exhibited a high degree of inflammation and considerable gangrenous destruc- 
tion. The latter, however, was probably not a consequence of the disease; the ani- 
mal had been drenched reiieatodly with oil of turpentine, and was the only one in 
which I found any gangrene. In another animal, which, by the way, was already con- 
valescent, and was killed by bleeding, I found one kidney enlarged to three times its 
natural size, its pelvis very much distended, and its funnel-sbaped ureter dilated to 
such an extent (where it proceeds from the kidney) as to present a diameter of nearly 
one inch and a half. The walls of the ureter were very thick and callous, esi e -ially 
at its anterior, funnel-shaped end, and the latter contained in its interior a serti-solid 
fibrous substance, which occupied the whole cavity, and extended even into the kid- 
ney. 

4. In some cases I found the membranes of the intestines or guts, but especially 
those of the jejunum or small intestines, the coecum, and colon or larger intes- 
tines, and also of the rectum, in a more or less inflamed and degenerated condi- 
tion. In two cases a whole convolution of the jejunum had united to an almost 
solid bunch. On openiug the latter I found in each case all three membranes, but 
particularly the external or serous membrane and the internal or mucous mem- 
brane verj' much swollen and degenerated, the passage neai-ly closed, and in a small 
cavity in the center of the bunch one (in one case) and two (in the other) large 
round worms (apparently Eehinorhynchus gigas) imbedded. In another case I found, be- 
sides other morljid changes, a few round worms in the stomach, and in the mucous 
membrane of the guts or intestines a large number of callous scars, such as are usually 
left behind where the gigantic Eehinorhynchus or hook-headed worm has been fastening 
itself These three cases are the only ones in which I have found any entozoa or worms 
in the digestive canal. 

5. In almost every case I found larger or smaller portions of the peritoneum or serous 
membrane, which lines the inner surface of the walls of the abdominal cavity and the 
external surface of nearly every intestine, swelled, more or less inflamed, and morbidly 
changed. In some cases even a coalescence between parts of the intestines, especially 
of jejunum and rectum, and the walls of the abdominal cavity had been affected. In 
one case a part of the jejunum had become firmly united to the lower border of the 
right lobe of the liver, and in another the whole rectum adhered so firmly to the upper 
wall of the pelvis and of the posterior part of the abdominal cavity, that it required 
the use of the knife to efiect a separation. 

6. In every animal that had been aff"ected with the gastric-rheumatic form I found a 
larger or smaller quantity of straw-colored water or serum, and small lumps and flakes 
of coagulated fibrine in the abdominal cavity ; in some cases the quantity was quite 
large, and in others comparatively small. 

As subordinate or complicated forms, I look upon such cases m which either one of 
the principal forms — the catarrhal-rheumatic or the gastric-rheumatic — is essentially 
modified by being complicated with an affection of tlie brain and its membranes, or 
with a serious disorder of the lymphatic system. Two subordinate forms, therefore, 
must be added. 

3. The cerebro-rheumatic form. — The same, though always blended with and 
to a certain extent subordinate to, one of the principal forms, has been observed in a 
large number of sick animals. The latter, besides exhibiting all the symptoms of one 
or another of the two principal forms, shows also plain indications of a morbid affection 
of the brain. The same consists principally in partial or perfect blindness, a very 
staggering gait, and aimless movements in general. On openiug the skull I invariably 
found more or less swelling in the membranes enveloping the brain, a larger or smaller 
quantity of serum deposited inside of the dura mater (hai;d or external membrane), 
the substance of the brain more or less softened, and the ventricles (small cavities) of 
the brain tilled with serum. The other morbid changes found did not differ from those 
described under the head of catarrhal-rheumatic or gastric-rheumatic forms respect- 
ively. 

4. The lymphatic rheumatic form. — The same, too, has been observed quite 
often, but always as a complication of one of the principal forms described — subdivisions 
1 and 2. The whole morbid process presents a somewhat scrofulous character. The 
lymphatic system is plainly affected ; tumors and ulcers, showing a scrofulous character, 
are found in various parts of the body, but especially on the gums. Hence there can 
be no doubt that such cases, although complicated and blended invariably to such an 



38 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESnC ANIMALS. 

extent with one or another of the main or principal forms as to malie it impossible to 
draw distinct lines, have to be looked ujiou as a subordinate form with a lymphatic 
character. I have been informed repeatedly by reliable persons that in some of the 
sick animals cutaneous erui»tious have constituted one of the most (conspicuous symp- 
toms of the disease. If this is a fact, it is possible that yet a fifth form has to be 
added — erysipelatous. Still I had no chance to examine such a patient, notwithstand- 
ing I have examined a large number of sick animals, exceediug, I should judge, one 
thousand. I am, therefore, not prepared to d(!cide whether the cutaneous eruption is 
a product of the same causes or influences which are at the bottom of the other mor- 
bid changes, or whether the same is an independent disease, and merely an accidental 
complication. 

It is probably not necessary to mention that all the morbid changes which have 
been described as the pi-oducts or attendants of a certain form are but seldom found as 
a total in one aud the same animal, as some of them are either usually missing or but 
little developed. Neither will it be essential to state that even the two principal forms 
of epizootic influenza of swine, leaving the subordinate forms out of consideration, are 
scarcely ever observed entirely independent of each other or without being in the least 
complicated with each other; that, on the contrary, the gastric-rheumatic and the 
catarrhal-rheumatic are not seldom blended with each other to such an extent as to 
make it very difficult to decide which one has to be considered as the most predomi- 
nating. In each case the symptoms, too, are blended with each other, and morbid 
changes, frequently of equal importance, are found in both large cavities, in the chest 
and in the abdomen. These facts are easily understood by any one who is at all famil- 
iar with pathology aud with morbid anatomy. The main or predominant character of 
epizootic influenza of swine is always rheumatic, and the principal seat is in the sys- 
tem of serous membranes which abound in every large cavity of the animal body. 
Serous membranes not only line the interior of those cavities, but constitute also the 
external coat of nearly every internal organ. Hence it is but natural that such a dis- 
ease localizes itself in many different parts of the animal organism, produces in conse- 
quence ditferent morbid symptoms, and causes different forms of disease. It is true 
that in some cases the disease exhibits a prevailing catarrhal character, but if it is 
taken into consideration that the causes of rheumatic affections and of catarrhal dis- 
eases are often essentially the same, and that not only the seat but the character of the 
disorder depends frequently upon an individual predisposition of the animal, a further 
explanation will not be needed. 

The causes — To ascertain the causes has been my principal object. It was, therefore, 
necessary to observe a large number of cases, and to investigate the disease in differ- 
ent localities. This I have done, and have come to the conclusion that at least some 
of the causes, and I think I make no mistake if I say the most important ones, are of 
such a nature as to admit removal, notwithstanding they are diverse and numerous, 
and have their source, to a certain extent, in the manner of farming and stock-raising, 
or rather hog-raising, customary in the West. Although I will not deny the possibility 
of an existence of certain agencies of a miasmatic character, nor the possibility of a 
presence of a micrococci or other microscopic sporules calculated to act as a cause or 
to contribute in jiroducing the disease, I must confess that if anything of that kind 
has been acting as a cause, it has escaped my notice. lu the first place I had no micro- 
scope at my disposal, and secondly I have not been able to discover anythiug in the 
■whole morbid process nor any morbid change that caunot be the product of those 
noxious influences which I consider as the main, if not exclusive, causes of the disease, 
and which in my opinion are well able to produce every one of those morbid changes 
which I had an opportunity to observe. Those injurious influences or agencies which 
I am obliged to consider as the principal causes act in different ways, and, for a better 
survey, may be divided into three classes. As belonging to the first class I look upon 
everjthiug that will interrupt or disturb the perspiration. lu the second class I place 
all such noxious influences and agencies as interfere directly with the process of respi- 
ration. Fiually, in the third class I put all such noxious agencies or iujurious influ- 
ences as tend to aggravate the disease if already existing, by aiding in making its 
character more typhoid, or which produce a siiecial predisposition, by weakening the 
constitution of the animal. 

1. Injurious influences irhych act as a cause hy producing an inteiTuption or partial cessation 
of the perspiration. — These influences are numerous, aud of much greater importance than 
one who looks at them superficially may be inclined to suppose. The skin of an animal 
is a very important organ ; it not only serves as a protecting tegument, but has also 
other vital offices which are scarcely of less importance to the existence of the animal 
organism than those of the lungs. The skin discharges through its pores a large amount 
of wasted material, and absorbs aeriform and liquid substances from the outside world. 
Consequently, it may be looked upon as an organ whose duty it is to supplement the 
functions of several other organs, but espt cially those of the lungs aud of the kidneys. 
To ascertain the effect which a total interruption of the functions of the skin would 
have upon the auiiual organism, interesting experiments have been made by Bouley, 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 39^ 

Magendie, Gerlacb, and others. A complete interruption was brought about by cover- 
ing the skin of various animals with an air-tight c:oat of varnish, grease, or tar, and 
the result, according to Gerlach, was as follows : Accelerated pulsation, extraordinary 
fullness of the arteries till an increased discharge of urine made its appearance, some- 
what accelerated breathing, trembling of the whole body, rapid emaciatioTi, great 
debility, augmented secretion of an albuminous urine, which latter contained also soma 
of the coloring matter of the gall, and a decrease of the animal temperature. The 
latter, however, became not very conspicuous before the animal had become emaciated, 
and was near dying. The animals (horses) so treated died within from three to tea 
days. Pigs smeared all over with grease or fish-oil, for the purpose of killing lico, 
died within a week, and showed the same sj^mptoms. 

The office of the skin, at least as far as the processes of elimination and absorption are 
concerned, bears also a very close relation to the functions of the diverse serous and 
mucous membranes. It is true if the skin is disqualified to perform its allotted duties, or 
if its functions are interrupted by some means, the same will be performed partially but; 
partially only by those organs named the lungs, the kidneys, and the serous and mucous 
membranes in general. These organs, in such acase, have to make extraordinary efforts if 
the equilibrium in the organic change of matter, so indispensable to the preservatiou 
of health, is to be maintained only approximately. To maintain a perfect equilibrium 
is impossible, for these organs, as I have said, can, in addition to their own duties, only 
partially perform the functions of the skin ; certain parts of wasted material will not 
be discharged, but will remain in the organism. The lungs, the kidneys, and the serous 
and u. neons membranes, if I may use the expression, will be overburdened, and the 
consequence will be that just those organs thus weakened will be the first ones that 
become diseased, or have to suffer from over exertion, and from the injurious effects 
necessarily produced by a retention of wasted matter in the organism, and also by a con- 
stant loss of organic compounds that cannot be spared. That such loss is taking place has 
beec proven by the experiments of Professor Gerlach, which shows that the urine in such 
a case carries oft" albumen. Further, that an interruption of the perspiration must 
necessarily produce a disturbance in the circulation of the blood, which results in an 
extraordinary flow of blood to those organs — lungs, kidneys, &c. — burdened with 
increased activity, and constitutes in that way a cause of congestion and subsequent 
inflammation, is too evident to need any further explanation. 

The perspiration can be interrupted, or, in other words, the skin can be disqualified 
TO perform its functions by several means ; for instance, by a disturbance or a partial 
■.nterruption of the circulation of the blood in the capillary vessels ; by congestion and 
inflammation ; by any degeneration or morbid change of its tissue, or of a part of its 
tissue ; by a closing of its pores in a mechanical way, &c. This granted, it remains 
to be ascertained if those pigs and hogs which are, or have been, affected with the 
epizootic influenza of swine (erroneously called hog-cholera) have been subjected to 
one or more of those just named influences or agencies able to cause an interruptiou 
or partial cessation of the activity of the skin (perceptible and imperceptible perspira- 
tion). Taking the facts just as they have presented themselves, that question must 
be answered in the affirmative. My investigations and my inquiries have convinced 
me that in all those pigs or hogs which have suffered from or died of that disease, 
one or more of those causes have been at work, as I shall endeavor to show. 

1. All animals affected with the epizootic influenza — at any rate all those which I 
iave seen, and I have seen a large number — were very lousy. Lice irritate the skin, 
ieep it in a semi-inflamed condition, cause swelling, and, finally, a gradual degenera- 
tion of its external layer — beyond a doubt constitute to some extent a disturbance of 
lormal perspiration. 

2. All the hogs and pigs which had contracted the disease had been exposed night 
ind day to all the sudden changes of temperature and weather so frequent in the 
lYesteru States. Some of the animals had been kept in small, wet, and dirty yards and 
.nclosures, without a roof to protect them ; they had to suffer during the day from the 
rays of the sun, and from the heat which naturally accumulates in a small space or lot 
walled in by a tight fence, and which is constantly increased by the decomposition 
of wet manure and other organic substances. During the night the same were exposed 
to the chilling influence of the cold night air, and the frequently very heavy dews, 
not to mention the effect of severe rains and thunder-storms. Further, after each raiu 
the animals thus kept had a chance to get the entire body covered with mud and the 
pores of the skin thoroughly closed ; but an opportunity to get rid of the dirt by taking 
a bath was never given. Such influences, evidently, are very apt to cause irregulari- 
ties in the circulation of the blood in the capillary vessels of the skin, and an inter- 
ruption of the perspiration. Other animals have been kept in comparatively large 
herds, and have been allowed to run at large in a barn-yard, in a so-called hog-lot, ia 
the woods, &c. These, too, were exposed more or less to the burning rays of the sun 
during the day, and at night, in most cases, they found shelter under a corn-crib, under 
an old stable, or an old barn — at any rate in the closest and dirtiest places, where they 
acked loom, and where they often crowded on top of each other when retiring ta 



40 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

eleep. As a oonsequence the animals became heated, and, perspiring, as they left their 
lair in the morning took cold on i-oniing in contact with the chilled atmosphere. A 
Biidden cooling, however, or a sndden reduction of the temperature of the surface 
of the body is apt to efiect a contraction of the capillary vessels of the skin, hence a 
diminished supply of blood, and, in consequence, a decrease or partial interruption of 
the functions of the skin. 

The animals, thus suddenly cooled by the morning air and the wet dew, become, in 
the course of the forenoon, again exposed to the rays of the sun and the heat of the 
day, which induces them to go to the first pool of water, if one is accessible, to take 
a bath. This is all right and well enough, because in the summer a hog should have 
access to water and an opportunity to take a bath as often as it desires. In all those 
places, however, in which the disease had made its appearance, I found the water to- 
■which the hogs had access almost invariably so shallow and of such a limited quan- 
tity that the bathing and wallowing of one or more animals was sufficient to convert 
the same into sticky, semi-fluid mud. Consequently, if the herd was a large one but 
a very few animals — and those invariably the stronger and most active ones — had now 
and then a chance to find clear water, and to reap real benefit from taking a bath. 
All others, especially the younger and smaller animals, were compelled to wait until 
the first comers were through with their bathing and had changed the water to mud ; 
the former, therefore, had scarcely ever an opportunity to clean themselves from the 
mud of the preceding day, and to open the pores of their skin by taking a bath in 
clean water. If they wished to take a little cooling they had to be satisfied with taking 
a mud-bath, and as every new bath was a mud-bath again the pores of the skin, instead 
of being opened, became closed more and more effectually from day to day, until finally 
the perspiration was thoroughly interrupted, and disease made its appearance as the 
natural result. 

It is diflferent where the herd is a small one, for then nearly every animal will some- 
times have a chance to open the pores of its skin in tolerably clear water, and the 
perspiration will not be seriously interrupted. That these deductions must be correct 
is proved by the fact that in every large herd nearly all the younger and weaker ani- 
mals (shoats) have become a i)rey to the disease, while the larger or stronger and most 
active animals, which are usually the first ones to go to the water in the morning 
while it is measurably clear, have either remained exempt or have contracted the dis- 
ease in a mild form, and have mostly recovered. Finally, small herds have either suffered 
fewer losses, have been less severely attacked, or have remained exemi»ted altogether. 
The injurious effect produced upon the system of the animal by the muddy and filthy 
condition of the water, which most animals so situated have been compelled to drint,. 
will be explained hereafter. 

2. Agencies and influences irhieh interfere directly tcith the process of breathing. — These,, 
too, as already indicated, are of diflferent nature. When I first commenced my inves- 
tigation it struck me that all those swine — pigs, shoats, and grown hogs of every age 
and description — which run at large in the streets and thoroughfares of Kansas City,^ 
Westport, Independence, Lexington, and other towns and villages, and lead the most 
independent life possible, but do not congregate — go home in the evening, and belong 
to persons who own but one, two, and maybe three animals; as also all those swine 
"which are kept by themselves, either one by one or only a few together ; and, finally, 
all those which are kept in comparatively small herds in pastures, orchards, or wood,^ 
coated everywhere with grass and perfectly destitute of dusty, bare ground and oli 
manure-heaps, are and have been, with rare exceptions, perfectly healthy. I say witl 
" rare exceptions," for it has been reported to me that a few of those swine runninj 
at large in the streets have died, but I have not been able to ascertain the causes of 
their death. 

On the other hand, the herds which have been kept in yards, pastures, fields, &c, 
consisting partially or wholly of bare, dusty ground, or containing heaps and accumiv 
lations of old manure, have and are sutferiug severely, and the more according to th» 
size of the herd and the worse the dust of soil and old manure. In large herds, com 
posed of one hundred head or more, the mortality has been as high as from 70 to % 
per cent. ; in smaller herds from 25 to 60 per cent., and where only a few animals were 
kept together, atd consequently each animal was only compelled to inhale the dust 
kicked up by itself and occasionally by one or two others, the mortality has been com- 
paratively low — has seldom exceeded 10 per cent., or fatal cases have not occurred at 
all. Further, in all those cases in which the hogs or pigs had been compelled to inhale 
with nearly every breath a large quantity of soil and manures, ground to powder by 
rolling, tramping, and the rays of the sun, all the jiost-mortevi examinations revealed 
as principal morbid changes a morbid affection of the eyes, inflammation of the respira- 
tory passages (throat, wiudpiiie, bronchial tubes), hepatization of the lungs in various 
stages of development, and, in some cases, even tubercles or a few small abscesses in 
the pulmonal tissue, while the serous membranes (costal and pulmonal pleura, peri- 
cardium, and peritoneum) presented a comparatively healthy condition, except in 
those cases in which the causes described in subdivi-iion 1 had been acting togethei 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 41 

with those under discussion. If these facts are duly taken into consideration, scarcely 
any doubt can remain as to the constant inhalation of powdered soil and manure con- 
stituting one of the principal causes of the epizootic iulluenza of swine. 

As another noxious influence tending to interfere with the process of respiration, or 
injuring the respiratory organs, may be considered the gases or eliluvia emanating from 
old decomposing manure heaps and from dirtj^ and lilthy pig-sties and hog-yards. Still, 
I must look upon them as something of subordinate importance — not per se, but com- 
pared with the more substantial agencies — and, therefore, do not deem it necessary to 
enter into fui'ther details. 

3. Causes which iveuken the constitution^ produce predisposition, and develop or promote the 
typhoid character of the disease. — As such have to be mentioned : 1. Foul and impure 
"water for drinking. As a general rule, hogs are usually compelled to drink either out 
of a dirty trough, if confined in a sty, or from muddy pools and wallows^ if kei)t in 
pasture, &c., and, therefore, are frequently obliged to drink water that is not only 
muddy and impure, but even stinking and full of decomposing organic substances. 
That such water is apt to develop microscopic animal and vegetable growth, is often 
inhabited by the brood or the laviB of various species of intestinal worms, and thus 
prepared to convey numerous germs and causes of disease to the animal organism — 
maybe more than are introduced in any other way — is a well known fact, and does 
not need any explanation. 2. The tilth and manure that is consumed with the food. 
On almost every Western farm (at any rate on all those on which I found the disease) 
the swine are fed with corn in the ear ; the ears of corn are thrown into the pig-sty, 
yard, or feeding-lot, as the case may bo, but always in a place full of manure and dirt, 
either wet or dry. As a consequence, the animals can scarcely pick up a kernel of corn, 
that is not soiled with filth, and are obliged to consume a great deal of nastiness. That 
such wholesale consumption of tilth and excrements must finally undermine the con- 
stitution of even the healthiest animal, and must give to any disease that may happen 
to exist or to appear a typhoid character, is self-evident. 3. On a great many farms in 
the West the corn-cribs are either insufficiently covered or not covered at all, and, as 
a consequence, a great deal of the corn fed in the spring and during the summer is 
moldy and rotten. Moldy corn does not constitute healthy food ; on the contrary, 
it is poisonous if consumed in large quantities ; at any rate, it weakens the constitution, 
promotes and produces disease, especially of the respiratory organs and of the kidneys, 
and is well calculated to give any disease a decidedly typhoid character. 4. One very 
common mistake in feeding may also be mentioned as perhaps not entirely without 
influence. I refer to the practice of feeding nothing but corn. It may suffice, how- 
ever, to say that corn does not contain in a due proportion all the elements necessary 
to the growth and development of an animal ; it is destitute of some and contains 
others in too small a proportion. Hence a variety of food is just as necessary to a hog 
as to any other animal, if health and vigor are to be preserved. To enter into particu- 
lars would lead too far. 

One may ask, if the causes of the disease are of such an ordinary character, how 
can it be possible that it has become such an extensive epizooty? The answer is not 
difficult. A satisfactory explanation can be given. 1. Notwithstanding the most dili- 
gent search and patient inquiry, I have not been able to discover any injurious iuiiu- 
ences or agencies, in addition to those enumerated, that have acted upon all of the 
diseased animals, or upon a large number of the same, which can be taken into con- 
sideration as possible causes. 2. The treatment or keeping of swine is essentially the 
same almost every whei-e in all the Western States. The causes mentioned are, there- 
fore, sufficiently discriminated or general enough to jjroduce an eijizootic. A great 
many farmers, who are frequently careless enough in the treatment of even their horses 
and cattle, usually think that a hog is but a "hog, " and it can get along with "hog- 
gish" treatment — that it delights in nastiness, tilth, and dirt of every description, and 
does not need a dry, comfortable, and clean resting-place during the night, clean and 
sound food, clean and fresh water for drinking and bathing, nor shade and shelter 
against the burning rays of a Western sun, agaiust wet and cold and the sudden changes 
of weather and temperature in general. But they are very much mistaken ; there is 
probably no animal which repays good care and rational treatment more than the hog. 
Still, if nature had not endowed the same with such an excellent constitution, pork 
might have become, before this, a very rare article. 

Some one may say, "If the principal causes of the disease have their source in the 
manner in which the swine are raised, kept, and provided for, which does not differ 
essentially from former years, how does it happen, or how can it be explained, that 
the disease made its appearance as an epizooty only a few years ago, and not before ? " 
While the country was new hogs were not so numerous as now, or at any rate were not 
kept in such large herds; pig-sties, hog-lots, and swine-pastures contained not so much 
accumulated filth and manure, nor so many bare and dusty places as they do now. In 
the course of mauy years the excrements and other decomposing organic substances 
have not only accumulated on the surface of the premises where hogs are kept, but 
the ground and water have also become impregnated with the same. The disease, I 



42 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

■do not doubt, will still spread and increase in malignancy in the same proportion in 
which dung and dirt are allowed to accumulate, and in which the size of the herd is 
increased. 

Is the epizootic influenza of swine a contagions disease? — To tell the truth, I am not pre- 
pared to decide that question, because such a decision requires numerous experiments, 
and these I have not been able to make. A great many farmers believe, nay, hold 
themselves convinced, that the disease must be contagious, and have furnished me 
with facts which I admit seem to point very strongly that way. Still I think the epi- 
zootic character or the fearful spreading of the disease can be satisfactorily explained 
without the existence of a contagion. The fact that the hogs and pigs running at large 
in the streets of the towns and cities are, with rare exceptions, healthy and remain 
exempted from the disease, notwithstanding they are much more exposed to contagions 
or contagious infection than any others, goes far to show that the disease is probably 
not contagious. 

Duration of the morhid process. — In some cases the disease has had a fatal termination 
within two days after the first plain symptoms of sickness had made their appearance, 
and a few cases have been reported to me in which the animals have died within from 
six to twelve hours ; but as to the latter cases, I am inclined to think the first symptoms 
have escaped observation ; a very common occurrence in diseases of swine. Tlie aver- 
age duration of the disease may be set down as from five to fifteen days. Still some 
animals have been sick from three to six weeks, but as most of these recovered, a part 
of that time should be looked upon as belonging to the stage of convalescence, or, if 
the patients died, the disease was protracted by relapse. 

Prevention. — The measures of prevention consist in removing the causes or in treat- 
ing the swine in a rational manner in accordance with hygienic principles. If this is 
done, no other special treatment nor any medicines will be needed to ward ofi' the dis- 
ease. To give medicine to healthy animals for the jiurpose of preserving their health 
is a bad practice and may be fraught with injury. The use of medicines can have but 
few objects, viz., to mitigate, to remove, to destroy, or to divert injurious iufiuences. 
To give the same for any other purpose will do much more damage than good, and 
should never be done. Hence I have to caution every farmer against the use of any 
patent nostrums or quack medicines advertised as "cure-alls," but intended only to 
di'aw the money out of the pockets of the ci'edulous. 

But to the point : I am confident that the epizootic influenza of swine, or the dis- 
ease commonly called hog-cholera, will cease to exist, or, at any rate, will lose its 
epizootic character and become a very rare occurrence, first, if large herds of swine are 
divided into smaller ones containing only a few (three or four) animals each ; second, 
if each lot, consisting of a few animals, is provided with a comfortable pen or suffi- 
ciently-protected resting-place to sleep in, which is kept free from filth, dust, and 
manure, is well ventilated, and has a good roof ; third, if every hog or pig has access 
several times a day, or as often as weather or temperature and circumstances require, 
to fresh and clean water for drinking and bathing, either in troughs made for that 
purpose or in a brook or streamlet ; fourth, if no filth, manure, and other decomposing 
organic substances are allowed to accumulate in any of the sties, yards, pens, hog-lots, 
or pastures in which the hogs or pigs are kept ; and, fifth, if the food is always healthy 
and sound and never soiled with filth and manure. I know very well that many farm- 
ers prefer to be sent to the drug store for medicine in preference to complying with 
these rules, and some of them may even think or say, "If I cannot keep my hogs in 
the old 'hoggish' fashion, but must treat them even better than I am in the habit of 
treating my horses and cattle, I prefer not to keep them at all." To such men I have 
to say, if you do not keep any hogs you certainly will not lose any, and may thus benefit 
yourself and your neighbor, who will reap the profit from the scarcity of hogs produced. 
But I can assure you that any one who will consent to treat his swine in a rational 
manner, as an animal ought to be treated, will gain thereby, and will receive ample 
compensation for his care and labor. At any rate, it will pay much better for any one 
to raise, for instance, fifty hogs, to keep them well and lose none and to develop them 
into "prime porkers " or so-called " Philadelphia " hogs, than to raise one or two hun- 
dred in " hoggish " fashion, lose from 50 to 70 per cent., and produce animals that fig- 
ure as inferior " light-weights " or " scalawags " in the market reports. Moreover, 
the amount of food which is needed to produce two hundred pounds of inferior and 
frequently unhealthy pork, if the pigs are kept on the manure-heap, in the barn-yard, 
or in small, nasty pens, will easily produce three hundred pounds of good, healthy, 
and palatable pork if the keeping of the animal is always in strict accordance with 
the laws of hygiene. If the latter are never violated, I am sure epizootic influenza 
will not make its appearance ; but if the indifl'erent, or rather negligent, treatment 
of swine customary in the West does not undergo a thorough change, the disease will 
increase in frequency from year to year. 

In thus giving my views candidly and in plain language, I wish to state, without any 
apologies, that my object is not to blame any one, but to tell the honest truth, aud to 
point out the way which must be pursued if it is^desired to get rid of the disease. The 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 43 

mistakes made are not coinmittecl by a few farmers aufi hog-raisers, but by a great mauy. 
If those who find themselves guilty of having neglected their hogs, or of having treated 
them in "hoggish fashion,'' will accept what I have said in the same spirit in which it 
is given, and follow my advice, th«>y will have no cause to regret it. 

Treatmeiit. — The treatment may he divided into two parts: a hygienic and a medical. 
The former, which includes a removing of the causes, is in this, like in most other causes, 
of the very greatest importance. If the causes are promptly removed, a great many sick 
animals not already too far gone may be saved. If the same are not, the very best medical 
treatment will be of little avail. The sick animals must be separated from the herd, 
must be provided with a clean and dry resting-place, must have pure air to breathe, 
clean water to drink, and healthy, clean, and easily-digestible food to eat. 

As to the medical part of the treatment : I would recommend giving to each patient 
at the beginning of the disease a good emetic, composed either of powdeied white helle- 
bore (veratnan albiun) or of tartar-emetic, in a dose of about one grain for each month 
the sick animal is old, provided the latter is of good average size. The largest dose to be 
given a full-grown animal should not exceed fifteen or sixteen grains. The emetic is 
best administered by mixing the same with a piece of boiled potato, or, if the hellebore 
(which I prefer) is chosen, by strewing the i)owder on the surface of a small quantity 
of milk, as neither boiled potato nor milk will be refused by any hog unless the ani- 
mal is very sick, and in that case it will be too late to make use of an emetic. After 
the desired actiou has been produced the animal will appear to be very sick, and will 
try to hide itself in a dark corner ; but two or three hours later it will make its appear- 
ance again, and will be willing to take a little choice food, such as a few boiled pota- 
toes, a little milk, &c. At this time it will be advisable to again give a small dose of 
medicine, either a few grains (two or three to a full-growu animal and to a pig in propor- 
tion) of tartar-emetic or of calomel. Mix with a piece of boiled potato, or, if the symp- 
toms should not have returned, mix with a small pinch of flour and a few drops of water 
(sufficient to make a stilf dough) aud form into small round pills. I wish to remark 
here that a sick hog should not be dreuched with medicine under any circumstances, 
for a drench, given by force, is very apt to pass down the windpi^ie into the lungs as 
soon as the animal squeals, and frequently causes instant death. The tartar-emetic 
has to be chosen if the disease has its principal seat in the respiratory organs or pre- 
sents itself in its catarrhal-rheumatic form, and the calomel deserves preference if the 
gastric or bilious-rheumatic form is prevailing, but especially if the liver is seriously 
aftected. Either medicine may be given in such small doses as mentioned three times 
a day for several days in succession, or until a change for the better becomes apparent. 
It is also advisable, particularly if the disease exhibits a very typhoid character, to 
now aud then mix for each animal a few drops of carbolic acid with the water for 
drinking or with the slops. Convalescent animals, which have become very weak and 
emaciated, will be benefited by giving them once a day from a few grains to half a 
drachm of sulphate of iron (copperas) mixed with their food, but the use of iron must 
be discontinued if the patients become constipated or if the excrements turn black. 
Those convalescents in which the lungs have become hepatized to a considerable ex- 
tent may receive repeatedly small doses of carbonate of potash for the purpose of pro- 
moting the absorption of the exudations deposited in the tissue of the lungs. The 
size of the dose of carbonate of potash, as well as of iron, depends upon the size and 
the age of the animal. 

A local or external treatment is also of considerable importance. A good counter- 
irritant, or blister composed of cantharides, or Spanish flies, and oil, made by boiling 
oue ounce of the former and four ounces of the latter for half an hour over a moderate 
fire, or for one hour in a water-bath, should be applied on both sides the chest in all 
such cases in which the organs situated in that cavity are seriously aftected. Such a 
counter-irritant has usually a very beneficial result. In most cases one application will 
prove sufficient to relieve the animal to a considerable extent, provided the oil is 
thoroughly rubbed in before the disease has made too much headway, or before the 
vitality of the organism has been destroyed. If the eft'ect of the fly-blister jiroves in- 
sufficient it may be applied again the next day, but if the same produces no eft'ect at 
all it may be taken as an indication that the animal is going to die, and that any fur- 
ther treatment will ]irove of no avail. Fontonels and soatons have really the same 
eftect as a fly-blister, but they act slower, are less reliable, and may otherwise cause 
damage, especially if the typhoid character of the disease is very much developed, by 
weakening unnecessarily the constitution of the patient. 

In conclusion, I will mention that epizootic influenza of swine, or so-called hog-chol- 
era, is not a new disease, nor peculiar to our country, as people seem to believe. It has 
been known in Europe for many years. Professor Spinola gives a description of an ep- 
izootic " pleuro-peripneumonia," corresponding almost exactly to the catarrhal-rheu- 
matic foi-m of epizootic influenza of swine, in his "Die Krankheiten der Schweine" 
(Diseases of Swine), Berlin, 184'i, page 82 et acq. Another brief description will be 
found in the Austrian " Vierteljahresschrift fuer wissenschaftliche Veterinaerkunde" 
(Quarterly for Scientific Veterinary Science), Vienna, 1870, vol. xxxiii,part 2, page 137, 
copied from " II Medico Veterinario," 1869, page 529. 



44 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
Prof. E. F. EiPLEY, V. S., Portland, Cumberland County, Maine, says: 

lu regard to the diseases of farm animals I am bappy to inform you that we have 
had no epizootic maladies the past two years. I have had quite a number of cases of 
pneumonia (of a low typhoid character) among horses, but the majority of the animals 
recovered. I treated them with stimulants, carbonate of ammonia, camphor, and 
capsicum. Occasionally I have a case that will bear a sedative. To some affected 
with extreme nervous prostration I gave assafetida and ergot. I have successfully 
treated fifty-odd cases of spinal and cerebro-spinal meningitis, mostly the former, 
where there were no brain complications. Treatment, one-half ounce of aloes, two 
drachms of carbonate of ammonia in bolus, followed with extract of belladonna and 
ergot and bromide of potassium. Some I treated with stimulants, applied mustard to 
the spine, and supported those with slings that were not able to rise without help. I 
treated six others (more severe cases, some of them down and unable to stand) that 
died. I have treated twenty horses suffering with pupa horaeragicu. I gave them 
chloride of potassium, iron, quinine, and matico, mixed with one gallon of milk and 
six eggs, administered once a day. Most of them would drink with avidity. With 
an abundance of pure air and good nursing they soon recovered. We have more or 
less sore throat here among horses during the fall and spring seasons. Some neglected 
cases run into glanders. 

Diseases among horned-cattle increase as the country grows older. More especially 
is this the case among milch-cows. Puerperal fever is the most common disease among 
this class of stock, and proved fatal in more than half the cases reported. Some cows 
die within an hour after the first symptoms of the disease are observable. I successfully 
treated six cases this season by giving one pound of sulphate of magnesia, twenty 
drops of croton oil, two drachms of Jamaica ginger, in three pints of warm water. 
Their milk and urine should be drawn, and mustard applied to the spine. If injections 
of physic do not act in six hours give half-pound doses of magnesia and ginger every 
six hours until the bowels move. Within two hours from the first cathartic give two 
ounces of spirits of nitre and four ounces of acetate of ammonia. Repeat every six 
hours until the animal is able to rise. I have had many cases of congestive fevers in 
cows and oxen, most of which have recovered. I give one pound snlphate of mag- 
nesia, two drachms ginger, and one drachm tincture of aconite. If the bowels are 
constipated, after the fever subsides, I give half-drachm doses of nnx vomica. 

I have successfully treated a few cases of entritic fever in swine with calomel and 
muriate of ammonia, alternated with belladonna. 

Mr. S. H. Logan, Grreensburg, Decatur County, Indiana^ says : 

The disease known as hog-cholera is now and has been prevalent for several years in 
this county. I was a feeder of hogs for several years in distilleries in Cincinnati and 
at Lawrenceburg, in this State. The average loss of hogs by death from this disease at 
distilleries I think is fully one-half. The loss among hogs in the country from the same 
cause, of one year old and over, will average about the same ; those of six months old 
and under about all die, or perhaps one out of ten may live. 

The remedies used here are sulphur, coppera.s, black antimony, saltpeter, and assa- 
fetida. These remedies have been given separately and in different combinations. 
Several patent medicines have also been used, but I have never known any benefit de- 
rived from any of them. The first symptoms of the disease seen in a lot of hogs is a 
drooping appearance of the animals ; they refuse to eat ; the hair looks dry and has a 
dirty appearance : they have a hoarse cough ; the bowels are sometimes costive, but 
generally the animal is affected with a diarrhea, perhaps always toward the last stages 
of the disease. The duration of the disease, as near as I can judge, is from five to fif- 
teen days. In cases which I have dissected I find the lungs, liver, spleen, and bowels 
all more or less diseased. Some cases bleed at the nose ; some go blind ; some swell in 
the legs and break out in sores. A few of the latter get well ; but none of those that 
bleed at the nose or go blind ever recover. There seems to be fever in every case. 

I have also seen a great many hogs have a chill, as if aft'ected with the ague. This 
disease is very fatal ; indeed it is certain death. 

Mr. John M. Liley, TaylorsAille, Spencer County, Kentucky, says : 

W^e have been visited in this and the adjoining county of Nelson by a disease among 
swine called " hog-cholera." It commenced a year ago this fall, and continued up to 
August last. During that time about two-thirds of the hogs and almost all the pigs 
died, so that there are only two or three small lots left for sale in this neighborhood. 
Those that I observed seemed to be attacked with inflammation of the lungs, accom- 
panied with fever, which, if not resulting in death in a few days, continued as a slow 
pulmonary disease, with cough and very poor appetite, until the patient dwindled away 
to skin and bone, when death would ensue. Most of them died in this way on my farm. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 45 

I think the bowels of the auiiual are affected in very few cases of late years, and, there- 
fore, thfe symptoms do not answer to those of cholera. 

We have tried a great many remedies — some patented, others vouched for by honest 
and sanguine men. None of them proved of any avail, however, either as a remedy or 
as a preventive. 

As our swine had been free from disease three years previous to this fatal visitation, 
■we had great expectations from them, and had increased the number. But they are 
about all gone ; perhaps enough are left to supply the farmers with their own meat. 
We would be exceedingly thankful if some remedy or preventive could be discovered 
by which the disease could be controlled. 

Mr. W. W. Barnes, Howard, Howard County, Indiana, says : 

If there is any disease prevailing among farm animals in this county, except among 
hogs, it has not come to my knowledge. The so-called hog-cholera has, for the last 
jear, prevailed to an alarming extent. In some cases the losses have been so great 
where large herds were held as to cause financial ruin. At this time a general feeling 
prevails against risking capital in this important staple. 

The term cholera is generally used to designate the disease, but I doubt if a case of 
genuine cholera has occurred. In some localities a disease known as quinsy has pre- 
vailed — swelling of throat and jaws, attended with high inflammation. No remedy is 
known. In some cases, the knife was used in laying open the parts affected ; but the 
recoveries were not as high as 10 per cent. 

Pneumonia, or congestion of the lungs, is, I think, the real disease. After the hogs 
lose their appetites and refuse to eat they live from twelve to forty-eight hours. Death, 
when it comes, is instantaneous. The animals fall dead in the i)aths in which they 
travel, or die in the beds in which they sleep. Where they fall in snow there is not a 
sign of a struggle. They are always found on their bellies, as though their walk had 
been instantaneously arrested. All remedies seem worthless. 

jVIt. W. T. Pace, Centre, Kentucky, says : 

There is no disease among farm stock in this section of country except among hoga. 
The disease prevailing among this class of animals has been very destructive. There 
has never yet been a remedy found that seemed to do much good. Mandrake-roots and 
red-oak bark, boiled down to a strong decoction and given freely, is the best remedy 
that we have found. The hogs are attacked in different ways. Generally an eruption 
of small red pimples breaks out over the entire body, but are most prominent on the 
breast and belly; their breathing is accompanied by a wheezing sound; their bowels 
are inclined to be too active. At least 90 per cent, of those attacked in this way die. 
Other symptoms are manifested by thumjjing in the sides of the animal. The hog be- 
comes stupid, and will refuse to eat or drink anything for several days. This is not a 
very fatal disease. There is still another phase of the disease, in which the bowels are 
constipated. In those examined after death the faeces matter is found in hard, round 
lumps, the size of walnuts. It seems impossible for them to have an operation of the 
bowels. They live but a few days, and seem to suffer a great deal. Epsom salts, 
cream-tartar, and castor-oil are the only remedies that have ever done any good. The 
mortality is about 80 per cent. 

Mr. S. H. Blddinger, Westport, Decatur County, Indiana, says : 

Inflammation of the kidneys is a common disease here among horses. The early 
symptoms of the disease are those of fever ; the horse is nervous and frequently looks 
around at his sides ; stands with his hinder legs wide apart ; is unwilling to lie down ; 
shrinks when the loins are pressed, where some degree of heat is felt; the urine ia 
voided in small quantities; frequently it is highly colored and sometimes bloody. The 
treatment consists in bleeding freely ; next an active purge should be administered 
and counter-irritation excited as near as possible to the seat of the disease. For this 
purpose the loins should be covered with a mustard poultice. The horse should be 
warmly clothed. No diuretic should be given, but after the first effects of the purging 
have ceased small doses of white hellebore with tartar-emetic may be given. The 
animal's legs should be bandaged and plenty of water offered him. His food should 
also be carefully examined. 

I have had some experience with the disease known as hog-cholera, and regard it as 
either a congestion of the lungs or of the bowels. A pont-rnortem examination disclosed 
the fact that those that run off at the bowels show a diseased condition of the liver 
and bowels, while those that are not affected with diarrhea die much sooner than the 
former, and present a highly congested condition of the lungs. Remedies that have 
proved efficacious iu my practice are such as sulphur and coal-oil or sulphur and lin- 



46 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Beed-oil given in small doses twice a day until relief is found. Two drachms of sul- 
phur to one ounce of oil is the proportion I use. 

Chicken-cholera is first observed by a moping or stupid condition of the fowl. Post- 
mortem examinations show an enlarged condition of the liver. I have relieved fowl* 
affected with the disease with a strong butternut-bark ooze mixed with thin feed. 
Small doses of calomel also relieve them. 

Mr. George Yirgin, Little Indian, Cass County, Illinois, says : 

There has been no prevailing disease here among farm animals for the past threer 
years except the much talked of hog-cholera, which has killed about one-fourth of the 
hogs of the county. The first symptoms are a severe hacking cough, constipation of 
the bowels, and loss of appetite. The hair of the animal almost stands on end, a high 
fever is manifested, which is soon followed by mortification and death. So far no very 
effectual remedy has been discovered. A good preventive is found in charcoal and 
copperas mixed with a little sulxjhur, common salt, and saltpeter. One pound of calo- 
mel sprinkled over some wet oats and placed in troughs for about fifty hogs, followed 
on the second day with a large spoonful of turpentine for each animal, is the best rem- 
edy yet discovered here. The turpentine should be given in slop, and the hogs kept 
away from water a day or two before giving the medicine, in order to give them an 
api)etite. 

Mr. Ind. Smith, Wellsburg, Chemung County, New York, says : 

I have not had a great deal of experience with the disease among cattle known as 
the " western fever." Cattle shipped from the West to the Buffalo yards, in apparent 
good health when they started, have died of this disease soon after their arrival at the 
above-named point. I am of the opinion that in such cases the disease was contracted at 
the pens along the lines of the railroads. A neighbor who recently bought a car-load 
of these western cattle has already lost four by this disease. No doubt the cattle were 
in good health when they left home. 

A good many stock-hogs purchased at Buffalo have died of some disease, perhaps of 
cholera. One gentleman has lost one hundred out of a herd of 22.5 head, while others 
with smaller herds have lost in about the same proportion. If these stock-yards were 
changed or thoroughly cleaned and disinfected, the ravages of the various diseases to 
which farm animals are subject might be greatly lessened. 

;Mr. William T. Holt, Colorado Springs, El Paso County, Colorado, 
says: 

As to diseases of domestic animals in this State, I reply briefly that cattle here are 
pretty uniformly healthy. Out of a herd of over four thousand, owned by myself, I 
have not lost half a dozen head from sickness in the past four years. 

There is, however, a poisonous plant growing here, and fast extending over the best 
stock-grazing portions of the State, which kills annually a good many horses, and 
threatens to put an end to the breeding of horses here at no distant day, unless some 
efficient antidote be speedily found. Already there are large areas of what was a few 
years ago the best grazing portions of the State (in the counties of El Paso, Bent, and 
Elbert) where it is now unsafe to turn out a horse or mule at any season of the year, 
and almost sure death to the animal to do so in winter when the grasses are brown and 
dry and this poisonous weed brilliantly green in color and full of juice. It is known 
here among ranchmen as the " loco weed," so named, I think, because its first effect 
when eaten is to make the animal crazy. Thousands of dollars' worth of horses are 
ruined every year in this State from the effects of this poisonous plant. It has not, so 
far, killed many cattle, for the reason that owing to the vast numbers of this class of 
animals it is rarely that any one of the number gets sufficient to kill him, and being 
apparently less susceptible to its peculiar influence than horses. It has been observed 
that the more valuable a horse is, i. e., the more highly organized, the less " loco " it 
takes to intoxicate and finally kill him. No antidote has yet been discovered, and 
if you can set on foot an investigation which will result in determining a sure cure 
for a " locoed " horse, you will confer a great benefit upon the stock-growing interests 
of this community. While this weed has not yet spread abundantly enough to kill 
many cattle, it is believed to be only a question of time when it will do so, if not checked. 
The use of horses being indispensable to cattle-raising on the plains, this noxious weed 
indirectly imposes a heavy loss upon the cattle-grower. It also affects our rams, some- 
times killing them outright, but oftener rendering them emaciated, crazy, and useless, 
hut this far less frequently than in the case of horses. 

The only diseases to which sheep are liable here are scab and "sore mouth," this last, 
so far as I know, affecting only lambs before weaning. Out of a flock of ten thousand 
fiheep, owned by myself, these are the only diseases I have had to contend with, and I 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 47 

have found both easily curable. The cause of the sore mouth is not known here. It 
is not a general but rather a local and rare disease, and never fatal if properly treated, 
I have never seen it until this summer, when some 1,200 of my lambs had it. The lips 
are first covered with "chai>s," followed by pustules which grow thick scabs. These 
extend gradually over the thin skin about the mouth and into the nose, making the 
face extremely sore and feverish, and prevent the lambs from nursing well or graz- 
ing. I had the pustules and the scabs scraped off clean and a solution of carbolic acid 
applied with a brush, which effectually cured it. 

Mr. A. H. McCoy, Gentry ville, Spencer Connty, Indiana, says : 

In answer to your inquiries I shall only notice the diseases affecting hogs. I have 
been a breeder of hogs for forty years, and during that time have never known any 
disease among swine so fatal as cholera. This county loses from ten to twenty 
thousand dollars per annum by the disease. As I have been a breeder of fine pigs for 
more than twenty years, I have been unusually interested in the diseases of swine, and 
have been able to guard against every other disease but cholera. Mange is generally 
engendered by filthy quarters; thumps by general debility, mostly for lack of healthy 
feed ; but cholera, beyond reasonable doubt, is a contagion, and is carried from herd to 
herd by hogs affected with the disease. Near twenty-five years ago, when the cholera 
first made its appearance in our county, I discovered it was neariug my neighborhood, 
and as it was very fatal, and fearing it was contagious, I fenced about six acres in on 
the inside of my farm, some eighty or one hundred yards from any outside fencing. 
The result was, I did not lose any of my thirty- five head, though my nearest neighbors 
lost from one-half to about all their hogs. Since that time my observation and_exper- 
ieuce have been the same. 

Last winter I lost over twenty head of fine Berkshire hogs and pigs, caused by a'gang 
of hogs affected with cholera being driven into my immediate neighborhood for the 
purpose of feeding on the mast, which was abundant. The symptoms, &c., are as fol- 
lows : 

1. A cough which lasts two or three days, and a strolling, restless disposition. 

2. Vomiting, which generally lasts about a day ; hog very sick. 

3. Purging, generally, but not invariably, lasts two or three days. 

4. After the purging ceases, if the hog is likely to recover, it will generally eat a lit- 
tle ; but those that ultimately die seldom eat anything after the vomiting sets in. 
Those that die usually do so within from forty-eight hours to ten days. 

5. After vomiting sets in the hog has a high inward fever, accompanied with chilly 
sensations, a symptom I discovered by observation. Snow was on the ground last win- 
ter, and it was very cold at the time my hogs were dying with the cholera. Very often 
they would leave their beds for the purpose of eating snow, which they would continue 
for a long time, though they had plenty of water ; then they would pile together and 
shiver, which they will do even in warm weather if they have the cholera. 

As to remedies, I have tried a number of the most popular ones without any favor- 
able results ; indeed, I am satisfied there is no cure. The best preventive beyond all 
doubt is the fencing-in system — let no hogs run at large. The next is the scattering sys- 
tem — have but few together. Farmers lose on an average about one-half the number 
of their hogs whenever the disease gets into a large herd. 

Mr. J. Zimmerman, Mount Carmel, Wabasli County, Illinois, says : 

No diseases among farm animals have recently come under my observation, except 
diseases among swine. With the variovis forms of so-called,hog-cholera I have had con- 
siderable experience in my own stock, and observation among that of my neighbors. 
The report of Dr. Detmers to the Missouri State Board of Agriculture, a year or two 
ago, contains, in the main, a better description of the disease than I could give, as well 
as the best remedial and preventive prescriptions I have yet tried. His statement, how- 
ever, that hogs kept in small numbers, as by people in towns, are comparatively free 
from disease, is not at all borne out by the facts in this vicinity. 

The greatest fatality is among pigs ; but I am well convinced this is to a very con- 
siderable extent from mange, although denominated " cholera," with all other diseases 
to which the hog is subject. While induced in many instances by perfectly obvious 
causes, I think the mange in many cases is inherited, or is the result of injudicious 
breeding. For instance, I have one sow, now suckling her third litter, whose pigs in 
each case have been mangy, although treated as other pigs that remained free from 
mange. She has in each case been bred to her own sire ; none of my other sows have 
been bred to a related male. It sometimes happens with me that a sow couples with a 
young, immature male ; the progeny in nearly every such case are diseased. 

The nesting of swine under barn-floors and the like, i. e., under any low, tight cov- 
ering, where there is not free circulation of air about the animals, is, in my experience, 
a certain inducing cause of cholera. 



48 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

I have bad better success from the nse of Dr. Detraer's remedies, namely, tartar- 
emetic and calomel (particularly tartar-emetic), and seclusion of the animal, than 
from any other. I have administered it to quite a number, and have called the atten- 
tion of my neighbors to it, and know of no instance in which it has been administered 
that it has not been attended with beneficial results. I can hardly think of anything 
that has not been recommended as a cure for cholera. I have tried dozens of so-called 
remedies, sometimes with apparent success, but ninety-nine out of one hundred of 
these, I am positive, are called remedies on no sufficient basis of extended experi- 
ment. It may bo so also with the above. So far my experience and observation are 
largely favorable to its efficacy. 

I feed in a large wood lot, where there is plenty of water and shelter from cold 
winds. I throw com on the groiiud by wagon-loads for the animals to run to when 
they wish, but never two loads consecutively at the same place. I break up the nests 
occasionally and compel a change of sleeping quarters. I feed, at least once a week, 
a mixture of salt and wood-ashes. I breed only from mature animals, preferring Berk- 
shires for mothers and Polands for sires, but lay particular stress on maturity of breed- 
ing stock. Whenever I find an animal refusing its food, or wheezing painfully, or 
■with an appearance of thumping in its sides when it breathes, or nestling down and 
shivering as if it had a chill, I remove it from the lot as quickly as possible and feed 
it from two tor four grains of tartar-emetitf in a small quantity of potato cooked with a 
little grease to tempt an appetite. Whatever, if any, of these measures may be the 
cause, my swine have been measurably free from cholera during the past four years. 
Still, I recognize the danger that it may break out among them in a week, and also 
the paradox that if it were not for the losses by cholera there would be no profit in 
hogs. 

I cannot give a reasonable guess at the average duration of attacks, so wide is the 
variance. I think at least sixty per cent, of the cases prove fatal. 

Mr. "W. H. Malone, Marion, McDowell County, Xorth Carolina, says : 

On inquiry I find the opinion prevails that fifty per cent, of the hogs in this county 
have died during the last year, and that the fatality has been about as great in several 
other counties of Western North Carolina. The disease is called "hog cholera," but 
very little is known of its causes ; still less is known of any effectual cure for the dis- 
ease. The symptoms areoften not discovered until the hogs are fouud dead ; frequently 
from three to five head are found dead together. Sometimes the hog shows an indis- 
position to eat, and generally dies within two or three days after the discovery of these 
symptoms. The people have many remedies, but all have proven unavailable. 

A disease also known as cholera has been quite fatal among chickens for several yearg 
past. They die suddenly — are often found dead in great niimbers in the morning. No 
remedy for the disease has been discovered in this locality. 

Mr. J. E. HoLSTON, Anderson, Madison County, Indiana, says : 

During the past eighteen months we have had a fearful epidemic among our hogs, 
called cholera. It has been very fatal, and last year carried ott' at least four-fifths of 
all the hogs of the county. Some think the losses were even greater than this, but to 
be on the safe side I put the figures at four-fifths. For ten years past the farmers of 
this county have been raising for market from 25,000 to 30,000 head of hogs, and dur- 
ing the last eighteen months they have lost by this disease in this class of animals 
alone, in actual cash value, from .$300,000 to -f 400,000. These figures.are large, but they 
are below the aggregate estimate of some of our stock-raisers. In the years 1875 and 
1876 we had partial failures of the wheat crop ; so during the two years, with these 
various causes, we have had a signal financial failure, and it will take at least four 
or five years, with such crops as we have this season, to catch up again. 

The symptoms of this so-called hog cholera are varied and complex, so much so, in- 
deed, as to render it very difficult to arrive at any definite conclusion. The first symp- 
tom among young hogs or shoats is a cough, accompanied by a kind of heaving or 
thumping in their flanks. This continues for a few hours or a day or two, when the ani- 
mal dies. Some mope around, lie in the shade, and refuse to eat. Those affected in 
this way live anywhere from two hours up to three or four days. Some bleed at the 
nose, some are constipated, while others are laxative. The last-named symptom is rare, 
and hogs thus affected generally get well. 

_ There are numbers of so-called remedies and preventives, but all have proved abor- 
tive. Soft-soap, calomel, black antimony, coal-oil, dog-fennel tea, sulphur, sulphate 
of iron, &c., have all been used, but without effect. No specific remedy or preventive 
will ever be found until the origin or cause of this most fatal epidemic is discovered. 
The farmers of Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Michigan are 
suffering to as great an extent from the ravages of this disease as we are here in In- 
diana. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 49 
Mr. Henry C. Miller, Westport, Decatur Countj', Indiana, says : 

Farmers in tbis locality sustain heavier losses from hog-cbolera, so called, than from 
all other diseases to which farm animals are subject. When once fully developed, the 
disease baffles all skill and every remedy. Preventives afford about the only relief 
yet discovered. Ashes and salt, given once a week, is a good i)reveutive ; so are sul- 
phur and turpentine, administered in milk or slop. The following is regarded as a 
remedy of some value : One pound of black antimony, one-half pound of suli)liur, one- 
half pound of copperas, atul one pound of bhick pei)per. Pour hot water over one- 
half bushel of shelled corn or wheat, and stir in the ingredients ; then add one peck 
of wheat bran and a little salt. Stir well and scatter along the paths of the hogs, or 
on any place convenient to the hogs, where the ground is hard. ;; 

The malady seems to be a lung disease. The hog breathes with a jerk, the breath- 
ing becoming shorter as death approaches. In cases where they purge, the animal 
lingers from seven days to two weeks, but with other symptoms they die generally 
Avithin from two to four days. It is more fatal among shoats and pigs, but often|kill8 
hundreds of fatted hogs. .' -_«< 

Chicken cholera is very destructive among fowls. Preventives are more effectual 
than remedies. Lime in their food and water-troughs, and sand and gravel withia 
their reach, will greatly conduce to their health. 

Prof. A. A. HoLCOMBE, D. V. S., lecturer on " Special Pathology " 
in the American Veterinary College, New York, says : 

In reply to communication received from you last month I can only give the facts 
relating to contagious pleura-pneumonia as it exists in the State of New Jersey. It 
has prevailed to a greater or less extent in some parts of the State for a number of 
years past. That it is spreading is attested by recent outbreaks in localities where 
heretofore it has been unknown. In September, 1873, an outbreak of this disease oc- 
curred on a large dairy farm at North Branch, Somerset County, New Jersey. It was 
treated by a quack of Somerville (in the 8amecounty),anduearlyevery case died. I saw 
three of the cases, and they were undoubtedly genuine cases of the contagious pleura- 
pneumonia. In June of the next year (1874) I attended an oiitbreak on an adjoining farm. 
About forty cows were affected. I treated thirty-three, five of which died. I made 
j>osf-H(or?eH! examination of three and found all the lesions and jposi-mortem appearances 
belonging to the above disease. The treatment given the cases was simply general and 
special stimulants. The small mortality in this outbreak can hardly be attributed to 
the treatment, but rather to the exhaustion of the infecting virus. Isolation was 
strongly urged, but could not be effected owing to the failure of the community to 
appreciate its contagiousness. The cause of the outbreak is unknown to me outside of 
the testimony of the owners of the affected cattle. In both instances they had bought 
strange cattle, one or more of which were coughing and apparently not thriving. Un- 
doubtedly this was the manner of introducing the disease, yet it needs confirmation. 
During the summer just passed a very serious and fatal outbreak has prevailed in the 
adjoining county of Hunterdon, in the neighborhood of Clinton and Lebanon. Of its 
cause I know nothing. The disease is a terrible scourge to some localities of that 
State. An inA-^estigation of its cause and the best means of stamping it out is no doubt 
a subject worthy the attention of the Department of Agriculture. 

Mr. Jo. Aebott, Hillsborough, Hill County, Texas, says : 

1. I will say that my observation, which is supported by information I get from sev- 
eral well-informed gentlemen, is, that horses and cattle which run at large on our 
prairies are entirely free from disease of any kind. 

2. That horses which are kept up for use are sometimes troubled with bots or colic. 
These cannot properly be said to be diseases; but instances of these complaints are 
rare. For the first, a drench made by dissolving about one-third of an ounce of blue- 
stone in water sweetened is regarded as a specific. For the latter, one-half pound of 
bi-carbonate of soda, dissolved in water, is frequently used with good effects. In vio- 
lent cases this is repeated once or twice. 

As to milch cows and oxen, I can say I have known neither to be troubled with any 
kind of disease, and I have owned a nnmber of each kind for several years past. 

Hogs are frequently affected with cholera, which, at times, assumes the form of an 
epidemic among them. In seasons of this kind the loss is often 50 per cent. ; but I 
will say that I have known of no cholera among hogs during the past twelve months. 
I am not informed of a remedy for this disease, although several experiments have been 
made. 

Fowls, especially chickens and turkeys, are frequently visited with cholera. I have 
never known a fowl to be cured after the disease was fully developed, though many 
trials have been made. My observation is, that if fowls are fed on onions, mixed with, 
other food, or if you can induce them to feed on the onion while growing, as they some- 
times do, they will never have the disease. I believe the onion to be a sure preventive. 

S. Ex. 35 4 



50 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. E. M. MuMFOKD, rriuceton, Gibson Coimty, ludiana, says : 

The farmers of Gibson County have lost thousands of dollars this year by what is 
termed hog-cholera. The tirst symptom of the difsease is a cough, then the animal be- 
comes stnpid, refuses to eat, and generally dies within from three to six days from the 
appearance of the first symptoms. Corn soaked in lime and fed to hogs is said to be 
a preventive. Copperas, sulphur, and ashes are also said to be of some value as pre- 
ventives. No cure has as yet been found. 

If anything can be done by way of investigation by your department that will afford 
relief, it will be thankfully received by the farmers of this section of the country. 

Mr. C. W. Johnston, Chapel Hill, Orange County, Xortli Carolina, 
says : 

Distemjjer has prevailed to some extent among horses and mules in this locality. 
The duration of the disease .averages about one month. Not one in one hundred of 
the animals attacked die of it. An efhcient remedy is found in the inhalation of smoke 
from burned tar and feathers. Asafetida used on the bit and in the trough will be 
found a good preventive. 

Murrain has prevailed to a small extent among cattle, with fatal results. There 
seems to be no remedy for this disease. 

Among hogs the cholera has prevailed to an alarming extent. Sulphur, turpentine, 
cojiperas, &c., have been used as remedies, but none of them have proved efficacious. 

Cholera has also been very destructive among fowls, and, as with hogs, all remedies 
seem to be ineffectual. 

Mr. H. A. Cutting, Lunenburg, Essex County, Vermont, says : 

I would say that the use of powdered lobelia, or ipecac, in all cases of epizootic or 
colds in the heads or throats of horses have, in tliis section, been beneficial. The man- 
ner of use has been to take a large spoon and put into it a drachm of ipecac or two 
drachms of lobelia, and, after opening the horse's mouth and diawiug out his tongue, 
scatter the powder as low down on the roots of the tongue as possible. In this way it 
is mostly swallowed, and yet some is worked about the mouth and throat, causing an 
increased secretion and almost immediate benefit. 

Hogs have died to some extent this summer — perhaps one-sixth of all. The disease 
seemed induced by constipation, and after the cause was discovered all were saved by 
giving them common salt. Those not sick were given salted food, and all went well. 

Mr. George C. Eisenmayer, Mascoutali, Saint Clair County, Illinois, 

says : 

We have no general diseases among farm stock in this county, except cholera among 
hogs, for which there is no known remedy. There are also occasional cases of cholera 
among all kinds of domestic fowls, for which no remedy has been found. 

]\Ir. B. Whitaker, Warsaw, Hancock County, Illinois, says : 

It is with much gratification that I learn that the diseases affecting farm animals 
is about to receive attention. The losses in this county from hog-cholera alone are esti- 
mated in cash value at $:iO,000 per annum. In a recent report of the State Board of 
Agriculture the disease was said to exist in eighty-eight counties of the State, and 
from authentic and well-digested reports the annual loss was estimated at $7,880,060. 
The terrible fatality of this disease and the great losses sustained thereby is the 
strongest argument that could be offered in favor of a speedy investigation into its 
causes. Remedies without number have been prescribed, but without any appreciable 
effect. The disease, in its various forms, is veiled in so much mystery that a correct 
diagnosis is rendered very difficult. The symptoms generally, as I have observed them, 
are about as follows : First, the hog becomes stupid and refuses to eat, sleeps a great 
deal, and dies within a few days. Second, it may be constipated or exactly the reverse. 
Where diarrhea prevails the hog may die soon or it may linger along for several days, 
all the time losing and shrinking in flesh. Sometimes animals affected in this way re- 
cover, but they remain poor, gaunt, and apparently shriveled up. Young hogs are 
generally affected with a hacking cough and a noticeable jerking pulsation in the 
flanks at every inspiration of breath. Pigs and shoats will sometimes linger for weeks 
with these symptoms. Still another symptom is observed in cases where the hog seeks 
seclusion, with every appearance of a severe cold or chill. It will crouch into the 
smallest possible compass, apparently for the purpose of securing warmth. Some hogs 
are attacked with vomiting and purging, which symptoms continue until death en- 
sues. The disease is more fatal with fatted hogs than with any other cl.ass. Many of 
these drop dead without a struggle, and without any visible symptoms of disease. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 51 

Intestiaal worms may possibly have some coauection with the diseases which affect 
swine. I was informed by a gentleman who performed the operation, that in spaying 
some hogs lust year he fonnd the intestines of one greatly distended with worms. 
He opened them and took out fourteen long, large worms, and closed the opening 
without completing the operation of spaying. The hog lived and did well. Another 
case, where the intestines wei'e opened, a large number of worms taken tluirefrom and 
the hog afterward spayed, the operation jiroved fatal. Proof is abundant that intes- 
tinal worms are common to most hogs, both in sickness and in health. 

Diseases of fowls exist in almost every community and locality. It has not been so 
prevalent this season as in past years. It is, perhaps, contagions, as healthy fowls 
brought from otiier places and allowed to run with diseased ones are soon infected. 
Guinea fowls, ducks, and geese are exempt from the disease so far as my knowledge 
extends. 

I neglected to state in the proper connection that all hogs affected with any of the 
above symptoms refuse to eat, hence the dititiculty of administering medicine. 

Mr. W. M. Green, Jamestown, Eussoll County, Kentucky, says : 

There are many complaints of cholera among hogs, but I am seventy years old and 
have never had a case in my herds. I have sometimes had hogs affected with qninsy — 
a swelling of the throat. This disease is generally fatal. Lice no doubt cause many 
diseases which ultimately prove fatal. I have had a good many sucking pigs and 
small shoats die of a disease resembling consiimption. The first symptoms are those 
of wheezing and coughing. They then become constipated, refuse to eat. seem very 
stupid, take the thumps, and soon die. My grown bogs are generally healthy. I feed 
from seveuty-tive to one hundred and fifty every year, and scarcely ever lose one. I 
frequently give them copperas, sulphur, and soda, about one-half pound of each to 
every twenty hogs. This is mixed with soft-soap and rye-meal. For quinsy I give 
spirits of turpentine, or common tar mixed with meal. 

A disease called cholera is very fatal to chickens in this locality. I never had it in 
my brood until this fall. They have died very rapidly ; indeed, it seems they will all 
die, as we have no remedy. When attacked with the disease the fowls become stupid, 
refuse to eat, run off at the bowels, and soon die. 

Mr. W. J. Moore, Larkiusburg, Clay County, Illinois, says : 

I am happy to report that there is no prevailing disease among any of the domestic 
animals of this part of the country ; all are in a healthy condition at present. Cholera 
prevailed to some extent during the early part of the past summer among hogs, but it 
did not assume an epidemic form and soon abated. Its abatement was not attributable 
to any specific treatment. 

Mr. S. Y. Pickens, Hendersonville, Henderson County, North Caro- 
lina, says : 

In this locality, where the atmosphere is mountainous and the water pure, the most of 
the ills to which horses are liable are, either directly or indirectly, the result of mis- 
treatment, except, however, the epizootic and other distempers, not very prevalent at 
any time in this section. Among the most common diseases here are the gravel, scours, 
glanders, and colic. 

In case of gravel the horse manifests great pain ; when standing will stretch his 
legs far apart; when lying the animal rolls much upon his back. When thus affected 
the horse must be relieved in a few hours, or death will ensue. As a remedy, take two 
eggs, pour out the yellow through a small hole broken in the shell, then fill the shell 
with spirits of turpentine, and make the horse swallow the whole. Some inject onion 
juice up the water-organ with good results. 

Scours are generally caused by excessive exercise or over-feeding with green food. 
This causes over-heating, which is followed by loose discharges from the bowels, pro- 
ducing general debilit^^ accompanied with great suftering. A dose of spirits of turpen- 
tine or tar ooze will generally relieve the animal by checking excessive discharges, 
after which drench freely with warm sage or pennyroyal teas. 

Glanders affects the roof of the horse's mouth, produces great soreness, and renders 
it very difiicult for him to masticate his food. Sometimes some of the bars in the roof 
of the mouth become a gristle. Bleeding in the roof of the mouth and frequent swab- 
bing with a strong solution of copperas and alum is our remedy. 

Colic may be caused by excessive work, irregular and excessive eating, drinking, 
&c. It is indicated by the strongest manifestations of pain, great restlessness, con- 
tinual walking, rolling or pawing, and body swollen. The most speedy cure known to 
us is to " rake " the animal and bleed in the neck and mouth. Then give him freely of 



52 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

warm teas by drencliing, with soda dissolved iu it. This disease does its work usually 
in a few hours. 

We believe most horses have bots in them, but that their ravages are seldom com- 
mitted upon an animal wlien in good health. Therefore, when a horse is debilitated 
and his whole organization deranged by disease, is when the bots l)egin their work. 
This is known by the great restlessness of the horse, and the resting of his nose upon 
his flank. One-half pint each of whisky, lye, sweet milk and molasses well mixed and 
poured down the horse in time, is almost a sure cure, but should be followed in one hour 
by one-half pound of salts, to be rei)eated if inelfectual. These remarks have special 
reference to this immediate locality, but are alike applicable to the mountainous region 
of western North Carolina. 

Before closing my statement relating to horses, let me advise the free use of salt and 
lime, or wood ashes, mixed in food. It serves as a preventive for many of the diseases 
common among domestic animals of this section. 

Our cattle seldom die of disease, save the "hollow-horn," more justly called "hollow 
belly," since the latter is generally the cause of the former; and dist inper, believed 
to be contagious and almost invariably accompanied by what we term the " distemper 
tick," great numbers of which get upon the cattle about the time and in localities 
where the disease rages. It is thought to be conmiuuicated by grazing where aliected 
cattle have lain or grazed. It is also said that a cow may haA^e it iu its system and 
communicate it to others and show no symptoms in themselves. The free use of sul- 
phur internally aud kerosene oil externally serves as a good preventive, in which 
alone is safety. 

Hogs are sometime affected with cholera, which is supposed to be transmitted from 
one to another. So very fatal is this disease that perhaps 80 per cent, of the hogs at- 
tacked with it die. Tar and copperas are good preventives, used in food. Kerosene 
oil and blue stone are as good remedies as we know of here. 

Dr. John Kennedy, Paragon, Morgan County, Indiana, says : 

Hogs being our staple production, I shall treat of the various diseases affecting this 
animal, all of which are called cholera. In my opinion there are three distinct dis- 
eases, viz : Lung fever, (pneumonia,) erysipelas, w-hich may affect any one organ or 
the entire organization of the animal, and enteritis or enteric fever, a disease similar 
to hospital or camp or typhus fever in the human system. 

The former is mainly brought on by exposure to changes of weather. The two lat- 
ter are epizootic and contagious, and so closely resemble each other that I shall not 
attemjit a distinction, as they are quite generally considered the same disease. I shall 
simply give distinctive symptoms sufficient to enable the ordinary farmer to know 
what ails his hogs. 

Ill the colder seasons of the year, when the hogs are inclined to pile up to sleep (not 
being protected, as is nearly always the case in our vicinity), it is noticed that some 
of them do not readily come up for their morning feed, and when they are driven up 
they seem stupid aud not inclined to eat. They may have a cough, or this symptom 
may not show itself for a few days further along. They are thirsty from the begin- 
ning and the cough, which appears sooner or later, may be accompanied with bleeding 
at the nose aud mouth, which is an evidence that the luugs are seriously affected. 
When this latter symptom appears it may be taken as an evidence that the animal 
will soon be ready for the dead-hog man. The symptoms invariably indicate lung 
fever. The best treatment is to at once separate the well from the sick ones and if 
possible provide shelter and protection for all. If you have too many in the herd take 
out those that are positively healthy and put them on the market, and thereby reduce 
the number until you can afford shelter and protection for the remainder. A cheap 
shelter and protection may be constructed by boarding solid your fence so as to shield 
them from the chilling effects of the northwest winds. Make a cover slanting from 
the top inward, and throw in stalks and husks for bedding. Further on I shall give 
a diagram for a barn, such as every hog raiser should have. 

The next thing in the general treatment of the disease is to cease feeding everything 
except slop made from corn meal, with sufficient salt added to make it palatable. 
They should not have water of tener than three times a day. I would give from one 
to two pints of water from pine tar, adding live to ten grains of nitrate of potash to 
the j)int. During the active stages of the disease and in convalescence, which will take 
place within from five to seven days, I would use chlorate instead of nitrate of potash. 
With this simple treatment more hogs will be cured than iu any other waj' that I have 
known tried. If thought proper, however, a small amount of copperas may be given 
dniing convalescence, aiij from two to live grains to the hog three times daily in their 
swill or slop. As a preventive for those not affected nothing is better than the tar 
water mixed with chlorate of jiotash. As a disinfectant copperas w^ater, or charcoal 
and wood ashes, may be used. Carbolic acid, if not considered too costly, may also be 
used in the proportion of one-half ounce to a quart of water. With this the beds 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHEK DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 53 



40 feet. 



should be sprinkled two or three times a week, using a common sprinkler or a wisp of 
straw. 

In cases of erysipelas the hog will appear indisposed and rather mopy. At first its 
bowels are somewhat constipated and its fajces dry and hard. "Within a lew days 
diarrhea, tbougli not always a symp- 
tom, may be noticed ; red or bluish- 
red 8])ots will appear on the skin ; 
swelling will set in, and, if the hog 
does not soon die, the hair will begin 
to fall off. and the skin, in some ^ 
cases, will become surfeited and '" 
even crack open. It will thus lin- '-' 
ger along for thirty or fortj' days, 
and sometimes recover after it lias 
been given over to die. Tliis dis- 
ease is liable to affect the vital 
organs, and when it does it runs a 
rapid course, proving fatal in a few ■£ 
days or resulting favorably in a '^ 
comparatively short time. The dis- 2 
tinguishing symptoms in this and 
enteric, fever or inflammation of 
the boNvels are, instead of the red 
spots on the skin, an eruption of 
red specks appear, and vomiting . 
and diarrhea are generally present § 
within a very few days after the 1^ 
attack. If not propeiiy treated it '^ 
is equally fatal with the others. 
As in other cases, I would advise 
separation of the sick from the well 
ones, and in cold weather, shelter 
and ijrotection, also observing like c" 
rules as to feed and water, using -2 
tar-water with carbolic acid. One ^ 
ounce of the latter to a barrel of 
water, and one gallon of the water 
to each hog per day in addition 
to three quarts of thin corn-meal 
gruel to each hog, will be found 
the best treatment. For those that 
have diarrhea, one-half teaspoonful 
of muriate tincture of iron may be 
given three times a day. A small 
amount of carbolic acid for the well 
ones may also be given. I cannot 
give the proportion of hogs cured 
by the above course of treatment, 
but so far as tried it has proved 
very effectual. To be healthy, hogs 
should have a fair degree of clean- 
liness, and where they do not have 
access to running water, the pools 
where they wallow should be dis- 
infected once a week by the api)li- 
cation of either lime, wood-ashes, 
or copperas. 

Herewith I give a diagram of a 
barn owned by Mr. Jesse Lockhart, 
of Niantic, 111., which he erected for 
the protection of his hogs. Two 
years ago this gentleman informed 
me that he had been using this barn 
for three years, and that during 
that time, notwithstanding he had 
handled several thousand hogs 
yearly, he had not lost one from the so-called hog-cholera. 

The foregoing design comprises two cribs with a drive-way and scales between, 
making a main building forty feet square and fourteen feet high, with gables at each 





Crib 








Scales. 


— [ 


Drive way. 












II 


Door— scales office. 


17i feet 




Crib. 


Door opened 




Door closed. 




t 
















































g 






P* 




* 


© 






•d 






i. 












v 






v 





























54 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

end of the drive-way. The pens attached and contiguous thereto are covered at right 
angles with the cribs; those pens — six side by side, or twelve in all — extend the 
building one hundred and five feet, which, added to the other apartments, malces the 
entire building cover a space of 145x40 feet. The pens, which are abont six feet in 
height, have windows to each, with shutters, and may be closed tight or ventilated 
at will. The inner walls of the pens are four feet high, and the aisle and doors five 
feet wide. The doors open in opposite directions, and when one is opened it closes 
the aisle, so that hogs can be changed from one pen to another by simply opening two 
doors. Each pen is provided with a trough, and near the center is a force-pump, sup- 
plied with a rubber hose long enongh to reach to any part of the pens. With this 
apparatus, Mr. Lockhart informed me, he thoroughly cleaned his pens once a week. 
The cobs are scooped up and taken out daily, with all other refuse matter, and damped 
out to the stock hogs, which are fed in adjoining lots, each lot containing fourteen 
acres. Oue of these lots is planted to soft maples and the other to black- walnut trees, 
the trees now being about seven years old. 

Mr. LiNFOED H. Hawes, Woodlawu, Jeflferson County, Illinois, says : 

We have no diseases of an epidemic nature among onr farm-animals other than 
cholera, among hogs and chickens, the diagnosis of which is not ditterent from that 
heretofore published by the commissioners of the State of Missouri. There is no spe- 
cific remedy in use among our farmers, though bicarb, soda has been used and is 
claimed to be such remedy. 

As a preventive for the disease among fowls, "brimstone, i. e., roll-sulphur, has been 
placed in their drinking- vessels to impregnate the water. Bicarbonate of soda is also 
used as a remedy, and, it is claimed, with excellent results. However, I believe it is 
generally admitted that fowls are exempt from diseases of all kinds if kept free from 
vermin. When on a new farm or cleared land they have access to a jilentiful supply 
of insects and grubs found in decayed logs and brushwood, which argues that a liberal 
allowance of fresh meat, together with plenty of coarse gravel and scrupulous clean- 
liness, is all that is necessary to insure exemption from disease. 

We have in some localities " milk sickness," with which domestic animals are liable 
to be attacked, and from the use of beef, milk, or butter, the disease is imparted to man- 
kind. It is useless for me to repeat the symptoms so frequently described heretofore. 
The cause is as much in doubt now as it was at the first settlement of the country. 
However, it is claimed by a few who have given the matter consideration that the 
disease has its origin in poison by cobalt or black oxide of arsenic. The exhalations 
from the soil containing the poison gather upon the herbage or impregnate the water, 
and thus are transmitted to whatever partakes of either. Proof is offered in the fact 
that acid sulph. aromat. is an antidote for poison by cobalt, and it has been used with 
good results in what seemed hopeless cases of this poison among oxen. 

Mr. Henry Grtjbe, Beaver Creek, Bond County, Illinois, says : 

There is no general disease among any class of farm-stock except among hogs and 
chickens. Every boy knows a cholera hog or a cholera chicken when be sees it, but 
the most shrewd and knowing ditfer widely as to the cause of the disease. From my 
own experience I am satisfied that, with proper care and such means as are within the 
reach of every hog-raiser, no one need have cholera among his hogs. Through care- 
lessness I have lost a number of hogs, which has only occurred with me in a busy time. 
My plan is to prevent, which can be done by placing common wood-ashes in a trough 
or on the ground, with salt scattered over them, and some kind of grain, bran, or meal 
thrown on top of that, say once a week. Besides this, place some stone-coal within 
reach of the hogs, and my word for it you will have uo cholera. Burned bones will 
also be found a good addition. Arsenic is curative, but " one ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure." 

It is seldom we are afflicted with chicken-cholera, and therefore I have given the 
subject little or no attention. 

There is no limit to the duration of these diseases. The average fatality is about 
95 per cent. 

J. Brice, veterinary surgeon, Erie, Pa., gives the following diagnosis 
of a fatal cattle-disease which recently prevailed in that locality : 

In reply to your inquiry respecting the cattle-disease which prevailed here for a 
short time, I would say that, so far as we know at the present time, it has completely 
subsided. Nearly all of the animals attacked died of the disease in length of time 
varying from a few hours to not exceeding five days. In some cases so rapid was the 
disease that animals thought to be in perfect health in the evening were t'cund dead 
in the morning. (These siulden deaths were known onlj' by hearsay.) The animals 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 55 

attacked, so far as known, were all milch cows, and the only ones that recovered were 
young cows. Although some few others recovered, it is believed they were not suffer- 
ing from the specific disease, but some disease conseciuent on overfeeding, and in some 
cases from lung disease. There may be a cause for all the animals attacked being 
milch cows, as the disease was confined to the city altogether, and few other cattle are 
kept in the city. In a barn in which was the greatest fatality there was a bull which 
stood through it all, his companions dying to the number of seventeen. Only two 
cows were left, one of which did not have the disease. The other, a young cow, recov- 
ered from a slight attack.. 

The disease was certainly splenic fever, charbon, or anthrax. The symptoms were ex- 
treme restlessness, loss of appetite, but not complete ; thirstiness ; fa?ces natural at first 
but frequently diarrhea afterward; the urine jtrofuse, and during the latter part of the 
disease dark red or bloody-looking. The animal gave evidence of intense internal 
pain by her arched back, hanging head, and, if at liberty, by her constant moving, or, 
if tied, by pushing her nose into a corner and ly-eathing laboriously. Although at first 
the animal had perfect control of her limbs, they became first weak, then staggering, 
and finally lost their power completely. She would then fall down, and, after a few 
ineffectual attempts to rise, would lie helplessly moaning until death relieved her suf- 
fering. 

As to treatment, everything that was tried availed nothing. The fever steadily pro- 
gressed to the end. Further research would seem to be something most devoutly to 
be wished for, and we hope that some measure of success may attend every attempt to 
find a cause and a cure for so fatal a malady. 

All the cases in this section have been in that particular portion of the city where 
the cattle pasture over a large common, in direct communication with the railroad and 
cattle-yards, and where a number of Texan cattle were grazing after removal from the 
cars during the period of the recent railroad strike. Soon after that time the first 
cases were noticed, but the cool weather early in the fall appeared to check the dis- 
ease, only, howcA'er, to break out with greater virulence during the hot weather in the 
latter part of September. 

Mr. S. P. Thacker, Yieuua, Johnson County, IHinois, says : 

Horses and mules have been affected with what is known here as periodic opthal- 
mia. The first cases that came to my knowledge were in January, 1875. Only two or 
three cases occurred then. The disease has since become prevalent, so that there are 
numerous cases now within my knowledge. 

The animal is attacked with inflammation and swelling of the eyes, nearly invaria- 
bly beginning in the left eye ; then, within from twenty-four to thirty-six hours the 
right eye is attacked in the same manner. The eye runs a clear, thin, watery fluid, 
and in some cases matters. While inflammation is in the eye the light seems to be 
painful to that organ. The inflammation lasts three or four days ; then subsides, 
leaving the pupil of the eye of a milky color. In the course of four or five days the 
eye becomes apparently well again. The animal becomes nearly blind during the at- 
tack, but can see again very well after the attack is over. Some have become blind in 
one or both eyes after the fourth or fifth attack, which occurs at intervals of from 
three to seven weeks. The cases of longest standing seem to become more severe and 
of longer duration ; but the attacks are not so frequent. 

It is thought by some of our veterinary surgeons that the disease is hereditary, but 
I notice that stock of entirely different pedigrees are attacked by it. Bathing the eyes 
in warm salt-water appears to be of more advantage than any other remedy yet tried. 
This allays the inflammation, but does not XH'eveat the recurrence of the disease. 

Mr. W. J. Banks, Elizabethtown, Hardin County, niiuois, says: 

There is no disease affecting farm animals in this county except a disease among 
cattle mentioned in a former report to your department ; but I am still unable to learn 
the name or nature of this disease. Cholera is prevailing among swine to some extent, 
but we are never entirdij rid of this scourge in this county. 

Mr. J. H. Oakwood, Catlin, Yermillion Couutj', Illinois, says : 

Hogs are very unhealthy here and are suffering from a disease called cholera. This 
disease manifests itself in various forms. Sometimes it seems to be congestion of 
the lungs, at other times sore throat, at another time rheumatism, and still again au 
affection of intestinal worms. Sometimes the disease takes the form of chills and 
fever, and then the hogs will lie in heaps in the warmest weather as they do in the 
winter season for the purpose of keeping warm. These diseases are all designated as 
"hog-cholera," and no remedy is at iiresent known. It is generally conceded that to 



56 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

drive the sick bofjs rapidly and heat the blood, and give but little food, is about as 
good a remedy as any other. In some forms of the disease tartar-emetic has been 
used successfully. Various other remedies are used, but all fail in a greater or less 
degree. 

The animal usually lives but a few days after being attacked. In some cases hogs 
become affected and lose flesh; the appetite appears good, but it seems impossible to 
fatten them. In this condition they sometimes live for months. In cases like these 
the better plan is to turn on grass and give no food, and in a few months the animals 
may again become healthy. Seventy-tive per cent, of all the hogs attacked by this 
disease die, and full ten per cent, of those that reach maturity in this county die of 
some disease other than the above. 

]\rr. Samuel Preston, Mount Carroll, Carroll County, Illinois, says: 

Diseases among domestic fowl have been very fatal during the past and a few pre- 
ceding years in this locality. My wife is of the opinion that a liberal mixture of 
wheat-bran with other food is a preventive of disease. It is also excellent for hogs 
confined chiefly to a corn diet, by keeping them from becoming constipated. 

With the exception of distemper, which, in a few cases, has proved fatal, horses 
have been pretty free from contagious diseases. Since the epizootic passed over the 
country a few years since, a large fatality has befallen young colts. Probably fifty 
per cent, of these young animals have died the present season. Some attributed it to 
the effects of that disease. 

A strange disease has attacked and proved fatal to my lambs during the past three 
seasons. It comes upon them about midsummer. From apparent health they die 
within from three to four hours. They are first noticed lying down in a natural posi- 
tion, separated from the i-est of the flock. A tit or spasm seizing them, they will 
throw themselves upon their sides and, with eyes set, will soon expire. In 1875, I lost 
forty ; in 1876, fourteen ; and this season, four. None recover that are attacked. I 
have found that weaning the lambs early checks the disease. 

Mr. W. O. Millard, who resides about two miles southwest of Milledgeville, and who 
is one of the largest and most careful stock-raisers in this locality, has been very 
unfortunate with his large stock of hogs during the past summer. He has lost one 
hundred and ninety head, sixty-one of which were large hogs, the remainder shoats. 
He claims that the disease which decimated his herd was nothing more nor less than 
typhoid fever, and thinks it will yet extend far more than it has in this and adjoining 
counties. 

Mr. M. Davenport, Oxford, Calhoun County, Alabama, says : 

Cholera among hogs is the most dreaded and fatal disease we have to contend with 
here as afl'ecting any class of farm animals. It is seventeen or eighteen years since it 
made its appearance in this locality, and it now passes over this country as an epi- 
demic about every other year. I know of no remedy for it, neither can I give any 
information in regard to its cause. Some years ago I lost three hundred head of hogs 
by its ravages in the short space of fifteen days. The disease has prevailed among my 
hogs six or eight different times, doing great damage at every visitation. I have tried 
almost every prescription recommended as a remedy without any beneficial results 
whatever. If, in your proposed investigation, you succeed in finding either a prevent- 
ive or a cure for this terrible malady, you will receive the thanks and blessings of 
hundreds of thousands of stock-raisers in this country. 

Mr. J. Ellwood Hancock, Columbus, Burliugton County, New Jer- 
sey, says : 

I have had some experience with pleuro-pneumonia in cattle, having lost one-third 
of my herd from its ravages in 1861, when 1 succeeded in eradicating the disease after 
a duration of about six months. I had a second visitation of the malady in my herd 
in the early part of 1876, when I lost six head from a herd of twenty-throe. My expe- 
rience is that it runs its course in not over three weeks after the animal becomes so 
much affected as to prevent its eating — usually in a shorter time. Of the animals 
affected, I am satisfied not more than one-third will recover. I applied to a veterinary 
surgeon, who prescribed a powder which I think was a benefit, giving it, as I did, to 
the whole herd as soon as it was ascertained the disease was present. After the dis- 
ease is fully developed in an animal I have verj' little faith in medicines, as a large 
proportion will die with the best tri:',atment. Although my whole herd was not really 
sick, the larger part of it showed signs of the disease ; some only for a few days, how- 
ever. It remained among my cattle for about four months. I am of the opinion that 
on both occasions the disease was introduced by cattle pnrchased by me. The first 
case showed itself in about six weeks after the introduction into my herd of the 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 57 

infected auiraal ; in the secoud case it was at least four months. I regard this as the 
■worst feature of the disease — it remains dormant in the system of the animal for so 
long a time before it is imparted to otliers. 

During the past few years this terrible disease has caused great loss to farmers in 
this section of the State. Many have had to contend with it, and numbers have suf- 
fered heavier losses than I have. 

Farmers in this locality are also suffering great losses from chicken-cholera. The 
fowl is taken with diarrhea and sits moping about for a few days and dies. But few 
of those attected recover. Many preventives have been tried. I believe cayenne pep- 
per, asafetida and composition powders, used freely in the feed, are useful as such. 
Cleanliness in roosts, gas-tar, carbolic acid, »fec., are useful; but the i)reventive or 
remedy remains to be discovered which will give absolute security. 

Mr. James H. Swindells, Lancaster, Dallas County, Texas, says : 

We have not been troubled with diseases among any of the lower animals except 
among hogs and chickens, both of which were, and now are, aftected with what is 
termed cholera. Until a year ago the hogs in this locality were not attected with 
cholera. The disease was brought here by the importation of stock from Wise, Mon- 
tague, Parker, and Johnson Counties, a tier of counties lying in the lower Cross Tim- 
bers, west of this point. When they arrived they were herded with hogs raised here. 
In less than a week the imported hogs became diseased and commenced dying rapidly. 
The attected ones were separated from the others and various remedies were made use 
of to check the disease and, if possible, cure it. None of the remedies used seemed to 
be of any benefit, and nine-tenths of those attected died. The disease soon spread to 
the native stock, and since then (last fall) there has been more or less of the disease 
present. 

The symptoms observed are as follows: Indisposition to move about or to cat ; ly- 
ing down most of the time ; .diarrhea, with excrements first of a natural character, 
but gradually getting darker until the evacuations became almost black ; fever, the 
temperature in some cases ruuuiug up to 10d° F., liut generally to about 102°. Before 
death the animal would vomit a dark-green or black fluid, swell up, and the odor 
emitted would be very ofi"ensive. 

The only ett'ective way of checking the disease would seem to be to separate the 
diseased animals and put them into a clean lot having running water in it. I had a 
few hogs which were taken sick with this diarrhea. In a day or two the discharges 
became of a light-green color, and very thin. I relieved all of them but one (I believe 
seven were attacked) by the administration of calomel. For a hog weighing one hun- 
dred pounds 1 would mix one dram of calomel with a handful of meal and a little 
milk, and let them have that much in the course of twenty-four hours. They would 
generally eat a little at a time until the whole is disposed of. The calomel did not 
seem to purge. On the contrary, the bowels would check up, and in from one to two 
days the animal "would commence eating corn and would get well without any further 
trouble. The one which died, would not eat the meal in which the calomel was mixed. 

Mr. W. DuNLEY, Hennepin, Putnam County, Illinois, says : 

A disease called cholei'a has prevailed to a great extent among hogs in this locality 
during the past few years. Many of our farmers have at difterent periods, and within 
a very short time, lost most of their stock by the ravages of the disease. No positive 
remedy has as yet been discovered. 

During the past summer I lost about eighty hogs by the disease. I used all the 
diff'erent remedies recommended, but they continued to die daily until I was told that 
oats was a specific. I at once commenced feeding dry oats, and no more died. Three 
were sick when I commenced feeding the oats, but they recovered, and I have lost 
none since. 

A great many fowls have died in our vicinity of a disease also called cholera. No 
remedy or sure preventive has been discovered for this malady. 

Messrs. Daniel A. and Jacob Millek, Farmiugton, Davis County, 
Utah TeiTitory, -write as follows : 

Sheep are the principal stock product of this locality. Among this class of animals 
a disease prevails called scab, for which the following remedy is used : One peck of 
unslaked lime and twenty-five pounds of sulphur dissolved in water. A tank or hogs- 
head is tilled with the water in which these ingredients have been dissolved, into which 
the sheep are dipped. These dippings are generally required once or twice a year. 
Another remedy is to make a solution by adding to water sufficient for the purpose 
one pound of tobacco, one-fourth iiound of gunpowder, and two ounces of arsenic. 



58 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

This solution is poured on the b.acks and otlier affected parts of the sheep. Sometimes 
a small amount of red precipitate is used, but this is considered dangerous. 

But few hogs are raised here, and they are generally healthy. However, there have 
been some cases of cholera, but how the animals were treated I cannot say. Fowls 
are generally healthy, with no prevailing disease. 

Mr. T. H. Baur, Augusta, Macon County, Illinois, says : 

Hogs have been destroyed every year for the last twelve years in this locality by a 
disease known as " hog cholera." The dist^ase has never, as far as I have been able to 
learn, prevailed in the open prairie without our being able to trace it to some marked 
source of contagion, such, for instance, as n.ative swine coming in contact with hogs 
brought in from localities where the dis(%ase was prevailing. The disease prevails 
almost continuously alon^ the timber belts on the water-courses, owing doubtless to 
the fact that hogs are suffered to run at large, while many careless persons throw the 
dead carcasses of the animals into the streams, thereby spreading the disease along the 
whole length of the water-course below. 

Where the disease breaks out spontaneously as it were, the symptoms are a violent 
cough attended with high fever. I have been told that on examinaticm of such cases 
after death the lungs were found in a decayed or rotten condition, while the other vital 
organs presented little or no derangement. Such cases originate in close, ill-ventilated 
quarters, such as are found under the floors of old buildings or about or under straw- 
stacks. The carcasses of such, if eaten by well hogs, or ev^en the droppings from them 
will communicate the disease in a more intensitied form and fatal chai'acter than that 
described above. With the latter cases the hogs die more suddenly than in the first 
instance, sometimes within twelve hours from the attack, while the former will often 
linger for days. In some cases the latter, in addition to the cough and high fever, will 
be extremely costive ; in other cases the animal will be affected with an active diarrhea. 
Some will swell up about the ears, the skin will crack open and the blood will ooze 
therefrom. All or nearly all of those thus affected die. The few that do recover had 
better die, as they rarely become thrifty .again. 

We have never yet found a remedy that will effect a cure. The best informed stock- 
raisers are of the opinion that relief must come, if it ever does come, through prevent- 
ives rather than through remedies. 

Those of us who have been most successful in keeping our hogs free from disease 
have done so by giving them good, comfortable, clean, well- ventilated quarters, and 
as a general thing those who most nearly meet these conditions have the best success. 

Fowls are affected and thousands die annually by a disease known by the name of 
cholera. The symptous are about as follows : Two or three days before death they 
will appear droopy and stupid; eat but little if any ; become very thirsty, have a very 
active bowel-complaint, and finally drop down dead. Another symptom is seen in the 
gills and comb of the fowl, which become pale soon after attack. The only remedy 
that has yet been employed with success here is to rid the premises of fowls for twelve 
months. After that they may be ktipt again for a few years free from disease. There 
are those who are of the opinion that fowls exhaust something on the premises that the 
system requires, and until that constituent is replaced they cannot live and thrive. 

Mr. E. K. Slosson, Verona, Grundy County, Illinois, says : 

The hog seems very much more subject to fatal diseases now than he did forty years 
ago. To arrive at a correct etiology of the diseases of this animal, which forty years 
ago were unknown, we are forced to notice the then physical coiulition of the animal 
as compared with his jiresent, tracing the changes which have been effected by con- 
finement, change of food, and the practical method of producing new varieties which 
shall take on the greatest number of pounds of muscle and fat in tlie shortest time. 
Of all the domestic animals the hog is the most easily made to undergo changes of 
form and temperament, and hence it is that the varieties of the hog are continually 
increasing. New breeds, well advertised and puffed, are multiplying, and the great 
and only object appears to be to find a variety that shall eclipse all others in maximum 
weight at the earliest possible period of their existence. In the insane pursuit of gold 
stamina of constitution are lost sight of, and the hog-raiser who has three hundred 
head to-day in four weeks' time may be reduced to half a dozen hcail. He sustains a 
loss of $;5,000 from the emasculated system of the hogs making them susceptible to dis- 
ease which a healthy and strong constitution will not take on. A change of constitu- 
tion was doubtless brought about in part from confinement, a condition unknown to 
the hog before domestication. Confinement, as all physiologists know, decreases mus- 
cular growth and strength, and the nervous energies are correspondingly weakened. 
On the heel of tliis a change of food takes place. Indian corn is fed in many parts of the 
country to the exclusion of those kinds of food upon which he had previously lived, for 
hundreds of years perhaps, and corn is almost exclusively fat-producing. This combina- 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 59 

tion of new circumstances and conditions necessarily produces physiological changes in 
the system, and these changes being, to say the least, i)artially abnormal, the body is 
prepared to take on diseases which were originally unknown to the hog. It is these 
changes which create a predisposition to disease which hitherto inoperative causes 
have failed to develop, but now being brought into action the enervated system falls 
an easy prey. Is it not reasonable to suppose that muscles accustomed to daily toil 
for sustenance, when deprived of that healthful exercise, should become weak, llabby, 
and deprived of much of that vitality which constitutes perfect health ? Departures 
from the irrevocable laws of animal life in its perfection is invariably accompanied 
with loss of some kind, and hence violation of physiological laws are dangerous. 

We need not wonder that an active nervous system, from close continement and 
relief from all anxiety about satisfying hunger, should change the temperament to a 
lymphatic one, which is the prevailing one of fat animals as a rule. We need not 
wonder that changes so conspicuous should lead to disease and a shortened span of 
life; that stamina of constitution and longevity should be wiped out with the sponge 
of disease. We conclude, then, that the above causes indicate a condition of the sys- 
tem which predisposes it to the taking on of certain diseases so fatal to the hog. 
These are, in medical language, the remote causes; the immediate causes now require 
a brief notice. The class of diseases which, under various forms, takes off so many 
hogs, horses, and cattle, has proved a stubborn enemy to veterinary students ; and 
post-murtem examinations have only revealed the existing pathology of diseased parts, 
not the immediate existing cause of the phenomena presented. This class of diseases 
seem to belong especially to the mucous membranes, those tissues which are exposed 
to the direct action of causes existing in the atmosphere or in the food. The causes 
of epizootic diseases, and those which produce typhoid types of disease through the 
medium of the bowels and stomach, are floating in the air, or exist in the food taken 
into the stomach. It is now admitted by some of tjhe best authorities that epizootic 
diseases are caused by a vegetable gi'owth, the minute spores of which are breathed 
into the lungs, as they are floating in the air we breathe, and also that some typhoid 
forms of fever, as hog-cholera, are of either animal or vegetable growth, and that the 
spores or minute eggs are introduced in the food. What is singular to the non-physi- 
ologist, these spores coming in contact with healthy mucous surfaces will not vege- 
tate, showing that certain, definite conditions are required in this membrane to pro- 
duce disease at all; or, in other words, there must be a peculiar abnormal condition of 
this membrane before there can possibly be a development of these diseases. A fur- 
ther examination of the matter of the stomach and bowels by a powerful microscope 
is very desirable, that more positive and reliable knowledge may be gained, which 
may point out a treatment which, thus far, has been little less than an opprobrium 
to veterinary practice. 

Symptoms of hog-cholera are not unfrequently modified, or new symptoms added. 
The characteristic symptoms, which are never absent, are fever, refusal to eat, dispo- 
sition to lie undisturbed, and a fetid discharge of dark-colored fieces. We suspect the 
distinctive feature which shall distinguish hog-cholera from all other disease will be 
found in the peculiarity of the fecal discharges, and- these can only be demonstrated by 
careful microscopic investigation. 

The treatment upon which any reliance can be placed, so far as we know, has not 
yet been discovered. It is true quackery raises her hydra head, and floods the country 
with sure cures, but whether from medicine taken or in spite of it, we do not know. 
As a rule, about the time we find out the hog is really sick, the disease is so far ad- 
vanced that remedies may be considered useless. We have seen It stated that turpen- 
tine has been given, about a teaspoonf ul to the hog, and with success. A further trial 
is desirable, for it is not impossible that turpentine may kill those minute specks of 
life without injury to the mucous membrane. An accidental discovery of this kind 
would save millions of dollars annually. But there are other diseases, among which 
pneumonia is not uncommon and often fatal. For instance, we have known cases 
where the hogs piled themselves up on the wet ground under cover, so that they be- 
came steaming wet ; they then rush out into the cold air to eat their corn, take cold, and 
die of pneumonia. Hogs are often troubled with worms, which greatly disturb di- 
gestion and make the appetite capricious, keeping them thin in flesh. Copperas in 
their swill, at the rate of two table-spoonfuls to the pail of swill, will clean out the 
worms and greatly improve the health of the hogs. Repeat this twice a week for a 
few weeks. A large farmer in Kendall County this fall lost 300 head of hogs, but he 
came to the conclusion, whether the true one or not, that the disease was not true 
cholera, but a form of disease which he believes was produced by a stagnant pond of 
water in the field. They were in the pond a good deal, and the pond was covered with 
a green scum. This may have been a malarial disease in some respects analogous to 
thft genuine cholera. 

Since, from the nature of the case, the disease is not noticed until it is fastened upon 
the system and beyond the stage in which curative measures may prove successful, it 
is wisdom to fall back on a surer and more feasiljle plan — precautionary measures of 



60 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

prevention. The question arises, What maybe considered in some sense prophylactics 
in this class of diseases ? The answer is, Preserve a healthy play of the organs of the 
body, and the causes prodnciug these diseases cannot act on the mucous membranes, 
and consequently no disease will be produced. A weakened and partially diseased 
mucous surface seems to be a prerequisite to the sprouting of spores in the lungs or 
the hatching of eggs in the stomach and bowels. Right here we are met with the 
very pertinent question, Can we prevent the devolopmontof disease where the predis- 
position is always present by any treatment of the animal ? Like hereditary consump- 
tion in man, so long as the health of the animal is sufficient to resist the causes acting 
on the predisposition, so long will the disease be absent. What, then, can be done 
toward saving millions of hogs annually ? First. They must have a dry and comfort- 
able place to sleep, and this apartment should be cleaned out every few days, and, if 
necessary, washed out also. Second. They must have clean water so arranged that 
they can drink whenever it suits them. Third. They should have salt at least twice 
each week and stone or charcoal, which is better, every week. Fourth. They should 
be fed upon a clean floor, and their feed should be mixed or frequently changed ; 
cooked food, with apples or potatoes for desert, and then corn in the ear or hasty pud- 
ding. Fifth. In summer they should have all the timothy and clover they will eat. 
This treatment would doubtless save a host ; but so long as a predisposition exists, 
there will be more or less disease, and so long as new varieties are being developed, 
there will exist an instability in breeding, which tends to weaken rather than strengthen 
the constitution of the hog. We doubt seriously whether hog-cholera, Tinder present 
modes of breeding, can be either prevented or successfully treated. Still, accident 
may discover a remedy which will kill the living cause of disease without injury to 
the animal. Of course we do not recommend going back to the " alligator pike " or 
the " Ohio rooter," charged with stealing potatoes out of the second row in the ad- 
joining lot. We do believe, however, that the hog needs more exercise, a greater va- 
riety of food, and that he should not be bred in and in, as all our best breeds have 
been. We have too many varieties now, and the more we get and undertake to breed 
them pure, the weaker and more liable to disease will the hog become. 

Mr. E. Stokes, Berlin, Camden County, Xew Jersey, says: 

We have been exempt in a great measure from diseases among our farm-animals in 
this immediate vicinity for some months, except a disease affecting the horse. This 
malady is very fatal, and a number of horses have been lost in the southern portion 
of this county and many in Atlantic County. They are taken suddenly with great 
weakness, and in many cases very soon after eating a full feed are unable to stand, 
and in four or five hours become perfectly blind and experience great difficulty in 
breathing. They die within from twelve to twenty-four hours. Almost every case has 
proved fatal. Mares seem much more liable to be attacked than horses. I have heard 
of no mules being attacked by the disease. Horses in prime condition are as liable as 
those that are not, and youug ones are rather more liable than old horses. I think the 
disease is somewhat on the decrease at this date. Some localities are entirely exempt, 
while it may prevail on almost every side. Should the disease become general, it will 
prove much more serious than any malady we have ever had among our horses. 

Both hog and chicken cholera are prevailing to some extent in this locality. 

Mr. J. C. Thornton, Elliott, Ford County, Illinois, says: 

A disease exists among hogs here which has proved very fatal. In the fall of 187.5 I lost 
all but sixteen out of a herd of one hundred and twenty. The symptoms of the disease 
vary a great deal. The first symptoms are invariably manifested in a dry cough, great 
thirst, and sometimes purging and vomiting. As a general rule, hogs, while under 
the influence of the disease, are very stupid. The duration of the disease also varies. 
Some of those affected will linger along for a mouth or two; some will apparently get 
better, but after a while the flesh will begin to drop off in places, and then the animal 
will soon die. The larger portion of those attacked will die in a few days. I gave 
new milk from a fresh young cow to the first two of my hogs that were aflected, and 
they got well ; but I could find nothing that proved of any benefit to the others. I 
used stone-coal, copperas, sal-soda, sulx^hur, alum, cayenne pepper, &c., without any ben- 
eficial results. 

The disease prevailed in an epidemic form, as hogs were attacked without coming 
in contact with infected stock. During the fall of 1375 at least 1,000 head of hogs died 
of the disease in this township, a tract of land only six miles wide and about nine miles 
in length. 

In the fall of 1876 the disease prevailed again to a considerable extent, and many 
hogs were lost. The symptoms were about the same as those given above. During 
the past summer the disease again made its appeai'ance, but this time in a milder 
form. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 61 

A disease called chicken-cholera has proved very fatal to fowls in this locality. The 
fowl, when attacked, becomes stupid, refuses to ear,, aud in a day or two will die. Some- 
times the comb or gills will turn pale or white. As a preventive, we use copperas in 
the water or in the feed with good success. 

Mr. Thomas Tasker, Angola, Steuben County, Indiana, says : 

This county has been comparatively free from diseases of farm-animals, with the ex- 
ception of epizootic or distemper amoug horses. Tiie disease made its appearance last 
July, and still prevails to a considerable extent. It is very difficult to contend with or 
manage. The horse is affected with a cough — something like distemper — but the irri- 
tation seems contined to the glands, and the disease appears similar to glanders. The 
horse will have the heaves to all appearances until the glands are relieved. It has 
proved fatal in some cases. 

As a remedy, four ounces of chlorate of potash to one quart of water has been used 
with good results A spoonful of this preparation should be injected into each nostril 
every morning and evening until a cure is effected. Some medicine that will act read- 
ily on the kidneys will also be found useful. 

Mr. N. X. Halsted, Newark, Hudson Comity, New Jersey, says : 

In 1859-'60, the first year of the appearance of the pleuro-pneumonia in this State, I 
had the honor of being president of the State society, and, with Governor Olden 's assist- 
ance aud the generosity of some few of the members and officers of the association, we 
made an exhaustive examination into said disease ; bought the diseased cattle, quaran- 
tined them, killed some and made, through our surgeons and veterinary surgeons from 
New York and this State, a careful autopsy of several we killed and many of those that 
died. The result of these investigations was published in the annual report of the 
State society. We went to Boston and made a thorough and careful examination there, 
and decided that the disease was an imported one. 

The disease was brought into our State by Mr. Johnson, who bourht six calves from 
the swill-milk stables in Brooklyn, N. Y. These brought the disease to his herd. 
The society stopped it there and we had no more of it until our Union County farm- 
ers bought some more swill-milk-stable animals, and, being sellers of milk, kept the mat- 
ter quiet, or hid it from the officers of the society until the whole neighborhood was 
infected. This has been stamped out by a rigid quarantine and the use of carbolic acid, 
used as a disinfectant and by the animals inhaling it. They have some of it now in 
Burlington County, produced from the same cause, which is being eradicated by the 
same means. 

Our society crushed out the Spanish fever by killing all cattle affected with it at the 
cost of the owners. All animals that die of this disease should be buried six feet under 
ground — hides, hoofs, and all — and the sheds whitewashed with quick lime and car- 
bolic acid, as the disease is infectious. 

Mr. Z. E. Jameson, Irasburg, Orleans County, Yermont, says : 

Hogs here are generally healthy, but during the past ten years there have been many 
cases of apparent paralysis of the hinder parts of young hogs, ranging in age from three 
months to one year old. At the present time a neighbor has three, about five months 
old, so affected. One of these cannot walk at all, one can only walk with his fore legs, 
and the other can use his hind legs but little. 

These pigs have been kept in a pen 10 by 12 feet, with a plank floor, aud fed almost 
entirely upon sour milk. Within a few days they have been allowed to run in a yard 
where they could have access to the soil, but no grass or green feed. No remedy is 
known. Some die. Others live until they are in tolerably fleshy condition, and are 
then killed for meat. The cause of this trouble may be in the lack of variety in food. 

Mr. J. S. Latemer, proi)rietor of Cedar farm herd of sliort-liorns, 
Abingdon, Eaiox County, Illinois, says : 

Diseases of horses in my locality consist in what are familiarly known by our quack 
horse-doctors as hots and epizootic or distemper, the first of which affects the horse 
internally. The remedies usually recommended aud applied are too numerous to 
mention. Each doctor has a different one, and the remedies kill about as often as 
they cure the animal. No effectual remedy has yet been found, as a horse once 
affected with the disease never entirely recovers. The epizootic is a malady which 
affects the lungs aud throat, and sometimes spreads to the limbs and body of the horse. 
We have what is known as regular distemper, which is of a milder form than the epi- 
zootic; but both are evidently the same disease. The quacks have difl'erent remedies, 
with none of which am I conversant. The disease attacks and destnsys animals rang- 



62 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

ing from six mouths to two years of age. It seems to be contagions, and prevails at 
all seasons of the year. It is usually more fatal to older stock, as about 10 per ceut. of 
those afiected die, and those that do not are rendered comparatively worthless. 

The cattle in this couuty, all along the line of the great thoroughfares, are subject to 
attacks of the Texas cattle fever. In this county we are anuually subjected to it. Then 
we have the disease known as black leg, which is virtually a blood disease. It affects 
young stock priucipallj', mostly calves from three mouths to one year old, and is very 
rapid in its course. The calf frequently dies within thirty-six hours after the first 
symptoms of the disease are observed. On skiuning the animal, all the blood vessels 
of the legs and neck are usually found clotted and gorged with black blood. So far 
no remedies have been found. In certain localities in the county it is more virulent 
and fatal than in others. When a lot of stock is attacked it usually goes through the 
whole herd. It is very fatal, and I regard it as contagious. Perhaps 6 per cent, of the 
young stock of the neighborhood die of it. Usually the calves that are iu best condi- 
tion die first; thin ones are rarely attacked. 

Another troublesome aud growing disease is that of abortion in cows. The disease 
is little understood — indeed its causes are a mystery to us all. I believe it to be a blood 
disease, and under certain conditions contagious. When once started in a herd of cows, 
let them be ever so healthy, it is ai>t to afiect them all. They lose their calves any- 
where from three to seven months' time. Unless well cared for many of those affected 
will die, or if they do not they will afterwards prove worthless as breeders. I have 
tried, and seen tried by a great many others, various remedies, but all have proved 
worthless. Changing from one pasture to another, aud separating the well from the 
affected ones, will sometimes do good for a short season ; but the disease will usually 
break out again, perhaps affecting cows that were previously exempt. The opinion 
generally prevails that the disease is contagions. For the past two years I doubt if 10 
per cent, would cover the annual losses fioni this malady. 

We annually lose at least 20 per cent, of all our hogs and pigs by a disease commonly 
called hog cholera. Mauy diseases are classed under this head, and some of them are 
no doubt the result of local causes, such as bad treatment, confinement in filthy aud ill- 
ventilated buildings and pens, &c. Worms in the throat and intestines is one of the 
symptoms of the so-called cholera. Many specifics are used, but no certain remedy has 
as yet been found. Copperas, sulphur, charcoal, turpentine, asafetida, antimony, and 
mauy other drugs have been tried, but usually without satisfactory results. The dis- 
ease is certainlj' contagious, and one of the best preventives is to separate at once 
the sick from the well hogs, and divide the well ones up into small herds. A change 
of feed from com to oats, bran, «fec., will also be fouud beneficial. 

Mr. G. W. Baldock, Charlestowu, Clarke County, ludiana, says : 

The diseanse known here as hog cholera seems to prevail all over the hog-growing 
country. It prevails as an epidemic in this neighborhood and county. Mr. David Lutz 
recently lost one hundred aud twenty-three head ; Mr. Isaac Koons two hundred head ; 
Mr. Floyd Ogdeu, two hundred head ; Mr. Samuel Lewmau, forty head ; Mr. G. B. Lutz, 
50 head ; Mr. John King, 50 head : Mr. David King, 35 head ; the writer, 50 head ; and 
so on throughout the entire neighborhood. All diseases affecting swine are erroneously 
classed under one head — that of cholera. My hogs were afflicted with what I consid- 
ered a lung disease, the symptoms of which were about as follows : The animal became 
very stupid, and lost its desire for food. It would mince slightly of its food, but would 
swallow but very little. Some of them would cough a great deal aud others but little, 
while still a few others would not cough at all. Although the coughing showed the 
presence of disease, I did not consider it one of the leading symptoms. After the dis- 
ease becomes fully deveh)ped they become constipated, and the faeces hard and very 
offensive. Thej"^ nest around and seem to want to sleep all the time ; eat nothing and 
soon die. There is no known specific remedy for this disease, be it what it may. As a 
remedy I tried sulphur and copperas, wood ashes, aud soft soap. These things seemed 
to give the well hogs a fine appetite. I gave one shoat a half pint of castor oil, which 
purged it freely and it recovered. As soon as I commenced feeding the above ingredi- 
ents I had no more sick hogs. Perhaps some of them may prove a j)reventive, but I am 
sure neither of them can be regarded as a remedy. 

My wife has lost a great many fowls by cholera. We tried many supposed remedies, 
but without avail. 

My neighbor, Mr. A. J. Crum, lost eleven head of cattle this summer by an unknown 
disease. They would froth at the mouth, quit eating, and soon die. He tried no 
remedy. 

Mr. James E. Foster, Browustown, Fayette County, Illinois, says : 

While we have lost heavily the past season with hog cholera, still I do not feel com- 
petent to give an intelligent diagnosis of thp disease. I think there are two or three 



, DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 63 

different diseases classed under the name of cholera. In tbo sprinji; season the animals 
are affected with something like inlluonza. They cough and exude an offensive matter 
from the nose, refuse to eat, and pine away and die in from one to three weeks. An- 
other and more fatal form is, I think, a typhoid or bilious fever. The symptoms are vom- 
iting and sometimes purging. Those aldicted in this way die within a shorter time than 
the others, say within from one to six or eight days. The fatter the hog the more rapid 
and fatal is the disease. The percentage of recoveries in this form is very small. Rem- 
edies are attended with little success, as the animal is a hard subject to get medicine 
down. There seems to be no intelligent mode of treatment, and the trouble and expense 
often equals the value of the hog after recovery. I think measures of prevention will be 
found both more practical and more profitable. I would therefoi-e suggest the isolation 
of the sick animals and the burying of the dead carcasses. 

Mr. John C. Andras, Maiicliester, Scott County, Illinois, says : 

In this vicinity the losses have been very great from diseases among hogs, that of 
cholera being the most prevalent. The loss of pigs recently, from one to two months old, 
within a circuit of two miles, has been over 400 head. In a herd of 150 head only two 
were left; in another of 90 head but 8 were left. The first symptom* were extreme 
chilliness, even when the thermometer ranged from dW^ to 95° Fahrenheit. This was 
shown by their crowding in beds at mid-day, and a general discoloration of the skin, 
that of black hogs a-ssuming a gray or purple hue, and the white animals a pinkish 
tinge. This was followed by high fever and a general breaking down of all the animal 
tissues, and fatal results within from three to five days. With older hogs the prelim- 
inary symptoms are the same, but the fatality is not so great. Recovery is generally 
followed by loss of hair and sometimes the sloughing off' of large pieces of flesh. The 
animal is almost worthless for feeding purposes for at least one year. 

As to remedies there have been none found that can be relied on with any certainty. 
Different compounds of antimony, arfenic, poke root, and iron (sulphate of iron), are 
used in some cases with apparent benefit. Dissection shows a general infiammatory 
condition, centering sometimes in the stomach, but more generally on the lungs. The 
general breaking up of all the animal tissues is shown by rapid decomposition as soon as 
death ensues. The usual bird scavengers seldom feast on the carcass of a hog that has 
died of cholera. 

There are several other diseases which hogs are subject to, among which is pneumo- 
nia. The symptoms are high fever and general debility, and ultimately extreme ema- 
ciation, with small percentage of death. Long continued and the best of feeding will 
rarely overcome the extreme leanness of the animal. Dissection generally shows atro- 
phy of part of the lungs, and general adhesions. I think a thorough investigation of 
this subject by competent persons would result in great good to the entire country. 

Mr. P. T. Graves, Burkville, Lowndes Comity, Alabama, says: 

All kinds of farm animals, with the exception of hogs, have been healthy during the 
past few years. Hogs have been affected more or less fatally each year for some years 
past with a disease known as cholera. The disease manifests various symptoms, the 
most fatal of which is purging. The excrement of the hogs affected in this way is 
of a greenish color and starchy consistency. No settled conclusion has been reached 
as to the cause of this malady, nor has a remedy been found. Two points, however, 
seem to have been conclusively determined, viz : First, that the disease commences in 
damp, warm, weather, during a favorable season for vegetable growth and fungoid 
formations. The hogs feed greedily on growing vegetation, with ns mostly on cotton, 
and if allowed all they will eat the result is invariably disease. It is thought that 
atmospheric conditions have considerable influence in producing disease. Second, we 
find that hogs taken from a range where the disease has been developed, but showing 
no signs of infection themselves, if confined on dry ground and fed dry food they will 
escape the disease. But a clearly marked case of hog cholera is contagious, and the 
disease should be so treated. Those that have been so affected should never be used 
as breeders, as the taint will be imparted to the offspring. There are many remedies, 
so called, but caution and preventive measures will be found the most profitable. 

All kinds of fowls have suffered to a great extent with cholera this year. Entire 
flocks of turkeys, geese, ducks, and the common barn-yard fowl have died from its 
effects. The disease is more fatal with the Asiatic breeds than with the more common 
kinds. No treatment has been tried with sufficient care to warrant a favorable opinion 
of its efiicacy. Lovers of fowls and eggs will be grateful for a sure remedy for this 
scourge. 

Mr. John F. Lafferty, Martinsville, Clark County, Illinois, says: 

I keep but few hogs, as the losses are so great that the business is not profitable. It 
frequently occurs that an entire herd is lost. While the disease is generally, almost 



64 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

invariably termetl cholera, the symptoms are sometimes very differeut. For instance: 
Last snmmer my hogs Urst showed a lack of appetite, weakness in the back and a 
staggering gait, dullness of the eyes, general feverishness and great thirst. Finally 
they would fall down with a spasm, froth at the mouth, and squeal from the intense 
pain of cramping. The first stage would last from one to two weeks, but after the 
spasms set in, which daily increased in fre(]uoncy, but three or four days would elapse 
before death would ensue. I lost eleven head out of a herd of nineteen with the above 
symptoms. 

In August and September many farmers lost their fat hogs by what was supposed to 
be sore throat. They would refuse to eat, apparently because it liurt tbeir jaws to mas- 
ticate their food. In two or three days they would die, apparently without pain. 

Chickens, too, are subject to a disease generally called cholera. I am of the opinion 
that the disease has its origin in the liver, as that part is usually found enlarged to three 
times its natural size. We often find the livers of apparently healtiiy fowls entirely 
too large. 

I have tried all the popular nostrums and many of those little known for both hogs 
and chickens, but none do auy good. We generally separate the sick hogs from the well 
ones and let them die. We kill and bnry the chickens, or feed them to the hogs as soon 
as we discover any symptoms of the malady. I do not know whether the killing of 
affected hogs would arrest the disease, as I have not tried that. 

Hogs and chickens are about the only classes of farm-stock affected in any way with 
disease. So fatal are the maladies which affect these that farmers have about aban- 
doned both. 

Mr. Jajmes T. Coleman, Collier County, Texas, says : 

At this time we have no fatal diseases among farm-animals worthy of notice. At 
times we have had lung-fever and staggers among horses, and occasionally a few cases 
of malignant distemper. Cattle have suffered but little. Some cases of bloody mur- 
rain now and then occur, but so seldom that the subject is hardly worth noting. We 
have but few sheep in the county, and as far as I am advised no disease exists among 
them. Hog and chicken cholera prevails to a less extent than usual. All diseases af- 
fecting hogs and chickens, from time to time, are designated under the one head of 
cholera. The general symptoms in chicken cholera are about as follows : The comb 
and wattles turn pale, the fowl becomes droopy and stupid, the excrements are watery. 
Death ensues in a few days. Sometimes fowls that are in apparent good health will 
suddenly drop dead. On opening such the liver appears enlarged to three or four times 
its natural size, and is quite rotten. Copperas, calomel, red pepper, and tannin are used 
as remedies, and sometimes with good results. 

Mr. Luke Teeple, Belvidere, Boone County, Elinois, says : 

I have had no disease among my farm-stock except a disease known as cholera 
among chickens. It was very fatal, as my entire flock died with the excei>tion of a 
few young chickens. I tried many remedies but all to no purpose. 

A strange disease recently attacked one of my neighbors' pigs, shortly after they were 
weaned. They would be found sitting in the position of a dog. When disturbed, and 
often when they were not, they would start off on a run, and heedless of where they 
were going they would often dash themselves with great force against any obstruction 
that lay in their way. They would fall down, get up and stagger around awhile and 
fall down again, and then lay and pant as though they were tired and almost exhausted. 
At other times they would jump up into the air, and continue to do so until death 
would relieve them of their suffering. The pigs generally died within from four to 
twelve hours after the first symptoms were observed. As high as fourteen pigs died 
of the disease in one day. Asja remedy, saleratus was used at the rate of one jiound to 
twenty pigs. None died after the administration of the second dose. 

Mr. J. C. Peak, Vera, Fayette County, Illinois, says : 

There has been no disease in this section, of any consequence, among farm-animals, 
for some time past, except the so-called cholera among hogs. This disease appears at 
all seasons of the year, in hot and cold, dry and wet weather alike. It attacks all 
breeds, ages, sizes, and in all conditions, whether fat or lean. It appears in various 
forms, all of which generally prove fatal. Some seasons it is most prevalent among 
pigs and shoats. At other times these escape and the older hogs will be attacked, 
while during other seasons those of every age and condition will be suffering from it 
at the same time. The disease is generally jireceded by a cough, sometimes low and 
suppressed and at others harsh and whooping. Sometimes the animal is costive and 
passes hard black lumps covered with white slime. Some will pass blood and also 
bleed at the nose. At other times the disease will assume the form of diarrhea, and 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 65 

the auiinal will purge severely and pass large quantities of black offensive matter. 
Internally we find the etfects of the disease ditfi^ring as widely as the symptoms. 
With sonie the lungs are found in a normal condition, while in others they are found 
diseased and decayed, as is also the liver. I have knowji instances where hogs would 
die very suddenly, and upon examination a shoulder, ham, or other portion of the body 
would bo found bloodsliotten and in some cases mortified. Last year I had forty head 
which seemed perfectly well one day, and on the next day they were sore, stiff, and 
lame. I lost thirty of them within as many days. I do not believe the disease con- 
tagious. I have known Avell hogs from other fields and farms to bed with diseased, 
dying, and dead hogs, and yet not become infected. Again, I have known those that 
were kept at a distance of a half-mile from diseased hogs and yet become affected 
with the malady. 

Mr. J. Ballard, Nilcs, Berrien County, Michigan, says : 

Preventives for what is known here as hog cholera will be found better than cures. 
A great deal of this disease is produced by uucleauliness and a lack of pure water dur- 
ing dry seasons. Another cause is no doubt found in an exclusive corn feed. Tbis food 
is dry and heating, and soon produces fever, which is one of the first symptoms of so- 
called cholera. If hogs are kept on good clover pasture, where they can have pure 
running water to drink and wallow in, with salt, ashes, and charcoal within their reach, 
and an occasional dose of sulphur, they will generally remain free from the disease. 
An occasional change of feed is always desirable, as but few animals will thrive con- 
tinually on the same kind of food. The symptoms of the cholera are almost as various 
as the hogs themselves. Sometimes it will begin with a cough ; one will appear lame 
iu a hind-quarter, while another will bleed at one or both ears or at the nose ; another 
will lose all its hair and bristles ; another will eat heartily at night, iu apparent good 
health, and will next morning be found dead. I have no remedy. 

The symptoms of a disease affecting horses, known xmder the general name of epi- 
zootic, are a cough and loss of appetite, and soon a discharge from the nose. Rosin, 
saltpeter, ginger, and indigo are used as remedies with good results. The animal should 
be kept warm and comfortable, and given warm food of boiled potatoes and bran mash, 
or anything he will eat. Rub frequently and thoroughly, and give exercise, but not 
enough to heat the animal. The above remedies and treatment cured the worst cases 
we have had in this vicinity. Where strong medicines were given, several animals died, 
and others were a long time in recovering. 

There is no prevailing disease among cattle at present. Occasionally we have a case 
of milk- fever among cows. A preventive for this trouble will be found in bleeding the 
animal a week or ten days before calving, and giving her a sufficient quantity of Ep- 
som salts to thoroughly physic her. 

Mr. W. P. Cooper, Alexandria, Calhoun County, Alabama, says : 

The disease affecting horses in this locality for the most part is simply colic, caused 
by overwork and irregular feeding. All horses are more or less affected with hots, 
but they seldom attack until disturbed by an accumulation of gases. To prevent colic, 
moderate work, regular feed, and a proper an\ouut of green food are necessary. If the 
physical condition of the horse is reduced disease will surely follow. As a remedy for 
colic, one ounce of chloroform to three ounces of sweet milk and one pint of whisky, 
mixed with one pint of water, and used as a drench at the mouth, will cure ninety- 
nine cases out of one hundred. As a remedy for bots, drench with one quart of lard oil. 
. If not relieved in thirty minutes, repeat the dose. I have seen the bot die almost im- 
mediately when dropped in hog's lard. The grub breathes through the pores of the body, 
and when oiled they cease to breathe and death ensues. Nitric acid will not kill them, 
but oil will. 

Native cattle here are subject to but few diseases, but imported cattle almost all die 
of a disease we call murrain. But few live to becouie acclimated. The symptoms are 
eyes feverish and excited; disposition to stand iu water; very thirsty ; discharges of 
bloody urine. In two or three hours the animal becomes uncontrollable and dies sud- 
denly. On post-mortem examination one portion of the stomach is found perfectly dry. 
There is also found a large extended gall or bladder rilled with bloody secretions. In 
the region of the heart are found collections of fluid which seems to be an overflow of bile 
from the gall. The disease is very fatal. We have no remedy. 

Cholera is the only disease which seems fatal among hogs. W^hen attacked the hog 
becomes stupid, its eyes matter, and it is often stiff and lame. Sometimes the animal 
is constipated and at others exactly the reverse. As a preventive, sulphur, copperas, 
salt, and strong wood-ashes in equal parts, mixed in slops, is given once a week. Cab- 
bage leaves are regarded as an excellent food for sick hogs, and many believe them to 
be a cure for the so-called cholera. 

Fowls are invariably healthy when kept clean. If the chick or older birds become 
lousy, tip the under feathers with grease and sulphur or mercurial ointment. 

S. Ex. 35 5 



6G DISEASE AiMONG SWiNE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. Perry K. Colton, Moorefiehl, Switzerland County, Indiana, 
says: 

The only disease prevailing liere among farm- animals is that among hogs, and known 
as cholera. There has never been a oaso of it in my neighborhood, but much of it has 
and does exist in adjacent communities. The lirst symptums are languor, watering of 
the eyes, diarrhea, in some cases constipation, and a dry cough near the close of the 
scene. The duration of tlie disease is from one to two days. The average fatality is 
virtually all, for tJie few that do recover are afterward worthless. No remedies, so 
called, are used with any success whatever. Dissection after death discloses, in many 
cases, the bowels much iullamed. Often the intestines contain large numbers of white 
worms, which in st)me cases are so knotted together as to completel}' obstruct the 
bowels. The lungs are generally found much decayed and otherwise all'ected. Soap, 
black ammonia, wood-aslies, sulphur, &c., are given as i>reveutives, but with what 
success would be difficult to determine. 

We are of the opinion that the disease is a blood poison somewhat of the character 
of malaria. With us, where malarious diseases ]»revail in the human family, tlie cholera 
is mostly found, and where there is no ague or other malarial disorders there is but 
little or no cholera among hogs. 

Mr. A. B. NicnoLSON, Lincoln, Logan Count}', Illinois, sajs: 

In this (Logan) county, horses, cattle, and sheep are and have been very healthy. 
Hogs are al'Ilicted by the so-called cholera. I am unable to give all the symptoms of 
the disease as they vary a great deal. Generally a loss of appetite, drooping ears, 
cough, diarrhea, &c., is observed. The younger hogs are generally the first attacked. 
There is not, to my knowledge, any known remedy. Very often a remedy is fonnd 
and heralded over the country as an effectual cure, and it probably does cure some and 
then fails. The secretary of our State board of agriculture in ilarch, ld7G, sent out 
circulars containing forty questions relating to hog cholera, to upwards of one thou- 
sand swine-breeders. About two hundred and seventy were returned with the ques- 
tions answered, but hardly two of them were agreed as to the cause or cure. 

The treatment which is considered best is to change lots and sleeping places every 
week or two, with frequent changes in food. A preparation made of one bushel of 
wood-ashes, one quart of salt, one pint of sulphur, and one-half pint of black antimony 
should be mixed with their feed and given once a week. If your department can as- 
certain the cause and fird a remedy for this disease, it will save millions of dollars 
annually to the farmers of the northwest. 

Mr. J. A. Jordan, Orion, Henr}- County, Illinois, says : 

There is no special disease aflecting farm-animals here except that aftecting swine. 
What is known among us as cholera is at present and has for mouths past made fear- 
ful ravages among all classes of hogs. I am imable to furnish j^our department with 
the number of hogs that have died in my county (Rock Island) within the past four 
months, but after diligent inquiry I am satisfied that one thousand would be a low 
estimate of the loss we have sustained, and §il5,()00 would be a fair estimate of their 
value. 

The cause of this disease is totally unknown, or merely conjectural. It is generally 
supposed, hoxyever, that it is caused by being fed too long in one place, or by eating 
their own tilth. Feeding on plank floors and keeping them well cleaned off and 
fejirinkled with slacked lime has proved highly beueiicial. 

Any description I might attempt to give of the hog cholera would be of little serv- 
ice to the dei)artment, as it is developed in a great many forms. I will, however, say 
that the hog when fiist attacked appears stupid and refuses to eat, is often very much 
relaxed, and occasionally passes what appears to be blood. They usually live from 
two hours to two or three days after the first symptoms are observed. 

The breeding-stock growers here think that your department has never under- 
taken to investigate a subject so important to the i^eople of the West, and indeed to 
the revenues of the government, as the one under consideration. I trust your efforts 
may be abundantly blessed in discovering the cause aiul a remedy for this terrible 
Kcourge. 

Mr. George P. Weber, proprietor of Meader tarin, Pawnee, Sanga- 
mon County, Illinois, says : 

The prevailing disease among farm animals and poultry in this section is known as 
cholera, M'd affects both hogs and poultry. Cases of Spanish or Texas fever among 
western cattle has in former years prevailed to an alarming extent, but for two years 
past 1 have known but little of tliis disease. The chief trouble being hog and poultry 
cholera, 1 will conliue my remarks to these. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 67 

So iimcli has boeu written and saiil on tlie subject of liog-tliolera that its considera- 
tion has become almost disgust injf. Neverthelet-s, iu a work of such f^veat importance, 
I am always ready to enlist. Swine, like all other cbisses of animals, are subject to 
numerous diseases; but since the lirat cases of what 1 regard strictly as hog-cholera 
were known in our county, all the swine ailments are called cholera. If an animal 
becomes affected in any way, the trouble being invisible, it is at once pronounced 
cholera. Hence, the great trouble so often encountered — incorrect treatment and ulti- 
mate failure. The disease was first introduced into this county about twenty years 
ago by large droves of half-starved Missouri hogs, bought there at a very low price, 
owing to scarcity of corn, and brought here to fatten when crops were iiue. These 
animals were put upon a full feed of dry corn, and in a few days many of them were 
taken with violent fits of retching. Iu a few hours the bowels would begin to operate 
freelj-. Evident signs of griping in the bowels accompanied tliese discharges, which 
constantly grew more frequent and severe until death relieved the sufferer. Some- 
times within a single hour from the first symptom the animal would die, while others 
would last twenty-four hours, (.r even longer. Very few of tliese animals, thus aiilicted, 
recovered. Xo remedies that I have heard of w^ere used, as it was thought to be caused 
by the high feed closely following the extreme starvation to which they had been sub- 
jected. In a short time, however, the native hogs began dying in a similar manner, 
which caused no little alarm. Since that time our county has not been free from this 
plague. Then begun the discnssions as to contagion, epidemic, &c., with which all 
are acquainted who have paid any attention to the disease. While these jjoints have 
never been decided, I regard them as matters of great importance. 

The symptoms of hog-cholera are about as follows : Disposition to remain quiet ; 
when driven up to feed will smell of the food but refuse to eat ; stand drawn up with 
feet under the body, back arched, head and ears drooping, eyes look weary and fre- 
quently indamed; violent retching and vomiting; gripings and evident pains and 
cramjis in bowels; severe scouring, and discharges not always of same character. 
Death usually ensues from within one to thirty-sis hours, if the latter period is 
passed recovery is not unfrequeut. Animals once affected are not so liable to attack 
in the future. 

It would require hundreds of pages of closely-written matter to give in detail the 
varied treatment and remedies used for this malady. Almost all the minerals and 
vegetables in their different forms are prepared for medicines; stone and charcoal, 
lime and ashes, the ditierent kinds of oils and salts, sulphur and soda and the vari- 
ous acids, mixed and compounded, mercury and arsenic; indeed the entire list is 
given for aught I know. We have known of seeming wonderful cures and strange 
failures under the same treatment and remedies. My opinion, founded upon practical 
tests and obsei"vations, is that the disease is epidemic and contagious. Animals should 
have the largest possible range; they should never be housed except in bad weather ; 
their feeding-place should be changed as often as once in two or three weeks; their 
beds should be carefully attended to, and all the trash, old beds, and collections 
about pens and sheds should be burned as often as once a week, and the ashes left for 
the pigs to eat. Pigs should have access to pastures as much of the year as possible. 
They should be fed all the slops from the kitchen and the dairy, or as much of it as 
they will drink in the dry weather of late summer and in midwinter. Feed and 
water regularly, and never give medicine unless the bowels become constipated. Then 
air-slaked lime, wood ashes, and a little salt is the best remedy. The condition of 
the bowels may be readily known by watching the droppings. I am fully convinced 
that if the bowels are kept iu a healthy condition there will be no such thing as hog- 
cholei'a, so-called, or in fact many other diseases. This should be done by cleanliness 
and careful feeding, watering, &c., and not by dosing with poisonous medicines. 

Of course mj jjosf-mortcin examinations have not been strictly scientific, as I am not 
a veterinary surgeon. The results invariably satisfied me, however, that the whole 
stomach and bowels were deranged, nsnally inflamed, as if greatly excited. I have 
found nothing that would justify a specified location, or a reasonable cause for the 
disease. I have examined many, as in former years I lost them by hundreds. After 
all my reading, observation, and actual experience, I pronounced the whole thing a 
mystery that can only be solved by accident, time, or science. Therefore I rejoice to 
see your department moving iu the matter. 

Chickens and turkeys of all ages are the principal snUerers from the malady known 
as chicken-cholera; yet other domestic fowls are not proof against the disease. The 
symptoms, treatment, and results are so similar to the disease known as clioUra among 
hogs that a full statement would amount to nothing more than a n-petition of the 
above. 

Mr. E. EiCKESON, Ewing-, Franklin County, Illinois, says : 

While there have been some disases among cattle, horses, sheep, and poultry in the 
past that were the subject of some thought and investigation, their general condition 



65 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

and health at this time in this vicinity are such as to attract no special interest. Their 
liealth has heen good, especially since the cessation of dry seasons and chinch-bugs. 

Withthe hogs it is (jnite different. They are exceedingly healthy in all respects, 
with the exception of the prevalence among them of the disease known as cholera. 
From it no known condition, treatment, location, food, water, temperature, exercise, 
or season seems to give any guarantee of security. They take it at all ages and under 
all conditions, as i)eople take measles or small-pox, and the surrounding conditions 
only seem to modify its eft'ect in severity and fatality, the greatest effect generally 
being produced by the condition of the weather. In the mild weather of siiring the 
percentage of fatality to those that take it is fully as low as '20 per cent. ; in the fine 
weather of fall it is a little worse ; but in the heat of summer it is often above 90 per 
cent., and quite as bad in the coldest of winter. Although it does not spread as rapidly 
during cold seasons, it makes very near a clean sweep of those that take it. The laws 
of its propagation are visibly these : The more the hogs are isolated the less liable are 
they to take the disease; the larger the herds, when it once gets among them, the 
greater is the percentage of cases, and in cold weather if one of those that bed with 
others takes it and it is not at once separated from those not affected the whole bed 
will take it and i^robably all die. The percentage of hogs that take the disease varies 
with the weather and other conditions, sometimes varying from 40 to 95 jier cent. I 
have known a few instances of isolated herds, fenced away from any contact with 
other hogs, growing with perfect imi)unity through periods of its greatest ravages in 
the vicinity, which convinces me that the disease is a contagion, and is governed by 
the same laws of contagious diseases as those which aiiflict other animals. In this be- 
lief I have been strengthened by the fact that the great supply of hogs to the market 
come from those localities where there are no free commons for hogs and where the 
breeders raise and fatten their animals; also that the still-bousa pens, cattle-lots, and 
free common country, which used to raise the bulk of the hogs, are now the localities 
of the greatest devastation. If I am correct in the above views, the questions of diag- 
nosis and treatment are merged into the one of isolation and prevention. I have often 
seen a complete diagnosis of the disease published, and any attempt on my part in this 
direction would necessarily be more tedious than profitable. I have noticed but few 
unvarying symptoms of the disease. These, somewhat modified in various cases, are: 
1. A drooping of the head with a dull appearance. 2. A wheezing cough. 3. Falling 
away from the food. 4. A disposition to crawl under weeds, brusli, or straw. 5. Ked- 
ness about the ears and under side of the body. These are the only symptoms that 
are at all constant in the animal while alive ; but some of them are now and then 
wanting, while there are a great many others of a varying and often conflicting char- 
acter. Alter death, in the great number of cases that I have opened, there is one 
conspicuous feature, i. e., the absolute absence of blood in those that linger a few days, 
and the collapsed condition of the lungs. Otherwise, I never could find any evidence 
of either organic or functional cause of death. 

The incipient stages and duration of the disease are as varied and irregular as other 
symptoms of the malady. I have seen hogs eat heartily at night in apparent good 
health and next morning be found dead. In most cases they will take a little food the 
first day, and sometimes for several days ; again, they may live for weeks and finally 
die of the disease. The most general duration, however, seems to be from three to six 
days. 

As remedies I have known almost everything being tried, both in tlie vegetable and 
mineral kingdoms. I have often heard of specifics, and known parties who believed 
in them, but it has invariably turned out that the cholera eventually got among their 
hogs under unfavorable circumstances of weather or other conditions, and they died 
as did those not treated with these specifics. I have doctored hundreds, and am sat- 
isfied that if I ever cured one that would not have got well without treatment it was 
with petroleum — drenching a bog of two hundred pounds with about one-half of a 
teacupful at a time once a day. But my experience is that if a hog has the cholera 
bad and recovers or is cured it has but very Ifttle value afterward. The only practical 
treatment is to change them to fresh quarters, separate the diseased hogs from the 
well ones, and isolate them from one another as much as possible. 

In conclusion, I must express the opinion, which has grown to a conviction with me , 
that the only practical remedy for cholera is to isolate the herd, to prevent the moving 
of diseased animals through the country, and to prohibit their wandering about with 
impunity, carrying and s{)reading disease as they go. Leaving the matter to regulate 
itself has caused this locality, which formerly sent great numbers of hogs to market, to 
be shoit of a supply of swine to make meat for home use. 

Mr. R. T. Smith, Pliillipsville, Erie County, reimsylv'ania, says : 

I am glad that an effort is being made by the government to discover the causes of 
the various diseases which from time to time afflict farm animals. The epizootic, 
which occurred some five years ago, has since annually affected horses in this locality, 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. b9 

but not so severely as daring that season of epidemic. My horses arc more or less 
affected two or three times a year. They are just recovering from a very severe attack. 
They generally pass through all the nsnal symptoms of the disease, such as cough, 
swollen glands, running at the nose, sore throat, &,c. One of them was so stitf that I 
could scarcely get him out of the stable. By allowing them to rest two or three weeks 
they generally come out all right, and get along well enough until the next attack. 
If you can discover the cause and a remedy for this and numerous other diseases 
existing among horses and cattle in this locality you will greatly benelit everyone 
engaged in the breeding and rearing of stock. 

Mr. ^y. W. IIiNMAN, Cambridge, Ilcury County, Illinois, says : 

Hogs have been dying at a fearful rate in this part of the country for over a year 
past. The disease seems quite general and widespread. However, there are a great 
many farmers that as yet have had no sicl^ness among their hogs. During February 
and March last I lost twenty-live head. The disease seems to attack the lungs, as a 
harsh, rattling cough is generally the first symptom observed. This is sometimes 
accompanied by vomiting and purging, the latter symptom being a very dangerous 
one. In most of the cases that came under my observation the animals were consti- 
pated. In all cases the excrement was very dark in color. There is nothing certain 
about the duration of the attack. Some die in a few days, while others linger for two 
weeks or more. I lost about one-third of my entire stock of shoats. Hogs that are 
nearly matured are not so apt to take the disease. 

I do not know that I can give a diagnosis of the disease, as I have never been present 
when a post-mortem examination has been made. Of one thing, however, I am quite 
sure — the lungs are the place where the disease originates, anil they continue to be the 
main cause of disturbance until the hog dies. I used various remedies, my first being 
wood-ashes and salt — two or three parts ashes and one part salt. After that I used 
turpentine given on coal (anthracite). This seems to help them. I also used carbolic 
acid, sprinkling the xilaces where they slept and putting a small quantity into the 
water they drauk. After using the carbolic acid thoroughly for a short time (two or 
three days) my hogs began to improve rapidly; in fact I think I lost but two or three 
afterwards, and they were bad cases when I commenced using it. 

I hear of no complaints in regard to other kinds of stock. I do not know as this 
will be of any benefit to yon, but "straws show which way the wind blows." 

* 

Mr. Thomas 1). Ogden, Iloosier, Clay County, Illinois, says : 

Horses, cattle, sheep, and mules are very healthy in this locality at prese^it. Hog- 
cholera prevails to some extent. No remedies have been found that can be relied upon. 
If a sure preventive or a certain cure for this terrible disease could be found, it would 
prove a great blessing to the farming community. 

Mr. WILLIA3I B. Stanton, Pollard, Escatnbia Coufity, ^Uabafua, says: 

Hogs here are atflicted with a disease called cholera. In 1874 I lost by this disease 
all the hogs 1 had but two, and they were worthless afterward. I kept one sow until 
she had pigs twice, and they all died within one or two days after they were dropped. 
The disease was very fatal, and often I would not know that anything was ailing the 
animal until it Avas found dead. Some lost but very few, while others lost nearly all 
they had. The disease has not been so fatal since. A few hogs have died every year, 
but the malady has not been so wide-spread as it was in that year. No remedy is known 
here. I do not know whether cholera is the proper name for the disease or not ; I only 
know that that is what it is called here. 

]\[r. T. B. Caldwell, Forrest City, Saint Francis County, Arkansas, 
says : 

In our portion of country stock of all kinds receiving proper treatment are remark- 
ably healthy. For the last seven years we have kejit on an average seven head of 
horses, and during that time have not lost one from disease. We have had some cases 
of colic, caused by irregularity in feeding, and the epizootic in a mild form, neither of 
which required treatment. There has been some loss from charbon or yellow water, 
supposed to originate from impure blood, which proper treatment would perhajis have 
obviated. 

Cattle are very healthy, with the exception of slight losses from murrain, which it 
is believed could be prevented by regular salting. This is proven by the seldom occur- 
rence of loss where cattle have jileuty of salt. 

The loss from diseases among hogs is very great in this section of the State, but im- 
proved breeds which have good attention are healthy and prolific. Two years ago I 



70 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTIIEK DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

had a couple of hof>s atllict*;<l with what was calh d " ])lind wtagge.r.s." They appeared 
to have spasms, could uot see, kept constautly moving about, and would sometimes 
fall as if dead. In about one minute they w^ould get uj) and move off again, appar- 
ently relieved. Others of my hogs showed symptoms of the same disease." I liad been 
feeding for some time on hard corn, and I think this was the cause, for when I 
changed their feed to bran mash they all got well. The two sick ones I saturated 
from ears to tail with coal-oil and turpentine. The losses in this county were about 
60 per cent, during the above season from staggers and cholera. The cause of the 
last-named disease is unknown, but it is believed that proper feed would prevent it. 
Fowls are subject to several diseases, the most fatal of which is known as cholera. 
The causes are unknown, as on some farms almost every fowl dies, while on adjacent 
farms none die at all. It is my belief that if properly cared for all farm-animals (ex- 
cept in cases of epidemic diseases) would be as healthy as could reasonably bo desired 

Mr. J. McGowAX, Orluud, Stciilieii County, Indiana, says : 

On my own farm I have had no trouble with my stock, but my neighbors are suffer- 
ing from the disease commonly known as " hog-cholera." From cases that have come 
under my own observation I am led to believe that the disease is more like typhoid 
fever as it ati'ects the human faiuily. On my farm we have fed eighty head of hogs 
with good success, and I cannot do better than give you our nuunier of handling them. 
We give ample range, with pure, fresh water constantly before them. Salt twice a 
week, and keep wood-ashes and lime continually within their reach. Our hogs are of 
the Poland-China breed, aud are very thrifty and seem perfectly healthy. Farmers in 
this vicinity are sntTering terribly from this scourge, and tru>t that your investiga- 
tions may be crowned with success. 

Mr. John W. Eoss, Fitt's Hill, Fraukliu County, Illinois, says: 

Horses in this locality are occasionally affected with epizootic diseases. The malady 
comes on without any apparent warning. The symptoms are generally about as fol- 
lows : Glands of the throat swollen and distended, and limbs and feet swollen ; con- 
tagions eruptive fever, with inability to eat or drink ; morbid seci'etionof saliva, and 
decided constipation. In fatal cases the disease runs its course in from teu to fifteen 
days. Hygienic measures are about the only remedies resorted to. Warm poultices 
may with beuefit be applied to the throat, aud the bowels regulated with salts or sul- 
Ijhur. 

The disease most prevalent among cattle is murrain. It is characterized by small 
vesicles in the fnouth, on lips, gums, and tongue, with drivelings of saliva, often caus- 
ing inability to eat or drink. These symptoms are accompanied with fever, swelling 
of the udder, aud lameness. In fatal cases the animal generally becomes unmanagea- 
ble, disregards the commands of the groom, breaks away and runs over the neighbor- 
hood perfectly frantic and furious. The disease runs its course within from three to 
ten days. "Where animals are affected with this disease the bowels should be regulated 
by mild laxatives, and they should have comfortable lodgings, with soft, digestible 
food. As an api^lication for the mouth aud larynx, a mild astringent solution of half 
an ounce of alum, oxide of zinc, or sugar of lead to a quart of tepid water will be 
found benelicial. 

The most formidable, and by far the most destructive disease of all, is hog-cholera. 
It often devastates the whole country of large numbers of swine. It occurs at any 
season of the year, Tint is generally the most prevalent in spring. The 8ym))toms are 
a. stiffness of joints, no desire for food or drink, dry, hot, harsh skin, general disturb- 
ance of internal viscera, nausea, and vomiting. The animal lingers from five to ten 
days, and generally dies. Decomposition takes place almost immediately after death. 
Various remedies have l.)een tried, but with no decided beuefit. 

A disease known as chicken-cholera is also very destructive to fowls. When it breaks 
out in a flock it usually destroys the most of them. No remedy has been found to suc- 
cessfully combat the disease. 

Mr. E. Stevens, ^o^Yardsvillc, Jo Da\iess County, Illinois, says: 

There is no special disease prevalent in this locality among farm-animals. Among 
horses the most troublesome complaint is that known as distemper or " strangles." It 
is quite prevalent throughout the low country of the Mississippi Valley. It is invari- 
ably known here as "distemper," and is of variable duration, often lingering for months, 
but seldom proving fatal to the full-grown horse. It attacks horses of all ages aud 
conditions, and is highly contagious in its character. The disease is marked by three 
distinct stages. The first is a dry, hacking cough, attended by running at the nose. 
The discharge at first is thin and watery, and always of a whitish color. This dis- 
charge soon becomes thick and purulent; and the second stage rapidly follows by swell- 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC AMMAL8. 71 

i:igs or tumors iitsdor tlie tliroat along the salivary glands. Those swellings soon estab- 
lish an abscess in the throat, which rapidly etilargcs until it breaks. This constifcntes 
the third stage. If it brealo ontside — which it, generally does— matter may run for 
days or weeks, and sometimes for mouths, but the danger is passed if proper protec- 
tion is atlbrded. But if this abscess breaks inside, the horse generally dies from suffor 
cation or strangulation. The only remedy used here is the application of hot poultices 
about the neck and throat (in the second stage) to induce suppuration as speedily as 
possible. 

Hogs are generally healthy, but when any die from any cause it is invariably attrib- 
uted to " hog-cholei a," when most likely no such thing as cholera ever existed among 
hogs in thislocality. However, hogs frequently die here with quinsy and other throat 
diseaseis. The most successful treatment I know of is to give frequent small doses of 
powdered bluestone in sweet n\ilk. I have also been successful by placing, with a 
wooden paddle, half a drachm of liuoly pulverized bluestone on the roots of the hog's 
tongue. 

Fowls often die with what is known as " chicken-cholera." I know of no sure rem- 
edy. E(iual parts of powdered charcoal and red ocher mixed with the food is an ajimost 
sure pre^e^tive. 

Mr. F. M. Rogers, Xora, Jo Daviess Coiiuty, liliuois, says: 

I have been a resident of this county for thirty-six years, and during that time have 
not known of any disease afi'ecting cittle, horses, or sheep of an epidemic character. 
In many localities swine have suffered from the effects of cholera, but none so afl'ected 
have ever come under my observation. Poultry has also suffered with the so-called 
chicken-cholera, a disease which often decimated large flocks in a few weeks. Of the 
various remedies recommended, orally .and written, we have tried but few, and none 
of these with very gratifying results. 

Mr. D. C. TowNSEXD, Fort Hill, Lake County, Eliuois, says: 

Last winter the sheep in these parts died by the hundred. There was nothing we 
could do that would save them. They would get dumx)ish and die in a few days. I 
lost one-third of my flock (one hundred and fifty). Since then I have been feeding 
them turpentine in salt, and they seem to be doing well. 

At this time we are losing a great many hogs. They do not live over three or four 
hours from the time they are attacked. They turn black and bloat up. We are feed- 
ing them sulphur and charcoal; some give copperas. They will eat the sulphur and 
charcoal before they will eat their corn. I cannot teU what the result will be. 

Mr. E. H. Saunders, Pecatonica, Wiuuebago County, liliiiois, says : 

Stock has generally been free from disease in this county. There have been reported 
cases of the so-called hog-cholera this fall, but none have come under my observation. 
I have nothing to impart with the exception of the fact that my flock of sheep have 
been infested with parasites for some years past, causing a poorer condition and greater 
loss than formerly when affected in this way. Tape-worms in the intestines have been 
numerous, and have proven very fatal to lambs and sometimes to older sheep. Thread- 
worms in the lungs have also been numerous, as has a stomach thread-worm which 
resembles the lung-worm, but is rather longer. I think the cause attributable to keep- 
ing too many sheep on the same pasture for several years in succession. I have tried 
many remedies with but little success, and now consider a proper preventive the only 
protection. First, I change pastures as often as once in two years ; plow and cultivate 
old pastures ; do not allow them to drink of stagnant water ; give them access to salt 
mixed with a little sulphate of iron. I have followed this plan for the last year or 
more, and have greatly reduced the losses. In corresponding with Professor Law, of 
Corneli University, on this subject, he states that the embryo of the lung-worm is 
found in the common earth-worm. It would be interesting to ascertain if such is the 
fact. If so, the cau.se is apparent, for as land becomes richer from sheep-manure earth- 
worms become more numerous. Professor Law seems to be uncertain as to how the 
thread-worm finds its way to the lungs. I will state here that I have found the stomach 
thread-worm in immen.se numbers in lambs not more than four months old, but have 
found no lung-worms until the lambs were seven or eight mouths old, and have found 
them most numerous in yearlings. Is it possible that they make their way from the 
stomach to the lungs? 

Mr. A. M. DuRKER, HoNvardsville, Stephenson County, Illinois, says: 

Perhaps this locality is one most favored for the successful raising of farm animals, 
as there are seldom any prevailing diseases among any class of stock. Horses some- 



72 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

times haYo distemper or throat disease, bnt in a majority of cases tliey require little 
or HO treatment, as a very small percentage die, perLaps not one in a hundred. 

Hogs are extensively raised in this locality, and I verily believe that no particular 
disease has ever prevailed here bnt what it could be traced to improper treatment and 
care. If a man loses many hogs it is attributable to hog-cholera, simply because they 
do not know what else to call it. I would here state that if the disease ever has pre- 
vailed to any extent in this locality there is no known remedy. I have neA'er seen a 
case of hog-cholera that I know of since I have been a resident of this county, yet I 
have heard of cases attributed to that disease, and some farmers have been known to 
lose a heavy percentage. There are cases of intluenza or pneumonia, caused by im- 
proper treatment and care in the colder part of the season. This is frequentl.v brought 
on by keeping too many hogs together, and allowing them warm straw bedding, caus- 
ing them to steam and sweat fieely. In leaving their bods they cool olt' suddenly and 
take cold, which often produces congestion of the lungs, for which there is no known 
remedy. 

Fowls are subject to chicken-cholera, but all the numerous remedies that have been 
applied have proved unsuccessful. 

Mr, Geokge Stocks, Daltou Citj', ^Moultrie Couuty, Illinois, says : 

In regard to diseases among horses I will say that I have had more than my share of 
losses, but as I employed a veterinary surgeon, who, I think, rendered good service, I 
will not attempt a description of the disease, as I hardly feel competent to do so. 

Hog-cholera is the scourge of Central Illinois. I have had some experience Avith it; 
I think it was in 18(57, when I lost from thirty to forty head, all I had but one. The 
majority of my neighbors lost in about the same proportion. The disease was admitted 
by all to be the true hog-cholera. The animal would first commence to cough, would 
get off its feed, and its feet would seem to become very tender. It would creep to its 
bed with nose and tail down, and generally die within from one to three days. One 
widow woman near by lost none, and on inquiry I found that she kept a few ounces 
of asafcEtida inclosed in a sack and suspended in the slop-barrel. I adopted the same 
preventive, and occasionally gave coal ashes, copperas, and sulphur, and for three 
years lost none. Early in 1871 I met with a report of a stock-grower's convention 
held, I think, in Lexington, Kentucky, at which one of the delegates stated that he 
put on the market every year from five hundred to six hundred head of hogs, averag- 
ing four hundred pounds in weight, and claimed that he could either prevent or cure 
the hog-cholera with the following prescription, viz : Four ounces of crystallized car- 
bolic acid dissolved in one-half pint of rain-water. Dose, twenty-five droj)S to each 
Log, or one teaspoouful to four hogs, given in a little slop or milk. 

On my place I generally have from forty to seventy hogs, large and small, and have 
used the above remedy for seven years with success. During that time I have lost 
only one, I think, and it did not have the cholera. Although this county has lost 
heavily we are not alone, as I yesterday heard of one gentleman residing near Daltou 
City who had lost twenty-three of a herd of twenty-six large hogs within the past few 
days. 

I have given the above receipt to many persons, but often on inquiry have found 
that they failed to use it. Since using it I have had six or seven hogs so bad that they 
would neither eat nor drink, and I had to pour the medicine down their throats. In 
every case they recovered. 

Mr. James Lilly, Monticello, Wliite County, Indiana, says: 

Last fall my hogs were afflicted with a dreadful cough. Sometimes it was spasmodic 
with very difficult l>reathing. Matter was freely discharged from the nose and mouth, 
which was seemingly brought up by coughing. I itsually fed them about the fourth 
or fifth day soft soap, and placed strong wood ashes in the trough from which they 
drank swill. With this treatment they recovered in from two to four weeks. 

My neighbors' hogs had the cholera this fall, and they all died, that is, all that were 
afflicted. There is no remedy for this disease, so far as I know, that can be relied on 
with any certainty. It is believed that wood-ashes and soft-soap — in other words 
alkalies — are good as preventives. Probably this is owing to their tendency to cleanse 
the intestines of parasites. This would seem to indicate that the disease was caused 
by parasites. 

Chicken-cholera prevails extensively and fatally at times, but I know of no pre- 
ventive or remedy. 

Mr. P. D. EowLES, Evergreen, Coneculi Connty, Alabama, says : 

The disease known as hog-cholera is characterized first by the aniraial refusing to 
eat, accompanied with slight dullness and sleepiness, which continues to increase from 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 73 

day to day, the hog all the time refusing to eat and hiding under the straw in his bed, 
where he remains for hours unless driven out. The feet refuse to perform their ordi- 
nary function of locomotion, and the animal limps or hobbles about as if there was a 
nail in each foot, back bowed, skin red, aud after three or four days looks as if blistered ; 
in fact the hair and skin (inally all peels otf of those that recover, leaving tlie animal 
almost nude. They eat very little for some days, but drink water in great quantities, 
and have copious discharges of urine, sometimes as much as a half gallon at a time, 
bowels costive. I do not recollect of seeing or hearing of a case of diarrhea or laxity 
of the bowels. The hog continues to decline, and either dies within from five to seven 
days or begins to eat and gets better. 

The disease has prevailed in every township in this connty to a greater or less ex- 
tent dnring the past twelve months. It commences in the early spring aud continues 
until late in the fall. It is generally more fatal among small pigs than among older 
hogs. I know one farmer who has prevented the malady from getting into his herd 
by giving " stack powders" two or three times a week in slops or meal. Although 
living in sight of his neighbor whose hogs died of the disease, his escaped. I was 
talking with another (No. 2) a few days ago, who said he had several pigs which he 
had kept penned up and fed on corn and slop, and that every one had died. Some 
man near by had a large number running in the woods, which were frequently turned 
in with those conlined, but not one of them took the cholera. No. 3 had several pigs, 
all of which showed symptoms of cholera. He gave them a teaspoonful of spirits of 
turpentine in bran slop, and every one recovered. No. 4 has allowed all his hogs to 
run at large in the swamps, feeding a little corn at times to keep them gentle. Not 
one has been diseased. Upon general in(|uiry over the country I am prepared to say 
that all hogs that are allowed to bed in the woods and have free and large walks will 
escape the disease. Let him " root or die" and you will have no more hog-cholera. 

Mr. John Powers, Eutledge, Crensliaw County, Alabama, says : 

Hog-cholera, as it is general^ known in this vicinity, prevails more or less every 
year. When attacked the patient begius to droop, holds down its head, and is indif- 
ferent to eating or drinking. They seem to be atfected with a kind of dysentery, with 
frequent small evacuations. The surface is warm, and there are occasional quiverings 
of the flesh. Occasionally they die almost instantly, rovt-inortem examinations clearly 
show that indigestion prevails. 

The fatality is about 50 per cent, of those attacked. Generally three-fourths of a 
herd will be taken, while the remainder will continue perfectly healthy. Of those 
that overcome the disease about 50 per cent, regain their original health ; the remain- 
der are hard to fatten. I have never known a hog to die from the second attack. The 
disease prevails at any season of the year. Its fatality is greater among fat hogs, 
especially among those fed on corn. 

The treatment is varied, but it is generally conceded that a small amount of alkali 
is the most efHcacious, both as a remedy and as a preventive. A small amount of pot- 
ash or concentrated lye is used by those who profess to treat it with any degree of 
success. We sometimes use asafetida as a preventive with success, but it is perfectly 
useless as a remedy. Corn feeding will not do ; it will kill in nine cases out of ten. 
The hogs should be penned with shelter, free from dust, and sparingly fed on any easily 
digestible food. Whenever it is discovered that tlie animal has a desire to eat, be 
certain not to give it enough to satisfy it. Let it be kept hungry, not starved, but 
allowed about one-fourth the usual feed. 

Fresh pine tar is good, both as a preventive and as a remedy, but it should be given 
in small quantities. Sulphur does harm, aud copperas will ruin the teeth in a few 
days. Soda acts well. They require no external applications unless lousy. A lousy 
hog with the cholera would die if not cleansed. With the first treatment use alkalies 
perseveiingly but sparingly, and the result will be 25 per cent, saved. Do not give 
corn unless it is ground. 

Bots and glanders in horses, with an occasional case of distemper, are about the only 
diseases that atfect this class of animals in this locality. Cattle are atfected to some 
extent with hollow-horn, for which boring is the only remedy known here. Fat cows 
are never atfected with this disease. A few cases of a new disease are reported, but 
enough is not known of it to attemj)t a diagnosis. 

Mr. W. O. Millard, Caleta, Wliiteside Couut}*, niiuois, says : 

About one year ago the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of this State 
sent me a blank to lill out in regard to the so-called hog-cholera, which was thf>n, as 
now, very destructive to all classes of swine. I made out a report and it was pul listed 
in connection with a number of others from different parts of the State. When I made 
that report I had never been visited with the disease, and consequently was unable to 
give as accurate a diagnosis as I may be able to give you. The disease first made its 



74 disp:ase among swinh and oti[i:k domesuc animals. 

jxiipoaraiioe in this locality in AiigUKt, lH7(i. But little attention was paid to it at 
tirst, perliaps liecanse we thouj^bt it would not spread. But wc were soon convinced 
that nothing had ever )tas8ed through tlic country that was so serious as this. It 
made its apiioariuico in my herd about the 1st of June last, eventually almost annihi- 
lating them. When it lirst appeared I had two hundred and scvou very hue animals 
of the best English Berkshire breed. Tliirty days after I had but seventeen left, my 
loss being one hundred and ninety. While perhaps I may be considered one of our 
largest swino-growers, yet my loss was no greater in proportion than it was in the 
smaller hertls. 

The farmers all over this Western country are today being visited with the worst 
scourge that has ever made its appearance. In this section they are losing from 
twenty-five to one hundred and tifty head of swiue each. As to the nature of the dis- 
ease I think it a tyi)hoid fever, and it is so called by almost every one who has made 
an investigation. The lirst we discover Avrong with the hog is its refusal to eat, and 
it acts, as we term it, dumpish. It either has a diarrhea or is costive. Its excrements 
;ire very otl'ensive. Very many are taken with vomiting, while some are ali'ectod with 
bleeding at the nose. They seem to be thirsty and have a desire to lie in water a large 
portion of the time. Their eyes are red, ami white matter stands in the corners of 
them, while many of them have a white mattery discharge from the nose. They 
usually live some two or three weeks after the first symptoms are observable. I have 
seen many of them where the fever had eifher settled in the head, eyes, nose, or legs, 
and in such cases some would become blind and others deaf. _ We have every reason 
)o regard the disease as contagious, and I believe a pi'eveution better than a cure. A 
few hogs recover from the disease, but a large majority die. We have done ever^'thing 
we could to effect a cure, but so far everything we have tried has proved a failure. I 
hardly think it necessary to say what we have given, yet it will do no harm. We have 
given arsenic, uux-vomica, calomel, salts, soda, concentrated lye, and Dr. Herrick's 
German hog cure. Bleeding has also been tried. 

When my hogs were taken they were on grass, on a lot of seventy acres, well watered 
with pnre spring- water, ajid had no grain. Other's that were sick had grain and grass 
with good spring-water. Still others had grain and slops from the house and no grass 
or water ; but all were sick. My land is rolling prairie, with no standing water or 
low places on the farm. The farmers generally are well otf and take good eare of 
their stock, and the majority have them sheltered in bad weather. The stock-growers 
here are very anxious that Congress should make an appropriation sullicient to inves- 
tigate this matter thoioughlj-. 

Mr. T, AV. QuiNN, Pratt \ille, Chant County, Arkansas, says: 

The only prevailing disease among farm-animals in this locality is cholera ainong 
hogs and fowls. Almost all the hogs in the neighborhood have been destroyed. Chicken 
cholera also prevails to an alarming extent. 

Mr. L. H. CoMPTON, Bay City, Pope County, Illinois, says: 

The only diseases prevailing among any class of farm-animals here are tliose affecting 
hogs and chickens. So far as remedies go, there seems to be l)ut little if any success 
in curing either hogs or fowls after the disease once takes hold of them. Every dis- 
ease affecting hogs is called cholera, hut my opinion is that there are as many diseases 
among hogs as " human flesh is heir to." Sometimes the symptoms indicate cholera, 
sometimes Inug-fever, sometimes various other diseases, such as measles, quinsy, affec- 
tions of the kidneys, liver, tfec. I am of the opinion that many of these diseases are pro- 
duced by worms, and in proof of the fact would state that those hogs that run at large 
and feed mostly on mast are the oftenest diseased, and these diseases av<^ almost inva- 
riably caused by worms. 

Mr. William F. \VATKiNg, La Crosse, Izard County, Arkansas, says : 

There never has been any scientific investigation in this country into the diseases of 
animals or fowls, and all the remedies used have been entirely empirical. I am not aware 
of any epidemic ever prevailing here among either horses or sheep. Our greatest losses 
are in hogs, which for many years have been (in different localities and at different 
times) subject to great fatality. The disease or diseases are confined to no particular 
season of the year, but rage only in certain localities at the same time. One locality 
of even a few miles in extent may suffer one season and be entirely exempt the next, 
while a neighboring locality is suffering. In a mountain district in the adjoining 
county of Stone, last sunuuer, nearly all the hogs died. One farmer, by way of experi- 
ment, gave his hogs strychnia, both as a remedy and as a preventive, and lost but a 
small per cent, of them. Chickens and turkeys are attacked locally, just as hogs, but 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 75 

not in the same districts at the sauie time that ho<;s are. 1 have known calomel given 
to fowls as a remedy with very satisfactory results. 

There has been a disease called the black-tongue among cattle in this county, which 
luis only appeared at intervals of several years, and always in the beat of summer. It 
extends over the whole country, attacks only a small per cent, of cattle, but kills TiO 
per cent, of those attacked. It is more general and fatal to tlio wild deor than to 
cattle. It has not appeared for some years past. 

Mr. L. Orto, Bi-adford, AVbite Coimty, Arkansas, says: 

Hog cholera has been very destructive in some localities, yet I have been almost 
entirely exempt from the pest. I have kept from 100 to 800 head of hogs during the 
last ten years, and have had cholera among them but once. I then lost HO per cent, of 
those attacked. When a hog is attacked by this disease the best remedy is to kill it 
and bnry or burn the carcass, as tliis will have some tendency toward checking the 
spread of the disease. Moreover, if the hog should recover it will never be any account 
afterward. Hogs should never be allowed to sleep too long in the same be<ls. They 
should be changed about every ten days, and should be kept from dusty, diy places 
during the summer season. The olteuer a hog shifts his range and bed the healthier 
"will he be. They should have plenty of soap, lime, ashes, charcoal, and copperas. My 
hogs, which live entirely in the woods, are seldom afl'ected with diseases of any kind. 
There are many wild hogs here, and I do not believe they are ever afl'ected in any way. 
This is proof that the less this animal is hampered by close confinement the less is he 
liable to disease. The Foland-China'and the llerkshire are the best breeds here. 

Mr. J. S. Tait, Decatur, 3Iacoii County, lUiuois, says : 

I never lost any hogs until last winter, and I think that was the result of trimmiug 
in November and the early part of December. I then changed them from a warm bed 
to my cattle lot. Although this was covered and protected from the storms the ground 
M-as wet and frozen, and the hogs took cold and continued to drop oft' one by one until 
spring ; but as soon as the sun came out and warmed up the earth they commenced to 
recover. 

The only preventives I use are charcoal, wood-ashes, salt, and unslacked lime. In the 
summer season I put sulphur, copperas, and assafetida in the swill-barrel. I tie these 
drugs in a cloth and suspend it in the barrel. I give my hogs a roof to protect them 
from the storms of winter. If they have bedding it should be just sufficient to keep 
those on the outside from becoming chilled. Corn-stalks are the best bedding for 
swine. 

My opinion is that hogs, as a general thing, are not properly cared for. Very often 
they become chilled through the night, or, if their beds are too warm, they take cold 
on leaving them early in the morning. Theu follow lung atfections, typhoid fever, 
and many other diseases to which they are subject. 

Mr. William Dalgleisii, Pleasant, Swit/crlau*! County, Indiana, 
says : 

The disease known as hog-cholera has prevailed to an alarming extent for the past 
two years. I regard the disease as contagious. The symptoms are watering of the 
eyes when first attacked, followed by a dry cough, languor, thumps, constipation, &c. 
Death usually ensues within oue or two days. The disease made its appearance among 
my own hogs in May last, and out of a herd of eighty-two I lost sixty -seven. I tried 
all the known remedies without any favorable results. From close examination and 
observation I am of the opinion that the disease has its foundation in the blood. The 
liver is generally torpid and the lungs much decayed. 

Mr. E. M. Vx^ELMAX, Jasper, Du Bois County, Indiana, says : 

There is no disease prevailing among any class of farm-animals except cholera among 

hogs. 

Mr. M. M. Sloss, Simpsou County, Kentucky, says: 

We have never had any serious diseases among any class of farm-animals except 
among swine. Each of twodistinct forms of disease destroys our hogs every year. Oue 
is called cholera and the other measles. The latter shows itself on the skin in sores 
and scabs. It is claimed by some of our farmers that sulphur, given interually, will 
effect a cure if it be given in sufficient quantities. Cholera is miich the more fatal dis- 
ease of the two. Generally the first evidence of its existence is the refusal of the hog 



76 DISEA.SE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

to eat. Its pars will flap down over its eyes, giving it a dull, sleepy appearance. A« 
the disease advances its breathing becomes hard and is accompanied with a symptom 
similar to thumps in horses. Usually its bowels are constipated, but sometimes they 
may be lax, and occasionally vomiting may occur. In a punt-mortem examination of 
one case the entire intestine, and all it contained, were found to be very dry. 

Few people attempt to cure a hog after the disease has taken hold of it. A number 
of ]»racti('al farmers in this end of the county hav"e used crude petroleum as a pre- 
ventive for the i)ast six years, and are established in the belief that if regularly and 
properly used it will keep them healthy. We buy it by the barrel, confine the hogs 
in a J»en, and with a common tin sprinkler saturate them thoroughly from head to foot. 
We give it internally also on corn. Those of us who have tested its merits have great 
confidence in it, and in consequence have but little dread of the cholera. Where it has 
been used for six or seven years past the disease has not prevailed, notwithstanding its 
prevalence and destruction all around us. As I feel interested in the welfare of those 
engaged in agriculture, I hope you will pardon me for pressing upon your attention the 
A'^alue of the above article as a preventive of diseases among swine. I hope you will 
have its merits tlioroughly tested. 

Mr. Horace J. Loomis, Chesterfield, Macoupin Couiitj, Illinois, s<ays : 

Many native cattle die here annually from what is known as. Texas fever. The 
disea.se cannot be communicated except by Texas cattle, and they never have it. Cat- 
tle ati'ected with it cannot give it to others, so there is no danger of its spreading and 
becoming an epidemic as many persons fear. The immediate cause of the disease is 
unknown here. The most probable theory with me is that it is transmitted hj a poison- 
ous substance in the urine of the Texas cattle. Whether any other cattle from Texas 
except the long-horned native breed can spread the disease I am unable to say, as no 
other breed has ever been brought here from that State. The subject should be inves- 
tigated by scientific men. 

Thousands of hogs die in this section annually. The disease assumes different forms 
in different localities, and in the same locality in different years. At times it appears 
to be a disease of the skin, and the hog will linger a long time before death ensues. 
Sometimes they will bleed to death from the nose in a few minutes, while to all appear- 
ances a few minutes previou.sly they were well. In all its forms, however, there is more 
or less cough. I have examined man j' that have died, and in all cases have found large 
quantities of worms either in the throat or in the intestines. No locality appears to 
be exempt from the disease, and those who take most pains with their hogs are as 
likely to have the di.sease as those who are more careless. Hundreds of remedies have 
been tried, but as yet I have seen but little or no benefit from them. The whole thing is 
shrouded in mystery, and demands at the hands of the government an investigation 
by the most coiopetent persons known, 

Mr. Charles F. Ixgals, Sublette, Lee County, Illinois, says : 

Hogs are about the only animals subject to di.sease in our county, and so far as I have 
observed the ailment is of one and a similar type. It occurs at no regular intervals, 
and not ofteuer, I think, than once in ten years. I have been in the business here 
forty years, and lentil last summer my stock have kept comparatively healthy. Out of 
some two hundred shoats I lost about thirty, and those were the smallest and latest 
pigs. Grown stock seldom suffer. The animals lose appetite, become stupid, dwindle 
away slowly, and die, one here and one there as the case may be, in from one to three 
weeks after they are manifestly attacked. Upon being started up from their nests 
suddenly they usually are taken with a short hacking cough, but this does not continue 
when they are again at rest. 

I do not now remember any stock-raiser w'ho has twice had the disease to any ex- 
tent among his hogs. Sometimes out of a herd of 200 head half of them will die in- 
side of ninety days, and those that die first are generally the smallest. My usage is 
to give my animals extensive range, plenty of green feed, and to continually keep be- 
fore them salt, ashes (wood or coal), stone-coal, and sulphur. They eagerly eat coal, 
and I provide it for them by the car-load. I have thouglit that high feed with Indian 
corn from generation to generation has worked constitutional debility in the hog. 
At any rate, after failing in finding any preventives, I have little faith in efforts to 
cure them after they once get sick. Isolation of all animals that are sick is found 
favorable to the well ones and to the recovery of those that are sick. Various spe- 
cifics have been used and recommended, but .so far as I know have effected but little 
good. If kept warm, dry, well fed, well ventilated, and in lots of fifty or less, disea.se 
will seldom be known. 

Mr. William Bringhurst, Springfield, Utali Territory, says : 

The climate and natural grasses of the Rncky Mountains are well adapted to stock- 
raising, containing elen)ents that are health-i»ro.U;cing and in their natural state an 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 77 

antidote for most diseases that stock are subject to. The epizootic, when raging here, 
was not fatal to animals rnnuiug at large. The horse, however, when domesticated, 
is subject to two very serious distempers, which, if not promptly attended to, will 
jirove fatal, the most common and serious of which is called the cramp-colic, produced 
by change of and over-amount of feed. The symiitoms are restlessness, enlargement 
of abdomen, accompanied with severe pain. It will prove fatal in four or five hours. 
The most successful remedy used is one-half pound common sal-soda, two tablespoons- 
ful of ground mustard, and one tablespocntul of cayenne pepper, mixed in water and 
given to the animal. The dose should be repeated in thirty minutes. Two doses are 
generally sufficient. 

In M<)untain Farcy, the cause of which is not known, the symptoms are a swelling 
under the belly, which extends rapidly over the whole body. I have seen the head 
swollen to such an extent that the animal was Ijlind. It is very difficult to arrest un- 
less taken at an early stage, and will prove fatal in a few hours. The remedy is bleed- 
ing in the neck. If the limbs are swollen bleed in each foot, striking the plate vein 
on the quarter between the hair and hoof. One-fourth pound of aloes, divided in three 
doses, as pills, or used as a drench, and given every hour, in addition to above treat- 
ment. 

Horned stock has not been subject to any contagious disease in these parts, although 
there are isolated cases of hollow-horn, dry murrain, and fouls, which seldom or ever 
prove fatal. Cattle thrive well on the mountain grasses summer and winter, and 
require but little care. The raising of sheep is attracting much attention and has 
attained considerable importance, and under the management of scientific men is be- 
coming very profitable. The Spanish merino is acknowledged to be the best adapted 
to this region. The only distemper in sheep that we are troubled with is the itch or 
scab. For this we employ the following remedy: After shearing dip the sheep at 
least every other year in a strong solution of tobacco and sulj)hur, composed of one 
part of sulphur to five parts of tobacco. 

By experiment I find that swine can be raised profitably on the lowlands and on the 
borders of lakes and streamlets; but this class of stock are not generally bred here. 
They are not subject to any general distemper. The same can be said iu regard to all 
kinds of fowls. 

Mr. A. J. Care, ChaiievStowu, Clarke County, Indiana, says: 

We are fortunately exempt at this time from any disease among farm-animals except 
cholera among hogs. I have lost a good many myself within the last two years. I 
tried all the remedies I could hear of, but none seemed to do any good. I then put 
some hogs that wei'e apparently nearly dead in a close pen, gave them nothing to drink 
but a little sweet milk and soap-suds, with a little meal to eat, and they all recovered. 
My opinion is that none of the cholera remedies that are published as such and sold 
throughout the country are worth anything. 

We have plenty of cuicken-cholera, but so far no remedy has been discovered that 
seems to do any good. Preventives have been tried, but without beneficial results. 

Mr. George W. Thogard, Rutledge, Crenshaw Goimty, Alabama, 
says : 

I will endeavor to give you my experience with hog-cholera. In 1863 it made its 
appearance about thirty or forty miles south of this place. It then seemed to travel in 
a northern direction, and it took it near twelve months to travel a distance of 40 miles. 
Its destruction was at the rate of from .50 to 75 per cent, of the whole number of hogs 
attacked. There have been symptoms of the disease several times since without any 
marked direction as to its course of travel until 1876. In the spring of this year it 
made its appearance about 25 or 30 miles north of this place, and its course of travel 
was then from north to south. It took it six or eight months to travel south as far 
as this place. I can now hear of its progress south and west of here. On this visita- 
tion the average loss of hogs thi'oughout the county was about 50 per cent, of the 
whole number. 

I use lime, soap, salt, copperas, and blue vitriol as preventives, but my favorite pre- 
scription, and the one I believe to be the best, is poke-root and Jerusalem or worm- 
seed root. I boil both together and mix the liquor with corn-meal while warm, and 
let the hogs drink it either cold or warm. The best remedy after the hog gets very 
sick is to kill it or have it removed from among the other hogs. The disease is more 
fatal and of shorter duration to fat hogs than to lean ones. Woods hogs are not so 
suliject to the disease as those that run about the farm. 

Mr. A. A. HoLCO^vrBE, Y. S., ISTew York, writes as follows concerning 
-contagious pleura-pneumonia : 

This disease was first seen in Central Europe about a century ago, and since that 
time has spread to most European countries, to Great Britain, Asia, Australia, and Amer- 



78 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHKR DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

• 

ica. Its spread was imdoubtetlly due to couta<;ion, for it is not at all probable that the 
disease orij^inatod spontaiieonHly outside of Central Europe. It isa specific disease pe- 
culiar to bovine animals, for other sjiecies are never affected with it. It is always sub- 
acute or chronic in character; usually occurs as an e])izooly or enzooty, and sjjreads 
easily and rapidly. 

As the term indicates, the lunf/n and the pleura are the seat of the disease. It is not 
considered an imllanuuatory disease, and so far as local lesions are concerned, consists 
in an exudation of lymph into the connective tissue of the lunj^s, with effusion and 
exudation into the pleural cavities. The disease may be.limited to one lnn<? or it may 
affect both, while occasionally the pericardium is implicated. One attack usually con- 
fers immunity from subsequent ones. During its course the disease generates a spe- 
cific virus capable of inoculating healthy animals of the same species with the same 
disease. liy some few authorities it is believed that the disease can be generated by 
improper dietetic nuiasures in conjunction with certain other influences, as excessive 
milking, and hot, illy- ventilated stal)lcs, but there is no positive proof to support this 
belief, although it is to bo noted that the outbreaks in New Jersey in 1873-74 and in 
1877 were almost exclusively confined to cattle fed on Ijeer-grains, which were kept in 
close stables, and gave largo quantities of milk. The disease was brought to this 
country in 1849, and has prevailed to a greater or less extent in different localities ever 
since. 

The period of incubation is reckoned at from twelve to sixty days, and the symptoms 
during this time are, as a rule, so slight as to receive little or no attention from owners 
or attendants. A rise of the bodily temperature is the first indication of the disea.se, 
and can be detected with the thermometer alone. Healthy animals have a tempera- 
ture of lUO^ F., or a little less, so that a rise above this in an infected district would 
render all animals so affected liable to suspicion, for in those where the thermometer 
registers 10"2'^ F. or moi-e the disease can almost positively l)e said to exist. The first 
symptom to gain the attention is mostly a short, dry, husky cough, of a peculiar char- 
acter, and is first heard in the early morning, or while the animal is drinking. At the 
same time the ap]»etite will beobserved to fall off a little, and ruminaticm bolessactive 
than common. The respirations are more rapid than normal, an<l may reach twenty, 
twenty-five, or thirty per minute, instead of about fourteen. Usually every respiration 
is accompanied with a low grunt or slight moan. The cough is growing more frequent, 
harsh, aiul painful ; the back is slightly arched; the coat looks dead, and feels rough 
and harsh, while in some places it is erect ; pressure along the back, especially in the 
neighborhood of the loins and in the spaces between the ribs, causes pain and flinching. 
As the appetite falls off the secretion of milk diminishes, until it is finally completely 
suppressed. The patient generally rapidly runs down in flesh, the surface temperature 
varies, the extremities being cold at one time and hot at another ; sometimes but not 
always a slight discharge takes place from the nostrils, and the pulse becomes quite 
rapid. The lungs at this time are undergoing changes, easily detected by the expert ; 
the air-cells aduut but a limited quantity of air to the affected jlart ; the intestinal tis- 
sue is filliugup with lymph, and the pleura is undergoing the changes seen in this disease, 
presenting symptoms to be detected only by the practiced ear, as loss of the respiratory 
murmur, the presence of the different rahls and the friction murmur of i^leurisy, with 
finally the absence of any sound at all as the lungs become hepatized in the second 
stage, or the one of marked symptoms. In this stage the temperature increases and the 
pulse runs np to 60 or 70, and sometimes to 90, beats per minute. Examination of the 
heart will show it to be laboring hard to send the blood to the diseased lungs in suffi- 
cient quantity for the system ; the extremities are cold ; the front legs apart to facilitate 
respiration, which is beconung more and more rapid and difficult ; the appetite is en- 
tirely lost ; the secretion of milk has ceased ; the feces are hard and dark colored ; the 
urine is scanty and high colored ; drinking causes hard and painful coughing. The 
animal almost refuses to move, seldom lies down, and stands with distended nostrils, 
moaning at every respiration, while from the eyes and nose is dischai-ged a thickish, 
purulent fluid, and the breath is hot and foetid. These symptoms daily grow worse as 
the disease encroaches on the previously healthy lung-tissue ; breathing is effected with 
the greatest difficulty ; the pulse is so weak and small as hardly, to be felt ; the skin 
clings to the bones; dropsy beneath the chest takes place; the animal becomes almost 
unconscious of all surroundings, and groans and grinds the teeth ; the abdomen fills 
with gas ; diarrhea sets in, and death speedily closes the scene. 

This is the usual course of a typical case where the disease runs through both stages 
and terminates fatally. In many instances there are variations from this general course, 
as where a fatal diarrhea sets in early or some other complication occurs which carries 
the patient off. (An interesting complication occurred in a case at North Branch, N. 
J^ in 1874, where the lungs filled up rapidly and the pulmonary artery was ruptured.) 
Bat these variations are important only to the student of special pathology. 

Regarding the course and termination of this disease, it is to be noted that it runs a 
more rapid course in young, vigorous animals than in any others ; also that a short 
period of incubation is almost always followed by a rapid siibseciuent coarse. At times 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 79 

tlie disease terminates favorably in the early stage and before the extensive alterations 
of the lunjis have taken place, yet these organs rarely regain their i)erfect function, 
part of their tissue ever after remaining impervious to air, while adhesions more or 
less extensive jtermanently exist between tlie lungs ami the wails of tlie chest. The 
(iough usually remains for a long period of time, being due to the alteration of lung- 
1 issues. Death, as a rule, takes place in the second stage of the disease, and is due to 
the encroachment of tlie exudate upon the respiratory surface of the longs, to auai- 
mia, to gangrene of the lung-substance, or to a fatal diarrhea. 

The percentflge of deaths which occur in the early part of an outbreak generally 
reaches from 60 to i)0 percent, of those infected, while later on, when the force of the 
infecting vims seems to have expended itself, the mortality may fall to I.*} or 20 per 
cent. But this is not all the loss to which the infected district is subjected. The ani- 
mals that recover are of little or no value for weeks and months, the secretion of milk 
does not return for a long time, and it is almost impossible to prepare them for market, 
for they do not thrive. Besides this, unless the subject of disinfection is understood, 
and its necessity thoroughly appreciated, all new animals are liable to take the disease 
and thus pcriieruate indeiiuitely this dreadful scourge. 

The intimate pathological anatomy of this disease, and the microscopical appearances 
of the involved tissue, can hardly be of value to the public, or to others than those 
thoroughly ac(iuainted with histology, so that unless the department desires especially 
to have such, I will refrain from occupying your time with what can hardly prove of 
interest. I will therefore call your attention to the means of diagnosing this disease. 
The cough is peculiar, and to those acquainted with the disease would be almost suffi- 
cient evidence of the presence of the contagious form of pleura-pueuraonia. The ther- 
mometer is of the utmost value in detecting the disease early. A physical examina- 
tion of the chest, the temperature, character of pulse and cough, will always be sutid- 
cient to diagnosticate the presence of pleura-pneumonia. That it is contagious will be 
seen by the incubative stage, by the insidiousuessof its course, aud from the fact that 
it has iio connection whatever with the causes which produce the ordinary form of this 
disease, that is, with climate, exposure, change of weather, food, &c. Also from the 
fact that it spreads by contact, aud is very fatal. Lastly, some animals are not suscept- 
ible to the disease, about 15 per cent, escapiug infection even when subjected to the 
influence of the contagion. The infecting principle of this disease is no doubt both 
fixed aud volatile, for it is found in the blood, excretions, secretions, exudated lymph, 
and in the expired airs. The vitality of the virus is great, lasting sometimes for sev- 
eral months. It may be carried by the air a distance of at least three hundred feet, 
while by means of diseased meat, atfected clothing, hay , straw, cars and steamboats, it 
may be carried to long distances. 

Mr. E. B. DuNLAP, Boligee, Greene County, Alabama, says : 

We are tronbled in this section with two diseases among farm animals, both of which 
are very fatal. One is known as hog-cholera and the other as the "negro disease." It 
is hard to tell which is the most fatal to this animal. Remedies do not amount to 
much, and preventives will be found the most profitable and economical. I believe 
hog-cholera can be cured after the hog gets sick, but it is too tedious to have to drench 
them. I have cured a few cases by drenching them with the following prescription: 
One gill linseed-oil and one tablespoonful of spirits of turpentine. I generally keep 
a trough under shelter in which 1 keep about one bushel of hickory-wood ashes, one 
pound of sitlphur, one-fourth pound of assafetida, one bushel of well-beaten charcoal, 
and a sufficient quantity of salt to make them relish it. This will not only keep off 
the lice, but will also keep the bowels in a healthy condition. Lice are the forerun- 
ners of cholera. They irritate the skin of the hog, weaken it, aud render it liable to 
the attacks of this disease. 

Morris Crohn, Y. S., Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania, says : 

Since my residence here I have not observed any epidemic proper, though the splenic 
fever has been raging quite violently amoug the cows for the past month or so. Thus 
far it has been only local ; and it is very extraordinary tliat, in view of the lamentable 
lack in this country of pro^jcr provision against the spreading of disease, the splenic 
fever has confined itself to one locality. 

Splenic fever is due to the decomposition of blood ; and, as the spleen contains a 
greater percentage of blood than any other organ of the body, it is most severely 
affected and is tf)tally destroyed if the disease be not arrested. Besides this, the kitl- 
neys, and sometimes the bladder, will suffer from sympathetic affection, a bilious condi- 
tion being indicated by the eye. I think that splenic fever has its origin in one locality, 
caused by dry pasturage, stagnant water, filthy stables, miasmatic air, and gaseous 
exhalations of the earth ; and its spreading is due to the disease-nnitter in the air and 
imme<liate contact with infected animals. In every contagious disease there is a vital 



80 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

])rocoss, tlierefore all the properties of such a process are requisite for the existence of 
the disease. In order that the process of disease in an individual may develop, there 
is necessary the union of a i)redisp()8ition (the inner element of disease) and an infec- 
tion (the outer element). The predisposition, as the basis capable of development, is 
analogous to the conceiving function in the female, and the infection corresponds to 
the fecundating function in tlie male. As all disease is dependent upon tlie destruc- 
tion of the healthy ])rocess, so the i)rinciple of disease in si)leuic fever is due to the 
unhealthy, abnormal condition of the blood, causing the decomposition of the latter 
and speedy death. 

I think it incontrovertible that the decomposition of blood in splenetic fever may 
be accounted for by an insufficiency of iron in the blood. Proof of this is that in many 
cases coming under my personal observation, where a timely treatment with prepara- 
tions of iron, together with tonics in emulsions, was pursued, the diseased animals were 
saved. One ounce of nniriatic acid and fifty ounces of water administered once every 
liour, and after the fourth dose from one to throe drams of quinine, is a very success- 
ful remedy. (Quinine, however, is too expensive for this ))urpose ; cortex chinai, from 
one to two ounces to the dose, may be substituted.) In addition to this, ice-water ap- 
plications about the head and horns are of great benefit. 

The disease a]>pcared under three forms, with symptoms as follows : 

1. Eye dull and infiamed ; lack of appetite ; feces thinner than usual, and slightly 
reddish; urine natural ; pulse low; pulsation of heart increased. When the disease 
takes a fatal turn, chills and tremors appear; head and horns become hot ; feces and 
uriue bloody ; pulse slow and at times suspended ; beating of the heart perceptible ; 
the eye assumes a dirty yellow appearance ; horns gi-ow cold and death takes place. 
Duration of sickness, six, forty-eight, and ninety-six hours. 

2. Eye assumes a dirty red ; pulse slow, suspending at times ; beating of heart per- 
ceptible; urine bloody; feces similar to rice-water, oft'ensive odor; head and horns 
Lot. Duration of sickness from four to twelve hours. In this form of the disease a 
compound of one dram of opium and two drams of quinine has proven very beneficial. 

3. I also noticed other varieties of splenic fever, which, however, were attended by 
no dangerous symptoms. Calamus and gentian combined with tannin makes a very 
good remedy. 

There is a preventive to si)lenic fever used in Germany with good results, consisting 
of )ialri fiulplitmn jmto, 540 grains, (lihrnm tinam et (VimUVtam), sulphuria depurati ptilo, 
iJt'O grains, {ttnc. sex). This is given in tablespoonfuls with tiie food. 

There were but few non-contagious diseases which in their acute form have caused 
any serious loss. I will only mention colic and quinsy among horses and calving-fever 
(puerperal fever) among cows. Most owners of horses know nothing of medicine, 
chemistry, &c., but with the aid of " receipts," so-called " doctor books," and the advice 
of unqualified persons, they regard themselves as fully competent to "doctor" their 
horses. They almost invariably treat quinsy for glanders They set up some arbi- 
trary, wrong diagnosis, and give the poor animals large quantities of useless, injurious 
medicines, thus causing the loss annually of thousands of horses which were simply 
sufit'ering from colic. These self-dependent men cannot tell whether the colic is caused 
by infiammation of the bladder, spasms of the bladder, suppressiou of the peristaltic 
action, gases, peritonitis, enteritis, &c., or by mechanical or organic obstruction; they 
invariably administer the same medicine rather than go to the expense of a rational 
veterinary treatment. Just so it is with puerperal fever, which, if not rationally 
treated, is almost always followed by death. During my practice here I have not lost 
a single horse afflicted with colic, or a cow having the puerperal fever, and therefore 
regard the remedies applied by me in these cases as spcclfivs, whicii I shall only give 
to the public for a suitable remuneration. 

Mr. Thomas B. Lucas, Easton, Mason Count}-, Illinois, sa3's : 

Hog-cholera prevails to a considerable extent here. The disease makes its appear- 
ance about once a year. My hogs have often been afflicted with it, but never twice 
alike. The fatality ranges from 10 to T.') jier ceut. Remedies are numerous, but none 
seem to be of any account. A frequent change of diet and of rauge would seem to be 
the best preventive, and a separation of the older from the younger hogs. The dis- 
ease appears to be more fatal along streams and in timber-lands than elsewhere. 

Chicken-cholera also prevails to a considerable extent, witli a fatality ranging from 
10 to 100 per ceut. 

Mr. L. B. Thornton, Tiiscumbia, Colbert County, Alabama, says : 

Horses here are subject to several different diseases, such as spavin, fistula, blind- 
staggers, glanders, &ic. The best remedy for glanders is to shoot the animal as soon 
jis taken, for the disease is incurable. Feeding horses on more oats and fodder and less 
corn will be found a preventive for many of the diseases which afflict them, and will 
also keep them in good condition. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 81 

Cattle are subject to murrain, and in most cases the disease proves fatal. Good 
pasturage and regular salting are also good preventives of diseases among cattle. Com- 
mon colic in horses and cattle is generally cured by carbonate of lime, a teacupful^in 
a pint of water and used as a drench. 

For bots in horses I have found the best remedy to be a strong sage-tea, with mo- 
lasses. 

Hogs are afflicted here with a disease called cholera, for which no remedy has as yet 
been found. Calomel is extensively given. My experience leads me to believe that 
if hogs have plenty of good water, and are salted regularly and given sulphur and 
ashes and a supply of bituminous coal occasionally, they will escape many of the dis- 
eases to which they are subject. A great many of the diseases which afflict swine are 
caused by worms and lice. I use grease and tar for Hce and calomel for worms, with 
good results. Last year, when the hogs were dying here by scores, I kept mine up 
in pens, with plank floors a little elevated. I kept the pens clean and used coal-oil 
and sulphur to destroy the lice. I kept a constant supply of wood-ashes and coal in 
the pens, and during the prevalence of the disease I did not lose a hog. They thrived 
and fattened well, and contained no intestinal worms when killed. 

Fowls are subject to chicken-cholera, which is seldom cured. My experience is that 
if fowls are kept in clean, well-ventilated houses, and given sulphur and lime to keep 
off vermin, and are fed well, they will remain exempt from disease. Care and atten- 
tion to feeding well are indispensable to healthfulness in fowls as well as all kinds 
of farm-animals. 

Mr. O. E. LovETT, Saiut Elmo, Fayette County, Illinois, says: 

We have no diseases among farm animals except among hogs, and with us all the dis- 
eases affecting the hog are classed under one head, that of cholera. Four-fifths of all the 
hogs in this county have died during the past summer. The disease presents itself in 
a variety of forms. Some become stupid and have a high fever. Occasionally they 
have a swelling on the jaw, shoulder, or hip ; some on one part of the body and some on 
another. These swellings are generally tilled with water. The bowels of many were 
not aftected, and to all appearances were in a healthy condition. Hogs thus affected 
would live from four to twelve hours. Those that had very high fever usually become 
lame in one or more of their legs. After death their lungs were found filled with froth 
and blood, but the bowels were apparently unaffected. Animals thus afflicted gen- 
erally lived from two to four days. Others that had high fever were bloated in the 
bowels, and would cough and purge when made to move about. They also passed 
bloody water. Aftected in this way, they would visually live from two to ten days. 
About one-third of this class recovered and are doing well. I tried about all the rem- 
edies menti.med in the newspapers, and used lime and carbolic acid both in powders 
and in a fluid state as disinfectants, but I cannot say that either did any good. In 
July I lost about 100 head of hogs. They all died inside of three weeks. The disease 
appeared and disappeared very suddenly. The few hogs that recovered are doing 
finely, and appear as healthy as though they bad never been sick. 

Dr. A. Jones, Centreville, Montgomery County, Arkansas, says : 

We have had no epidemic disease among fowls for some time. The past spring, how- 
ever, we had some chicken-cholera, a disease characterized by a lax condition of the 
bowels, with greenish-white discharges, and a greatly enlarged liver and dropsical 
condition of the heart. I examined many and found all to be in the same condition, 
more or less, according to the advanced condition of the disease. No certain remedy 
was found, though maiiy were tried. The best remedy, however, was ground mustard 
in salt dough. 

Hog cholera, or a disease characterized by a high fever, nervous twitching of the 
muscles and slight cough, some looseness of the bowels, drooping, &c., has existed, 
more or less, for some years past among swine. Nearly all that are attacked die. 
Twelve months ago three of my hogs were attacked by the disease. A neighbor sent 
me word to give them one-half pound each of flour of sulphur, and he would pay for 
all that died. I did so, and they all recovered. Since that time I have had no more 
sick hogs. I would like to hear of the sulphur remedy being extensively tried. 

Mr. W. X. Cowan, Gadsden, Etowah County, Alabama, says : 

Cholera is the only prevailing disease among our hogs. Frequently its fatality is .50 
per cent., and sometimes as high as 75 per cent. Various remedies are used, but with 
little or no effect. Epizootic in horses prevails to some extent, and in aggravated cases 
seems incurable. Some mild cases pass off" like mild attacks of distemi)or. At some 
seasons and in certain localities cholera is very fatal among fowls. We have no rem- 
edy. Our ladies would rejoice at the discovery of either a preventive or specific for 
this scourge. 

S. Ex. 35 6 



82 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. II. S. DoDD, Dodsville, Marion County, xVikausas, says: 

During a residence of six years in this county I have not known anything like an 
C]>idemic among farm-animals or fowls in my neighborhood. In the county of Boone, 
adjoining this on the west, some cattle have recently died of what is called dry mur- 
rain, and many hogs have died of cholera. I examined one cow, and found the same 
symptoms present as observed in cases of Spanish or Texas fever in cases which I had 
examined seven years ago in the State of Kansas. 1 lind on inquiry that Texas or 
southern cattle have been driven through Boone County the ))ast summer, and there- 
fore believe the disease to be the same. The first symptom noticeable is a sluggish 
movement. In the secoud the ears and head droop, the eyes sink in the head, and the 
toes of the hind feet drag on the ground. The duration of the disease is from two to 
six days. On examination the urinary organs present a very large and inflamed con- 
dition. Tiie stomacb is discolored to a black or dark red, and the contents are very 
dry and hard. Some remedies have been administered, such as diuretics and very- 
active cathartics, with considerable success. My opinion is that such treatment is 
wise, and will iu almost every case effect a cure where the treatment is persevered in 
and not delayed too long in the beginning. The diuretic used was nitrate of potash, 
and spirits of terebiuthina the cathartic. Hog's lai'd was also used in largo aud fre- 
quent quantities. Congress would do a wise thing by making an ai)propriation for the 
investigation of these dreaded diseases. 

Mr. H. F. ScHENCK, Cleavelaud Mills, Cleveland County, North Car- 
olina, says : 

The only fatal disease we have to contend with, and which seems unmanageable, is 
what every one here calls cholera among hogs and chickens. It appears almost every 
summer or fall among the hogs in this county, and goes through one neighborhood one 
season and some other one the next. It does not seem to spread widely over the same 
country any one year, but seldom fails to appear each year. The animal when attacked 
first shows symptoms of drooping, aud although they eat at first they often vomit after 
eating. They generally die within from seven to fourteen days. I would roughly 
estimate the fatality at 33 per cent, of those attacked. Of those that survive it is 
often two months before they finally recover. Many remedies have been tried, but 
with but little success. It has never but once attacked my stock, and therefore my 
experience with the disease is limited. Last year I had but seven hogs, aud six out 
of the number were attacked. I observed it closely for a few days, and came to the 
conclusion that instead of its being cholera, as it was called by my neighljors, it was 
nothing more than simple constipation. They had no action of the bowels that I 
could discover. I gave them large doses of calomel, put them in a lot until it operated 
freely, and then turned them out. They all recovered. I advised my neighbors, 
whose hogs were similarly affected, to try calomel, which they did, and since that time 
there has scarcely been a death. 

All that I have said about hogs is applicable to fowls. 

Mr. J. F. Sellers, Perryville, Perry County, Arkansas, says : 

Cattle a few years ago were subject to murrain, but now this disease is almost un- 
known. Horses have no diseases, except now aud then a case of blind staggers, which 
farmers say generally arise from feeding inferior corn, and such diseases as fistula, 
«fec., which are too common and the treatment too well known to require notice here. 

We have at this time a disease r.aging among hogs which is thought by some to be 
the common hog cholera, but by others this is denied. The attack is made known by 
the general drooping appearance of the animal and a laxity of the bowels, though 
this hist symptom is not seen in all. They generally die at the end of a few hours, 
greatly emaciated. They sometimes very suddenly swell under the throat after death, 
and these are thought to have been in some manner choked or suffocated. It has been 
noticed that those hogs that stay around houses and sleep in dry beds are much more 
liable to this disease than those that run in the woods and sleep without shelter. 

Mr. James H. Eumbough, Warm Springs, Madison County, North 
Carolina, says : 

Among some farmers of this section cholera sometimes prevails to the extent of de- 
stroying all the hogs on the farm. I have, however, never had a case, using as a pre- 
ventive a weak solution of concentrated lye. I cannot learn of any intelligent remedy 
that is employed in this immediate section, and, having had no experience myself with 
sick hogs I am unable to suggest a remedy, or present any peculiarities of the disease, 
as I am not at all acquainted with the symptoms of hog cholera. But I am of the 
opinion that the disease iu this climate is solely attributable to want of proper care 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 83 

and intelligent attention, over and irregular feeding, exposure to inclement weather, 
filthy quarters, want of salt, in the absence of which latter the animals sometimes re- 
sort to dirt and the accuniulations in their pens. 

The chicken cholera is sometimes prevalent here among that class of fowls which is 
the staple jtoultry of this section. I have no experience of any value in regard to this 
disease, and no suggestion beyond the want of proper care and attention on the part 
of a rustic population who have no idea as to the importance of attention, proper food, 
protection from the weather, provision of proper gravel, or cleanliness of roosts and 
quarters. Being a country of prolific vegetation, and the fowls being allowed to run 
at largo over the farms, the young ones are subjected to the damp and cold of the 
dews and rains, whicli superinduce diseases peculiar to young chicks. 

I am of the decided opinion that in a climate like this, naturally free from epidemic 
diseases to man and beast, that care and attention, intelligent regard to the comfort 
and food of animals, will constitute good, eftective, and sure preventives of diseases 
of all kinds among animals and fowls. 

Mr. W. H. SiLOW, Bay Minette, Baldwin County, Alabama, says : 

Chickens have been affected more or less with a disease known in this locality as 
cholera. The fowls may be fat and perfectly liealthy one day, and the next morning 
he found dead under their roosts. Some linger longer, droop around and gape a day 
or two, and then die. The gills become sallow and apparently bloodless. The dis- 
charges are green and very offensive. Not more than one in twenty-five recover. Some 
few have a second attack of the disease. Many remedies have been used, but I cannot 
say that any of them have proved sufficiently beneficial to be recommended. The dis- 
ease is confined mostly to the Brahma breed. We have come to the conclusion that it 
is useless to doctor a chicken where the disease has progressed to any considerable ex- 
tent. Black pepper appears to be about as good a remedy as anything else. 

During the winter of 1876-77 about half the sheep of this neighborhood broke out 
with what farmers called the rot. They lost flesh until they were greatly emaciated, 
and then the wool would almost all come off them. When attacked they would wan- 
der off' singly or two or three together to some retired place, where they would linger 
for about a week and then die. I think about one-half of those attacked died. The 
loss caused a great falling oif in the yield of wool in this section. They now seem to 
be doing well and are comparatively healthy. 

Mr. Andrew Jay, jr., Jayville, Couecnh County, Alabama, says: 

The importance of the object sought to be accomplished in your proposed investiga- 
tion of the diseases of farm-animals would be hard to overestimate. It is a much- 
needed movement, for I know of no reliable remedy for any of the diseases which afflict 
farm-animals. The diseases existing among horses are colic, hots, or grubs, scours, stag- 
gers, distemper, and glanders. That among hogs is called cholera. Whatever disease 
may afflict a hog it is called cholera, yet it is very evident that the symptoms and ef- 
fects greatly vary. Half of all the hogs in the county have died of some disease dur- 
ing the present year. Cattle are less subject to disease than any other class of animals. 
Occasionally, however, they have what some call murrain. Sheep likewise are subject 
to disease, and more so when huddled closely together. But I am too ignorant on the 
subject of diseases, as seems to be the case with all of our people, to have yet discov- 
ered or learned enough about the causes or cures to be of any real value. Cures are 
generally accidental, if at all. Sometimes the animals will recover in spite of the rem- 
edies given. 

I regret that I am unable to contribute anything toward advancing so valuable and 
important a work. I would most cheerfully do so if I could, for I need its advantages 
and will be very grateful for any information growing out of this investigation. 

Mr. C. H. jERNiaAN, Enon, Bullock County, Alabama, says : 

Horses, cattle, and sheep here are subject to the usual diseases incident to these ani- 
mals, for which various remedies are used. Hogs are subject to cholera, for which no 
remedy has been discovered. I would like to investigate this disease for the purpose 
of discovering its cause had I the means at hand. Chickens are also subject to cholera, 
so-called, and are also frequently afflicted with a disease called "sore head." No rem- 
edy is known for the first. As a local application, kerosene oil and lard, in equal parts, 
has been found a sjiecific for the latter. 

Mr. Thomas Dunnington, Tine Bluff, Jefferson County, Arkansas, 
says: 

Notwithstanding the frequent prevalence of chicken cholera we find the raising of 
fowls profitable. The symptoms of the disease with us are a drooping appearance, in- 



84 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

disposition or inability to eat, and death in a short time. We have used soda and sul- 
phur as remedies, and cleanliness of houses as preventives, and by such means have 
managed to raise chickens and eggs sufficient for our own use, which we find cheaper 
than the raising of pork on the same amount of food. 

In this section of country a great many hogs have been lost by a disease called 
cholera. It makes but little difterence as regards symptoms; all hogs that die are 
afflicted with either cholera or mange. Those that are aflected with mange are cov- 
ered with a dry scuff, waste away, and soon die. The first 8ynii)tom of cholera is a loss 
of appetite, then follows a jerking or heaving of the sides, which is soon followed by 
the death of the animal. We are a slipshod set of farmers, and make no investiga- 
tions for determining the causes of the various diseases which afl'ect our animals. We 
depend too much on nature, with its sun and rain, and try to go it easy. 

Mr. Ira 11. Foster, Gadsden, Etowah County, Alabama, says : 

Horses are afflicted with numerous diseases, the most alarming and fatal of which 
are "bots" and colic. The former manifests itself suddenly and produces great 
agony, which frequently results in the death of the animal in a few hours, occasionally 
in a few minutes, and upon a pont-mortan examination the coats of the stomach are 
found partially destroyed by the worms or grub. The symptoms are a disi)osition to 
frequently lie down, stretching the head and neck on the ground, drawing up the top 
lip and showing the teeth plainly, casting the head back behind the fore legs witli 
nose to the body, excessive perspiration, but no swelling of the body. The symptoms 
of colic are pretty much the same, and the two diseases are often confounded ; but in 
the latter the body is almost invariably more or less distended, and not unfrequently 
to an alarming extent. We have no reliable remedy for the bots in cases where the 
animal is violently attacked. The main hope against its deadly ravages is by means 
of preventives. The colic is more manageable, generally yielding to large doses of 
carminatives and anti-spasmodics and purgatives combined, such as cloves, pepper, 
«fcc., laudanum, paregoric, ether, &c., and salts, castor oil, turpentine, tfcc. A slug of 
moistened tobacco inserted in the rectum is worthy of trial. By regular feeding, 
watering, and exercise the disease w^ould be less f reijuent. Of horses violently attacked 
by bots, 50 per cent, die in less than twenty-four hours. Not more than 5 per cent, 
die of colic. 

Distemi)er, bloody murrain, hollow-hom, and hollow-tail are the diseases which 
mostly afiiict cattle. The first-named manifests itself in and about the head by the 
issuance of feculent and corroding pus from the nostrils and eyes, with loss of appe- 
tite, attended with great lassitude and exhaustion. I have found mercurial purgatives, 
aided by salts, the most satisfactory remedy. This disease is not so malignant and 
fatal as in former years. The murrain is common and fatal. It is manifested by a 
discharge of bloody urine, loss of appetite, constipation of the bowels, fever and thirst, 
lassitude, and a general drawing up of the body. No favorable remedy has been pre- 
sented. Cooling cathartics combined with diuretics and diaphoretics have been tried 
with partial good results. At least 50 per cent, die when violently attacked, and gen- 
erally within one or two days. Hollow-horn is common, though not necessarily fatal. 
It shows itself in cold horns and languid looks, loss of appetite, indisposition to move 
about, seeming great shrinkage in size of body. If neglected, the animal will die from 
exhaustion in six or eight days. The disease generally gives way after boring with a 
large gimlet into the center of the horn (which is usually found hollow) and injecting 
vinegar, table salt, and black pepper daily for several days ; also bal liing the horn 
near the head with spirits of turpentine. The hollow-tail is easily detected by ma- 
nipulating the tail from root to tip. A portion of the bone will be found destroyed by 
absorption, say from three to ten inches in length. Make an incision to the center of 
the tail where the bone is missing, and insert a liberal quantity of black pepper and 
salt. Then close up this orifice and bandage well, and the animal will soon recover. 

Cholera is the main disease afflicting hogs. It is common and emphatically fatal, 
often killing by the hundreds within a few days. On its first appearance it generally 
selects the best and fattest hogs for its victims. Although many remedies have been 
tried, and some with apparent success, none seem to be at all reliable. A sure remedy 
would save millions of dollars annually. A remedy for this disease we need above all 
others. If found, the farmers could and would advance in prosperity by raising hogs 
for market as well as for home consumption. If your department can give to the 
country that remedy, you will have done a great work — one so great, indeed, that its 
merits and bounds cannot be measured. 

Sheep, when in large flocks and closely penned, die by the hundreds of the various 
diseases which afflict this class of animals. Small flocks in open and broad pastures 
thrive, and would be remunerative if it were not for the lean and hungry dogs. The 
rearing of sheep is sadly neglected at the South. 

The cholera among chickens is most insidious, and its causes less understood, and it 
perhaps proves more fatal than all other diseases combined. A great many die with 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 85 

gapes. This disease is caused by nits and mites, wliicli is the result of uncleanly and 
improperly ventilated quarters. A great many remedies have been tried. A very 
simple one is to rub the fowl with kerosene oil, an<l put one or two droi)s down its 
throat. This will generally destroy the vermin. The better plan is to keep clean 
houses, as prevention will be found worth a pound of cure. This is applicable to all 
classes of farm-animals. 

Mr. W. J. Eubank, Biiiiiingliaiu, .Uvrrci'sou County, Alabauia, says: 

There have been no diseases prevalent hero among horses since the epizootic influ- 
enza, which is still fresh in the minds of the people of the whole country. They occa- 
sionally die with colic, inflammation of the lungs, inflammation of the bowels, &c. ; 
but as there are no veterinary surgeons here, little is known of the causes of these dis- 
eases. Cattle occasionally die with murrain. Goats are almost free from disease. 
Occasionally numbers of a flock will die with a malady little known here. They are 
generally attacked with a fit. When apparently healthy they will sometimes begin 
turning around, which they will continue until tired out, and theu fall down. They 
may get up soon and stagger about a day or two and die. Sometimes they will lie 
around three or four days, apparently unable to get on their feet. Now and theu one 
will recover without treatment. 

Hogs are atilicted with cholera and quinsy. In the dry weather, during summer and 
fall, when they are obliged to lie in dust, pigs and young hogs are frequently attacked 
with a disease that has only been known here some three or four years. Little pimples 
make their appearance on the body similar to small-pox sores. The skin under the 
body and inner part of the legs reddens, the nostrils swell, and the patient dies within 
from three to ten days. I could learn nothing from & post-mortem examination. The 
lungs and intestines appeared natiu-al. The disease is confined solely to pigs and young 
hogs. 

Poultry sometimes have cholera and roup. The former I know nothing of, but the 
latter frequently occurs in cool, damp weather in spring. The head swells, the nostrils 
and eyes inflame, and discharge a viscid mucus. The nostrils should be syringed with 
a solution of carbolic acid or nitrate of silver, and sulphur given internally in feed. 
Where stock are well cared for and supplied with a variety of food and plenty of salt, 
they rarely ever sufter from any disease. 

Mr. John Kendall, Amo, Hendricks County, Indiana, says: 

The only disease prevailing here among any class of farm-animals is that affecting 
swine. A diagnosis of the disease, as a rule, seems to be about as follows: First^the 
existence of a dry cough for weeks before any dangerous symptoms are manifested. 
Second, refusal to eat, and a disposition of the animal to lie down with its feet under 
its body. Third, excessive jjurging in many cases, the excrements frequently being 
black. Fourth, constipation. In cases where the urine is very yellow, or where bleed- 
ing at the nose occurs, death soon follows. Many will linger a long time after they 
have lost all disposition to eat ; others will die within a very few days. The mor- 
tality is greatest among pigs. Where older hogs are attacked, from 10 to 25 per cent, 
recover. 

Every hog that dies in this section of country is said to have died of cholera. On 
examination dead ones were found to contain worms in the intestines. No satisfactory 
remedy has been found, notwithstanding the many "patents" and "sure cures." 

The disease prevails more extensively during July, August, and September, and 
diminishes as frost and cold weather approach. A lot of my pigs were affected with 
a cough, as before stated, but about the first of Seiitember I had a valuable horse die. 
I cut the carcass open, salted, and allowed the pigs to devour it. Soon after they 
commenced feeding on it the coirgh disappeared, and the pigs have since been apparr 
ently healthy. Whether this was due to the fresh meat and change of diet, I cannot 
say. 

Mr. Ira Eowell, Danvers, McLean County, Illinois, says : 

The "hog question" has been discussed for the past ten years in the farmers' club 
at this place, without any definite conclusion having been reached as to the cause or 
remedy for the diseases incident to this class of animals. No two persons have ever 
agreed upon the subject, which has been discussed until it is threadbare. It is now 
universally believed, however, that alkali in some form is the best preventive of so- 
called hog-cholera. 

Many of those who have taken the best of care of their hogs, and escaped the dis- 
ease for many years, were at last visited by it, and lost as heavily as those who paid 
less attention to their stock. At present some of my neighbors are sufi'ering heavy 
losses among their hogs, while mine are comparatively free from disease, and have been 
for a number of years. But my turn may come soon. I have a shelter for my hogs, 
open on two sides, and keep salt and ashes always before them. 



86 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
Mr. J. T. Law, Hawk Eidge, Cottee Couuty, Alabama, says : 

Cattle ill this county have been in good condition for several years past until re- 
cently. They are sutiering to some extent with a disease called murrain, which proves 
very fatal. For several years past swine have been afflicted with a disease called cholera. 
Mine were first attacked during the war, and I have not been successful in raising 
hogs since. There are various supposed causes of the disease. Some think that an 
exclusive corn diet will produce the disease. Others think it is brought on by the hogs 
feeding on mushrooms, which grow plentifully in the bottom-lands. A farmer in Pike 
County informed me recently that he had been ifi the habit of giving his hogs nux 
vomica, and that he had never lost one by cholera. Last spring I commenced feeding 
this drug in slops from the kitchen, and since then my shoats have been doing very 
well. I also feed a little corn. 

Chickens in some localities are dying rapidly of a disease called cholera. I have 
heard of no remedy that has a tendency to arrest the malady. The excrements under 
the roosts are of a deep-green color. 

Mr. W. B. Derrick, Baileys ille, Ogle County, Illinois, says : 

In regard to diseases of farm -animals in this locality I would say that, during the 
past year, stock have generally been healthy, excepting that a considerable number of 
hogs have been affected and some have died. Last summer a disease prevailed among 
the swine in the western part of this county, and in adjoining counties, which was 
termed " hog-cholera " by some, but more properly " lung disease," as the attacks were 
accompanied by cough and congestion, which in many cases soon resulted fatally. On 
a ;post-mortcm examination of some it was found that the lungs were badly diseased, 
and apparently the direct cause of death. 

Within the past few weeks a uumber of hogs have died quite suddenly in this neigh- 
borhood, from a disease supposed to be the veritable hog-cholera, as only certain herds 
were affected and were soon decimated, while other herds in the vicinity escaped. 
The hogs affected suffered from purging, and death soon ensued. I am unable at pres- 
ent to give you a definite diagnosis of the disease, nor have I heard of any effectual 
remedies after the animals have become badly affected. Several preventives and spe- 
cifics have been tried. The best preventive, I think, consists in keeping the animals 
in a sound, healthy condition, by feeding them wholesome food and keeping them 
in clean, well-ventilated quarters. 

Last winter a large number of swine in this locality were afflicted with a cough, but 
the most of them recovered in the spring. 

Mr. E. P. Chandler, Holly Springs, Dallas County, Arkansas, says : 

We have only to note a disease prevailing among hogs, which we term cholera, but 
it is somewhat different in its diganosis from the cholera which prevailed to an alarm- 
ing extent in this section some years ago. The first symptom noticed is an indisposi- 
tion to eat or take nourishment of any kind, which primary symptom is followed with 
purging and vomiting in most cases, but in some a complete cessation of the secretions 
or excretions, accompanied with high febrile symptoms. The duration of the disease 
is from one to five days. The principal remedies used have been arsenic, turpentine, 
coal-oal, and opium, and some farmers have even resorted to mercurial preparations, 
but all with abcrut the same efiect; that is, the loss of about 75 per cent, of the hogs 
that have been attacked. At least 50 per cent, of the hogs in some localities have 
already died, and the disease still rages with unabated violence. 

Mr. EzEKiEL Hemsinger, Burnt Prairie, White Couuty, Illinois, says: 

All the material drawbacks we have here in stock-raising is that among swine, known 
as " hog-cholera," and from this cause our farmers have, to say the least, been kept 
down, and some of them have even lost their homes. We have sufiered from it now 
for seventeen or eighteen years, it having reache;! us in less than twelve months after 
it first started in Ohio. In the first place, we are convinced that it is a contagious 
disease, as hogs very rarely take it in any other way than from contact with diseased 
animals. I live in a hog-raising district, and for twelve years past this has been the 
universal belief of our farmers. In all this time, with the closest observation, we have 
not known certainly of a case where hogs were kept in an inside inclosure where 
others could not reach them. 

It is also a well-established fact that hogs have the disease but once. Though some 
of the herd may sometimes show signs of the disease, they never take it again under 
any circumstances. A sow may pass through cholera when a pig. If kept for a far- 
rowing sow she will continue to bear her pigs in the midst of a dying herd until she 
dit 8 of old age, and never again be affected by the disease. What is very strange and 
unacconntablr, is the fact that her pigf^, as long as they draw nourishment from the 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 87 

mother, will uot take tlie cholera, bnt as soon as they are weaned they take it as others 
do. 

The disease usually sweeps over our country onee each year. Sometimes two years 
may intervene, but such a rest we have never had more than once or twice. It gener- 
ally reappears about eight or ten months from the time of its previous appear- 
ance, just as measles and whooping-cough in the human family periodically reappear. 
We hear of the disease aa existing at some distant point, and watch its progress. It 
gradually appi'oaches until it reaches our next neighbor. If we can now succeed in 
keeping our hogs and pigs in an inside inclosure, at some distance from the infected 
ones, they will remain safe ; but i& they are allowed to smell of a sick hog through the 
fence they invariably take the disease, which makes its appearance in eight or nine 
days after being exposed to it. 

The first symptom of the disease is a short, quick cough when disturbed, and an 
inclination to lie in bed. Some will be severely purged and others will vomit, while 
some will do both. These symptoms are followed by high fever, unusual thirst, and a 
high, purplish discoloration of the ears, belly, and flank. The duration of the attack 
greatly varies. Some die within ten minutes after the first decided symptoms mani- 
fest themselves, while others may linger a month and then die. The fatality of the 
disease also varies. Some herds may escape with a loss of 25 per cent., while others 
may be decimated to the extent of 90 per cent. It is not uncommon to hear of the loss 
of all in small, well-kept herds. The average loss is about 50 per cent, of all hogs 
attacked. 

As to cures, we have found none. The most successful treatment we have ever found 
is to keep them away from water and sheltered from snow and rain. It matters not 
how hot the weather may be, they should have no water either to drink or wallow in. 
If they have grass or clover to feed on, give them nothing else. It is better for them 
to have nothing at all for the first week than to feed them on corn. They should not 
be crowded, and if daily changed from field to field, so much the better. 

The majority of writers on hog-cholera seem to know but little about the disease 
which bears with si;ch crushing weight on this and similarly situated districts. It is 
claimed by almost all of them that it is the neglect of proper sanitary conditions ; but 
when the disease prevails, it is a well-known fact that among the best-fed and best- 
groAvn hogs the fatality is three or four fold that which attends hard-favored, poor 
shrimps that are but half fed and never properly cared for. We all agree that un- 
healthy food and foul bedding engenders disease among swine, but that has no rela- 
tion to our Western hog-cholera. 

In all older-settled parts of our country, hogs are restrained from running at large. 
This is the practice in the prairie counties of Central Illinois, where the disease is not 
known ; but even in this section of the State there are some farmers who shut their 
hogs up in the barn -lot, where they are compelled to bed in the manure heap, and 
where they soon sicken and die of filth. Those who raise hogs successfully keep them 
on clover in summer; and if they have the range of the whole field for choice of bed- 
ding and of cover, they will bed' in a clean place. We think we have learned by ex- 
perience that there is no more healthy diet than clover for hogs, yet it is not uncom- 
mon for 75 per cent, of those so kept to die in the clover-field. 

Some persons urge as an argument against the theory of contagion that the disease 
must have a start somewhere. AVe know it has a start ; but where and for what pur- 
pose, we are ignorant. Isolation sometimes prevents its appearance, but not always. 
I have practiced this plan, and sometimes have succeeded in preventing the appearance 
of the disease ; but at other times I have failed, and have lost hogs to the amount of 
$1,000 at one visitation. 

Since cholera has proved so fatal among hogs, every sick or dead hog is charged to 
the account of this disease. Even scientific investigators have greatly erred in mis- 
taking manure-befouled sick hogs for cholera cases. 

Mr. A. P. Green, Yerinontville, Eaton County, Michig-au, says : 

I have had but few opportunities of making a diagnosis of the diseases which af- 
flict farm-animals. For manj^ years past this|section has not been troubled seriously 
with any contagious disease where fatal results have followed. The epizootic, which 
traveled over nearly the whole country in 1875-76, has left many of the horses in this 
locality in an unhealthy condition, afflicted with discharges from the nostrils, swell- 
ing of the glands, and coughing, with rather a heavy appearance of the latter at times, 
but unlike the heaves. When an abundant draught of cold water is taken the indica- 
tions of wind-broken breathing cease. The animal becomes quite enfeebled in con- 
stitution. 

Mr. John G. Oxee, Campbellstowii, Preble Couuty, Ohio, says: 

On the manifestation of the first symptoms of a disease which so seriously and 
fatally afflicts hogs in this locality, the animal assumes a dull and sleepy appearance, 



88 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

stagjjers wlien it attempts to move about, and seems weakest in its hinder parts. It 
usually wants to hide itself in litter and straw, and when it does so lies flat on its 
belly. In most cases there are frequent slimj' discharges from the bowels, accompa- 
nied with profuse bleeding at the nose. Large hogs become very much prostrated 
within from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, and quite frequently die within that 
period. The fatality is greatest among ]>ig8 from four to seven months old; the dis- 
ease quite often carrying oft" from 80 to 90 per cent, of the younger shoats. Among 
hogs that have attained their growth the loss is from 40 to 50 per cent. The disease 
is usually attended with high fever and great thirst. The skin is generally covered 
with small red spots of a very deej) color, and before death ensues the breathing often 
becomes very laborious. 

After death the internal structure of the hog is generally found to be perfect, except 
the lungs. In most cases these important organs are found in a very unhealthy con- 
dition, in many cases presenting the appearance of jelly. As regards remedies and 
preventives, almost everything has been tried, and I can say, from experience and 
close observation, with very little success. My remedy would be to separate the sick 
from the well hogs, and kill the infected ones as fast as they show symptoms of the 
disease. 

Mr. J. E. ]MiNTER, Boouville, Owsley County, Kentucky, .says: 

Hogs in this locality have been afflicted and are now dying of a disease known as 
cholera. The disease is not so prevalent or fatal, however, as in former seasons. We 
have no preventive or remedy for the malady. Fowls are also dying quite rapidly of 
chicken-cholera. When attacked the gills of the fowls turn pale, they lose their flesh, 
and generally die very suddenly. We have no remedy for the disease. 

Mr. J. W. Nicholson, Camden, Camden County, New Jersey, says: 

Quite a number of horses have died here with something like "dumb colic," a dis- 
ease which makes very rapid progess; if not relieved, generally ending in the death of 
the animal within from four to eight hours. The most eftectual remedy that has come 
to my knowledge is sulphate of ether and laudanum. Some few cases of " mad stag- 
gers" have occurred, for which there seems to be no remedy. I know of no other 
disease among horses which assumes anything like an epidemic form. W^e have had 
a few cases of Texas fever among cattle, for which no successful treatment has been 
discovered. Cholera among hogs probably kills 5 per cent, of these animals. Losses 
from chicken-cholera will reach 10 per cent, of all the fowls attacked. No treatment 
of this disease has proved of any benefit. It sometimes leaves only two or three fowls 
out of a large flock. 

Mr. Frank Herr, Waterloo, Monroe County, Illinois, says: 

For the past year the hogs in my neighborhood have been more or less afflicted with 
malarial fever. The disease commences with red and sore eyes, which symptom lasts 
a day or two, when the hog grows stiff, shivers with cold for a few minutes at a time, 
with intermittent heat as of a fever, after which it dies within from three to four 
hours. My remedy is twenty-four grains of quinine, given in sugar and sweet milk, in 
three doses a day; or given in apple-butter forced down the throat, if the animal no 
longer eats. I found this a pretty eftectual remedy. I give pigs three or four grains 
of quinine per day in some manner. 

I have seen a few cases of milk-fever among cows, which generally killed them 
within from six to fifteen hours. The most lingering case extended into a period of 
three days. I had good success in administering Glauber's salts and saltpeter in reason- 
able doses. Iji the early stages of the attack I gave cold water injections every two 
hours. If badly constipated I also gave one-half pound of Glau1)er'8 salts and a half 
pint of raw linseed-oil at intervals, until a passage was eff'ected. I then gave two 
drachms of pulverized camphor in strong valerian tea and kept the cow warm. 

Mr. Christian Hergenroeder, Waterloo, Monroe County, Illinois, 
says: 

We have had numerous cases of sick hogs here. The difliculty seemed to he all 
located in the throat. I gave sulphur in all cases, but it did no good. The hogs 
would continue to eat heartily up to the time of their death. 

Some chickens have died of cholera. I gave berries of bitter-sweet in water, but 
cannot say that it did any good. The disease continued for about three weeks. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 89 

Mr. Frank Adelsberger, Monroe County, Illinois, says : 

My personal experionce with diseases of animals relates only to hogs. Two years 
ago, within a period of six months, I lost thirty head. They were a mixture of the 
Chester-White and Poland-China breeds, and were running in a large dry lot with 
plenty of fresh water to drink. They were attacked with sore throat, which symp- 
tom was soon followed by swelling of the neck. They either could not or did not 
desire to eat. I gave them lime, coal-stone, and snlphur. The epidemic lasted about 
six weeks, and the hogs attacked died within from twelve to ninety-six hours after 
the first symptoms were observed. There was no straw or chaff iu and about the lot 
in which they were confined. 

Mr. D. WiSHMEYER, Waterloo, Monroe County, Illinois, says : 

I can only give my own experience with one class of farm-animals, that of hogs. I 
had five that were taken sick this fall and but one of them died. Frank Herr cured 
four of them with a remedy which he gave in sweet milk and sugar. I do not know 
what remedy he used. The hogs wei'e afflicted with diarrhea and refused to eat. 

Cliolera carried off a good many of my chickens last spring. I gave them red pep- 
per, but cannot say whether it was of any benefit or not. 

Mr. John Herzler, Iluntsville, Madison County, Alabama, says : 

In August last a disease made its appearance here among hogs, and by December 
about all that were affected had died. Up to that time mine had remained compara- 
tively healthy, and none of them had died. I had about one hundred and forty head, 
and they were running in a plowed field containing about one acie to each hog. I 
noticed that they kept themselves well rooted into the ground and laid a good deal of 
the time on their bellies. Before sowing the field to wheat I removed them, and in 
about a month thereafter they began to die. I lost about all those that had access to 
the barn-yard and slept in hot places. I penned seventy-five head in a plowed lot 
containing about one acre of ground, and in March and April, after the lot had become 
hard and dry, they all died but ten. I think they were affected with typhoid fever 
and infiamniation'of the bowels. Some few would become lean and would linger for 
a long time ; but as a general thing they died during the night, although they were 
apparently in a healthy condition the evening previous. Some few got well. Among 
those that recovered were some that I fed on warm blood from the slaughter-house. 
After I turned them out into the woods and swamps they entirely recovered. 

Mr. Daniel Oilman, Geneseo, Henry County, Illinois, says : 

I find that it will be impossible for me to devote the time necessary to make a sat* 
isfactory report on so important a subject as that relating to diseases of farm-animals. 
It is something that ought to be attended to at once in this part of the country, as the 
hog-cholera sweeps off thousands of dollars' worth of swine every year. I regard the 
disease as the most important one in this locality, and, from its varied symptoms, I am 
satisfied it will require a thorough investigation to determine its causes and find a 
remedy for the scourge. 

Mr. John T. Gibbony, Lamar, Barton County, Missouri, says : 

Cattle have suffered considerably in various portions of this county, and quite a 
number have died from Texas fever, a disease contracted from herds of Texas cattle 
which were driven through the county. I have heard of no successful remedy for the 
disease. The contagion was confined to the different localities through which the cat- 
tle passed, and did not spread. 

Hog-cholera carried oli' a number of hogs during the past year. Those on the prairies 
did not sufter to such an extent as they did in other localities. The disease seemed to 
be more prevalent in the timber-lands and along its margins. Here the hogs were 
allowed to run at large in great droves. The land was low, and in some places wet, 
while on the prairies it was dry ; besides, they were confined together in small herds. 

Mr. W. P. Jack, Eussellville, Franklin County, Alabama, says : 

Candor compels me to state that as yet I think there is very little real information 
possessed in this county on the subject of hog-cholera, which appears to be the main 
disease affecting farm-animals. So far as my information goes.there hasbeen no cure dis- 
covered for the disease. It is certain, however, that hogs can be kept healthy by using 
preventives. In my own experience I find that when I use them I lose no hogs, but if 



90 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

neglected tbey are apt to sicken anil die. The preventives which I have found most 
eftective are such as will keep the lice otl" them and expel the worms from the intes- 
tines. According to my theory they are t he main cause of what is known as hog-cholera. 
I have used tar m early spring, both internally and externally, as a preventive, with 
unfailing success. Pine seems to he a natural medicine for hogs. In the mountains 
they hunt for pine roots and eat them freely. Many men who reside in the mountains 
have told mo that they never had a case of hog-cholera, and they attribute the escape 
of their hogs to the fact of their eating pine roots. Poke-root is another natural med- 
icine for hogs ; they root for and eat it freely. It should be boiled with their slop. 
Sour slop is also a preventive. This should be mixed with charcoal. Fre<iuent salting 
is indispensable. Copperas is also good as a vermifuge, and bluestone is likewise a fine 
remedy as a preventive. 

An experienced farmer told me that last autumn, after he had lost sixty head of 
hogs by cholera, he had a very sick one which refused food of any kind. He finally 
gave it peach-tree leaves, which it ate ; he then gave them to the rest of his flock, and 
did not have another sick hog. 

I think your inquiries will do a great deal of good by directing the attention of stock- 
men to a subject of such vital interest to them. Heretofore, I am sure, those losing 
hogs by cholera have been too careless in not dissecting them, hence the difficulty at 
present in getting a correct diagnosis of the disease. Hereafter, should other cases 
occur, they will be more careful to collect the desired information. I think it will 
ultimately be found that hog-cholera is not one, but that ^ arious diseases are included 
under this name. 

Mr. S. W. Cochran, Uuiou, Fulton County, Arkansas, says : 

The southern and western portions of this county have been exempt from diseases 
among stock of all kinds, and stock generally is in tine condition ; but the northern and 
northeastern portions of the county have suffered greatly from a singular and fatal 
disease among hogs. (I live in the southern portion of the county.) Having heard of 
the great fatality among this class of animals, and wishing to carry out the request 
contained in your letter, I saw one of the sulierers in the infected district, and the one 
I considered most competent to answer your inquiries, and handed him one of your 
circulars. I sent another one to a prominent breeder in the infected district, and from 
them I am persuaded you will soon receive full answers to your inquiries. 

The gentleman I conversed with told me that at least half the hogs in his neighbor- 
hood had died. He said the hogs were differently affected, but death was certain in 
every case. Being satisfied that those to whom I have intrusted your circulars will 
write fully in regard to the disease, I leave that to them. But I cannot close without 
assuring you that I appreciate the object you have in view and the plan you have 
adopted, believing it may possibly be the means of saving millions of dollars to the 
fcirmers of our beloved country. 

Mr. A. B. Gilbert, Boonville, Ovrsley County, Kentucky, says : 

There is no prevailing disease among any class of farm-animals in this county except 
a disease called cholera, which is very destructive to swine. It destroys more hogs 
than aU other diseases combined. No certain remedy is known. We use as a pre- 
ventive, which is better than a cure, the following prescription, and keep the hogs 
when sick entirely away from water, viz : One ounce each of brimstone (sulphur), 
copperas, saltpeter, indigo, borax, and assafetida, well pulverized and mixed with meal 
or mush; this quantity to be administered to fifty head of hogs. 

Chicken-cholera is also very destructive to all kinds of fowls. No remedy is known 
for this disease. 

Some farmers in this county have lost over one hundred head of hogs. Almost all 
the pigs have died. 

Mr. ^y. B. Kennedy, Cortland, Trumbull County, Ohio, says : 

I have lived as a farmer in this county for sixty-three years, and since the murrain 
left it, forty years ago, we have had no disease among cattle until last fall, when (|uite 
a number of calves, from six to eight months old, died of what we called "blackfoot." 
It commenced by swelling in the forward legs and shoulders of the animals and affected 
their breathing. They died within two or three days. 

Mr. J. B. EandAxl, McArthur, Vinton County, Ohio, says: 

In past years we have had a few cases of cholera among hogs, but have none at 
present. We think the disease is induced by putting too many of them together, and 
allowing them to run in the mud and drink impure water. Copperas and sulphur, fed 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 91 

pretty freely, will be found the best remedy. As to cures, all I cau say is that we 
have found none. 

Chicken-cholera exists among fowls. Sometimes we succeed in curing them by 
placing black or red pepper and copperas in their food. We find, however, that those 
who properly care for their hogs and fowls are never troubled with the cholera. 

Mr. Alexander Little, Locksburg, Sevier County, Arkansas, says : 

Our greatest losses here are in hogs. A number of remedies are used, the following 
being the most eftective : One teaspoouful each of turpentine, calomel and coal-oil, 
well mixed and used as a drench three times. As a preventive the following will be 
found very good : One pound each of copperas and sulphur, and two pounds each of 
common salt and lye-soap. Mix well with meal or bran and give in slop or dough. I 
have used this preventive for four years and have not lost a hog, while A. L. Marsh, 
D. M. Johnson, William S. Ferguson, and many others, have lost hundreds of dollars' 
worth — two hundred head at least. 

Mr. J. M. Pettigrew, Cliarleston, Franklin County, Arkansas, says ; 

There are but two diseases that prevail fatally to any very considerable extent 
among domestic animals in this county, to wit : The hog and chicken cholera. In 
this locality the hog-cholera seems to embrace several diseases ; and its diagnosis is 
various. In some instances the hogs have a slow and continuous fever ; they become 
sluggish and seem loath to move ; the hair becomes of a reddish color ; they have no 
appetite. In this drooping condition they gradually grow weaker and weaker until 
they die, but few recovering. In some cases the first symptom is stifl:ness in the limbs 
and joints of the hogs ; they move as if they were severely foundered. Soon the skin 
becomes ulcerated over the body, and about the joints and nose boils will break out, 
emitting an ofteusive purulent matter. Fever accompanies these symptoms. This 
type of the disease is very fatal. What few hogs recover shed off most of the hair. 

In other instances the lungs and throat seem to be the seat of the disease. The 
throat and chest become swollen and the animal is aiflicted with a cough and difficulty 
in breathing. These symptoms are attended with fever, and prove fatal in a great 
majority of cases. 

The foregoing are the prevailing types of the disease known here as hog-cholera. 
By whatever type of the disease the hogs are attacked the same type prevails through- 
out the entire herd. 

No certain remedy has been found. Copperas and blue vitriol are the most success- 
ful remedies used here. They are more valuable as a preventive, however, than as a 
cure. After the hogs have been attacked no remedy has been found to cure any con- 
siderable uumber of them. A variety of food seems among the best of the preventives. 
During the past summer and fall I fed my hogs copiously on peaches and apples as 
they fell from the trees, and they have been entirely exempt from cholera and other 
diseases, while my neighbors' hogs not so fed have died at a fearful rate. Suds from 
common lye-soap, used for washing purposes, have proved very beneficial in keeping 
hogs in a healthy condition. 

The cholera has killed quite a large per cent, of the hogs in this county during the 
past summer and fall, and in some neighborhoods it is still prevailing. 

Chicken-cholera has also extensively prevailed in this county, and has been quite 
fatal. The symptoms of attack are cbowsiuess, the gills and comb become of a purple 
color, and the evacuations are white and watery. The liver becomes wonderfully 
enlarged and of a paler color than the liver of a healthy fowl. In most instances the 
fowl becomes exceedingly fat. Here the disease prevails among chickens, turkeys, 
and guineas. The most successful treatment for the malady is merciary in some form. 
I have known that treatment in some instances to prove very successful. The most 
successful preventives are cleanliness of the hennery, the sprinkling of lime over the 
floor, and the washing of the walls with lime-water. They should have pure water 
to drink, in which copperas should occasionally be put. Wild turkeys, even when 
domesticated, seem exemjit from the disease. 

Dr. C. M. Norwood, Bluff City, Nevada County, Arkansas, says : 

All animals, except hogs, have been remarkably healthy for several years past in 
this section of country. We have had a disease prevailing among swine which has 
proved very fatal to nineteen-twentieths of those that have been atfected. The dis- 
ease has been called " hog-cholera " among farmers ; but from observation and some 
investigation I am led to conclude that cholera is a misnomer. From the most promi- 
nent symptoms I consider it to be a lung disease altogether. The symptoms are, 
first, great depression, followed by languor and indisposition to move about for the 
first four or five days. Second, a slight, dry cough, attended with intense febrile 



S2 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

excitement and dryness of skin. At this stage there is complete loss of appfetite, 
and crepitus is aildible in the thoracic region. In this form of the disease death euslI^s 
about the ninth day. J'oxt-mortcm investigation reveals the stomach, bowels, liver, 
spleen, and pancreas healthj", but the lung hepatized, the air-vesicles filled with 
sanguino-])urulent infiltration from the cellular tissue of the lungs, revealing the 
fact clearly that there has been great and destructive inflammation of the lungs. 
We must, therefore, conclude from the symptoms and pathological anatomy revealed 
by this examination that it is pneumonitis of an acute form. We have noticed some 
hogs that ate heartily and appeared perfectly healthy in the evening, and the next 
morning were found dead. On j)ost-mortcm examination this class of animals revealed 
congestion of the lungs, extravasation of blood into the air-vesicles to so great an 
extent as to lessen the caliber by infiltration, producing death by asphyxia or strangu- 
lation. I consider this the most violent and pernicious form of this lung disease. 

Another class of subjects are those that recover finally. I consider this to be the 
acute form, terminating in a typhoid form. The duration of this type of the disease 
is from about ninety to one hundred and fifty days. Generally, when the disease 
assumes the typhoid form, there is some purging from the bowels, and this symptom, 
I presume, has led many to give it the name of " cholera." I consider it altogether a 
lung disorder, as it presents itself in this locality, and a proper study of the disease 
would no doubt convince many that they are laboring in error in their diagnosis of 
this fatal and malignant malady. 

As to treatment, none has ever been adopted that has proven satisfactory. A multi- 
plicity of remedies have been used by the farmers, but all have signally failed. The 
only remedy I can give that I consider at all reliable is twenty grains of calomel and 
one and one-half grains of tartar-emetic mixed and given every other day during the 
febrile excitement. After the fever has subsided give nourishment freely, such as 
slop from the kitchen, cooked vegetables from the garden, mush (corn), &c. 

As to the prophylactic treatment, I know of none. I think the poison producing 
the disease floats in the atmosphere, and that it is not produced from any local cause. 
The best preventive that presents itself to my mind is to move the herd to some thick 
forest as soon as the first symptoms of the disease are observed, and not allow them to 
run in fields or around the farm. 

t# I hope this short and imperfectly- written note may lead some mind to a more thor- 
ough investigation of this important subject. 

Mr. W. B. Shaw, Beverly, Wasliiiigtoii Couuty, Ohio, says : 

Lambs in this locality have been scourged for several years past with a disease called 
*" paperskin," which seems to be worse in wet than in dry seasons. It is not uncom- 
mon to lose an entire flock by the disease. It attacks the lambs at the age of from 
three to five months, and those in good flesh are as liable to it as those that are in poor 
condition. When attacked, they become very pale and weak, apparently almost entirely 
bloodless. The stomach contains small red worms, and frequently, in addition, the ani- 
mal will be found to have tape-worm. I know of no cause or positive cure for the 
disease. I have tried many remedies, and have found more benefit from feeding 
pumpkins than from anything else. 

Many sheep die with grub in the head. The symptoms are bloody, mattery dis- 
charges from the nostrils. Pine-tar placed in their salt-troughs from June until Sep- 
tember (during the season the ga 1-fly deposits its eggs) will ba found a preventive. 
A positive cure will be found in syringing the nostrils with a decoction made from 
tobacco. 

Chicken-cholera is very common here. We know of no cause, nor have we a remedy, 
for the disease. 

Mr. D. Stickel, Moiiticello, Pratt County, Illiuois, says : 

There are no diseases prevalent among farm-animals in our county except among 
Logs, and this class of animals has suffered more severely this fall than for many years 
past. Many persons have lost entire herds. The various symptoms of the disease are 
as follows : The hair inclines to st^nd erect ; a hacking cough ; standing around with 
the nose to the ground; sometimes they have the thumps; frequently they bleed at the 
nose; some are aftected in the head, the eyes matter and frequently burst; sometimes 
the tops of the ears get raw and are covered with clotted blood ; sometimes they are 
purged and at other times they are constipated. 

The duration of the attack varies considerably. This fall the duration of the disease 
seems shorter than usual, the animals generally dying within from one day to a week 
after the first symptoms are observed. Once in a while they will linger for weeks, and 
then die apparently like a person afliicted with consumption or typhoid fever. I think 
the fatality is nine-tenths of all attacked where no remedies are used. Quite a num- 
ber of remedies have been used at different times, but with little eftect. Sometimes a 
remedy will appear to be quite successful for a time, but will finally seem to lose all 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 93 

virtue as such. This is especially the case with May-apple root. A Mr. Conilis, of 
our place, has prepared a remedy that is being used considerably in this section of the 
country, and it appears to have some merit as a curative. He regards it as a certain 
preventive. He has now used it about seven years, and says that he has never had 
a case of cholera among his hogs since he has been using it as a preventive. 

Mr. J. Westlake, Troy, Miami Couiity, Ohio, says : 

Hog-cholera prevails to a considerable extent here and is quite fatal. The epizootic 
hits also prevailed to some extent among the horses of this county, but has not been 
very fatal. Chicken-cholera prevails extensively in some neighborhoods, and is very 
fatal. 

Mr. R. J. WiLLOUGHBY, Fecleralsburg, Caroline County, Maryland, 
says : 

We have a disease among fowls here which seems to affect but two classes, viz., tur- 
keys and barn-yard fowls. The disease is generally known as cholera. It is very 
fatal, and kills entire flocks sometimes within the short space of twenty-four hours. 
It seems to strike in spots. For instance, while the flock of one farmer may be entirely 
decimated, that of another, who may not reside three hundred yards away, may en- 
tirely escape. We have not been able to And any remedy for the disease. 

A number of horses were lost during the past summer and fall by farmers in the ad- 
joining county of Dorchester, by a disease known as blind-staggers. A remedy for the 
disease was extensively used and proved quite successful. It was, to split the horse's 
forehead and bind horseradish in the cut. In every case where tliis remedy was used 
in the early stages of the disease the animals recovered. From sixty to eighty horses 
died of the disease in that county. 

Mr. E. Archer, Lancaster, Franklin County, Ohio, says : 

The only disease affecting farm-animals here is cholera among swine, and its symp- 
toms are as varied as its treatment. The duration of the disease is from four hours to 
as many weeks. Nine cases out of ten prove fatal. Our experience here is that there 
is no remedy for the disease, but we have a pretty certain preventive, viz : Salt, cop- 
peras, and wood-ashes, in the proportion of one pint of salt, one-fourth pint of pulver- 
ized copperas, and three gallons of wood-ashes, well mixed, and placed in dry sheds, 
where the hogs can have access to it at all times. This is the only satisfactory pre- 
ventive to my knowledge. When the disease has progressed so far as to cause the loss 
of appetite, I regard it as the next thing to incurable. When a hog once refuses to eat, 
he is dead, or might as well be. 

Mr. John L. S. Debault, La Eose, Marshall County^, Illinois, says: 

In my county diseases are prevailing among hogs to a very alarming extent. Dif- 
ferent lots seem to be differently affected. Some have symptoms of quinsy, while 
others seem to be afflicted with the old cholera, a disease not very prevalent this fall. 
However, almost every ailment among hogs is called cholera. An entirely new phase 
of the disease seems to be prevailing this season among my own hogs. They had the 
run of a very large pasture, comprising creek-bottom and upland, with an abundance 
of young timber. They had pure running water, a fine blue-grass pasture, an occa- 
sional feed of corn, and in addition followed a herd of corn-fed steers. I had two 
hundred and thirty-three head, and I thought they were the finest lot of shoats I had 
ever seen — healthy iu every respect apparently, and thrifty. October was very warm 
until toward the close of the mouth, when we had a sudden change to severe cold 
weather. My hogs were at once affected. They commenced to sneeze and cough, and 
the pupil of the eye turned white, causing total blindness in a few hours. Death would 
generally ensue within from ten to twenty-four hours. Their bowels did not seem to 
be affected ; the disease seemed to be entirely located in the head and nasal organs 
until within two or three hours before death, after which the whole trouble appeared 
to be with the lungs. I think the symptoms were those of catarrh. I tried various 
remedies without any good effect. Among other things I did was bleeding, but this 
only seemed to hasten death. I then tried turpentine, sulphur, and copperas with like 
ill success. Finally I sent to Grundy County for a hog-doctor, who had great success 
in killing all he undertook to cure. I changed the quarters of those that remained, 
placing them in dry hospital buildings, in small lots together, where I could give them 
medicines at pleasure. This did not stay the disease, as the confinement appeared to 
cause it to rage with greater virulence than before. I finally lost two-thirds of my 
herd — one hundred and fifty-five out of two hundred and thirty-thi'ee — before the 
disease abated. My opinion is that the disease was caused by too high a temi)erature 
of the body when the sudden change of weather took place in Octolier, .lud the conse- 
quent sudden cooling of the outside surface. 



94 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. John Frost, Hoboken, Huclsou County, New Jersey, says : 

Onr horses have suffered greatly by epizootic, which seems to have been chronic, for 
the last three years. The symptoms are as follows: The eyes become dull and heavy, 
the glands of the throat swollen, loss of appetite, followed by a copious discharge of 
mucus from the nostrils. My system of treatment was as follows: I had my stable 
thoroughly cleaned, and gave it several good coats of whitewash prepared from ordi- 
nary lime. I then fumigated it once a day l»y burning pine-tar, being very careful to 
close the door and keep all the smoke i)ossible from escaping. About noon I would 
prepare a feed for them by scalding about three quarts of wheat-bran, and after add- 
ing about one gill of cider vinegar would feed it to them warm in a nose-bag. If they 
refused to eat they at least inhaled the steam from the food. This treatment seemed 
to bi'ing them back to their appetites. I fed them young carrot-tops, which they 
devoured with avidity. At the end of four or five days with this treatment the horses 
were ready to go to work again. Some of my neighbors refused to follow my treat- 
ment and called in veterinary surgeons, who were in most cases from four to live weeks 
in getting the horses on their feet again. In a great number of cases very valuable 
animals were lost, while my own thrived and recovered their wonted spirits and 
strength in most cases in less than a week. 

Horses in this district sutfer greatly from inflammation of the bladder, brought on 
in most cases from fast driving or heavy pulling. Tlie symptoms that have come under 
my notice are as follows : The horse frequently stretches and attempts to stale, but can- 
not. I have tried niter and gin, in fact all ordinary prescriptions given Ijy veterinary 
surgeons. They failed, and I resorted to my own treatment, which is as follows : Take 
about twenty-five or thirty roots of parsley, stew them in about three quarts of water, 
strain them through a collander, and give the horse as a driuk one pint every half- 
hour. The second or third dose has never, in my expei'ience, failed to relieve them. 

Dr. Frank Prince, Jonesborough, Jefferson County, Alabama, says : 

There is a disease prevalent here among hogs which for years has been known as 
cholera, but which should more i)roperly be termed measles. The first symptom that 
manifests itself, on close scrutiny, is seen in the hog walking on its toes, and not upon 
the entire foot. But for some time previous to this the hog has been affected, and this 
is the result of contraction of the intercostal and abdominal muscles. There exists a 
latent inflammation of the parenchyma of the lungs, and cutaneous or superficial 
fascia, which causes the hog to contract the muscles for relief, hence he pitches on his 
toes. He has been having fevers several days, as is manifest by dullness and stupid- 
ity, indisposition to play, the head bowed with the nose close to the ground, and a thin, 
viscid mucus dropping from the mouth. Now examined, the mouth will be found 
inflamed, an eruption is visible in and around the throat, and the appetite is fast fail- 
ing. A slight cough has set in, accompanied with occasional vomiting. The eruption 
soon fastens itself upou the entire alimentary tract, so that the stools soon become 
thin, purulent, and bloody. Great emaciation supervenes, and the hog staggers in 
walking. Purulent matter and blood are sometimes passed oif by the animal. The hair 
begins to fall off as the hog becomes more and more emaciated, and a small miliary 
eruption is to be seen all over the skin. Without relief he will soon die. Sometimes 
he dies much earlier in the attack, which is caused by this purulent matter entering 
the blodd, by which means it is conveyed to the heart and brain, and causes the animal 
to turn round in a circle until it drops dead. Could this eruption be thrown out at 
the commencement of the attack, and the hog kept for one week in a dry house where 
there is no dust, he would soon recuperate. But where measles is complicated with an 
inflammation of the bowels or lungs, with the usual exposure to which all hogs are 
subject, death is almost inevitable. Hogs that are taken up and put early on treat- 
ment are apt to recover, or at least the mortality is not so great. 

There are almost as many ways for the treatment of this disease as there are sections 
of country in which it occurs. One old and successful farmer told me that he always 
kept slops for his hogs made of corn or meal boiled with ashes or poke-root, and that 
he rarely if ever lost a hog. Another stated that he used ashes, salt, copperas, and sul- 
phur with great success. The gieat secret in all this treatment is the alkali that is 
used. When this is administered in time it acts as an alterative, controls the secre- 
tions of the mucous coat of the intestines, stimulates the absorbents, sets up a healthy 
action in the lymphatics, causes the skin to assume a healthy function or action, and 
the disease soon disappears. So you see every one has his remedy so convenient that 
there is no necessity of going from home to obtain it. It consists in the proper use of 
good wood-ashes and salt. 

Mr. L. G. Maynard, Hampden, Geauga County, Ohio, says: 

With very few exceptions no general diseases have prevailed among farm-animals in 
this countj^ since the " bloody murrain " left us forty or fifty years ago. The epizootic 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 15 

prevailed among our horses a few years ago, but comparatively few cases proved fatal. 
At that time warm stabling, light food, and exercise proved to be the most efficient 
remedy. For a few years past I think heaves and other Inng complaints have prevailed 
to a greater extent than fifteen years ago. A little lobelia, say a teaspoonful, once in 
two or three days, together with straw and provender (oats and corn ground), seems 
to be the most approved remedy. 

I lost a valuable mare last spring which appeared to have every symptom of pul- 
monary consumption. She began with a sliglit hacking cough, which increased steadily 
until April, when she died very much emaciated. No remedy seemed to even check 
the disease or afford temporary relief. Such cases, however, are rare. 

It is very rarely that meat cattle are either afiected or die of disease here. On Thursday 
I met with our Farmer's Club, and laid the subject of your circular before it. The tes- 
timony of those present generally corresponded with what I have above stated. A few- 
instances were reported of cattle'having what some called "dry murrain," or food drying 
up in the first stomach. The following remedies have been used for this trouble with 
success by difierent farmers: Linseed-oil; one pint of flax-seed boiled with three or 
four quarts of water; saleratus and buttermilk; spirits of turpentine. 

A few flocks of sheep are aflected with " foot-rot" or " hoof-ail." Remedies are used 
with success, which makes the damage to flocks comparatively small. 

The only cases of hog-cholera I have ever heard of were three or four years ago, and 
occurred in a drove from the West, which were peddled out to the farmers and factories 
in this locality. They evidently brought the disease with them. I heard of one man 
who lost eleven headj and another one who lost two or three. No remedy was of any 
benefit. The soil and climate of this county seem adapted to the healthfuluess of 
hogs ; but too little com is raised to make hog-raising for market profitable. 

Dr. J. M. Johnson, Locksburg-, Sevier County, Arkansas, says: 

As a physician I have been engaged in the practice of medicine in all its branches 
for the last twenty years. I have also had a farm, and have given a good deal of atten- 
tion to stock-raising upon a small scale. As to the names given to the diseases aff"ect- 
ing our farm-animals, they are generally so far established that, whether suitableor not, 
it would be hard to change and eradicate them from the minds of the people. Horses, 
cattle, and sheep here, according to my observation, are comparatively healthy, al- 
though, like all mortal creatures, they are subject to disease and premature death. For 
an animal occasionally to become diseased, sicken, and die is something we naturally ex- 
pect ; but what alarms us most are the destructive epidemics which, for the past twenty 
years, are existing somewhere at all times, killing our useful and indispensable animals, 
as well as our much-relished and profitable fowls. Hogs and poultry here seem to 
suffer most from the ravages of disease. 

Hog-cholera, meningitis or staggers, quinsy, and mange are by far the most common 
diseases among swine. The symptoms of cholera are : The hog is obviously sick, mopes 
about and lies down most of the time, occasionally vomits or tries to do so, eats but little 
or none at all. In a day or two it will perhaps have superadded a profuse diarrhea. If 
the disease runs a regular course the animal will continue to vomit and purge imtil 
the alimentary canal is emptied of all its feculent or substantial contents, followed by 
watery or serous and sometimes bloody operations, with cramping of the muscles and 
particularly of the bowels. When all the above-described symptoms are seen the com- 
plaint has reached its second stage, and is in its height or at its acme of apparent force. 
Here, if it does not yield to the efforts of nature with the aid of remedies, the hog will 
pass into the last or declining stage. If the disease yields, the animal will continue 
warm and all the symptoms will begin to moderate. If not, it will go into collapse, 
become cold, or nearly so, continue to strain and cramp and utter low grunts, and some- 
times will even shriek with pain. The duration of the disease is a good deal owing 
to its severity. Generally it lasts from one to four days. All cases that result in death 
do not run the same course. Sometimes all of the above symptoms are not present. 
Some epidemic symptoms are milder than others, but all seem to be malignant, for 
nearly all the hogs die that take it if left alone. The same epidemic is not equally 
severe in different cases. Sometimes the attack is so violent that the animal is in the 
last stage from the outset, or it may die from nervous prostration with no reaction, 
vomiting or purging. 

The diagnosis can easily be determined by the symptoms when they are all present, 
especially if the hogs are in living order, and the weather is warm ; for, according to 
my observation, the disease prevails almost entirely during the summer months. Of 
the causes of the disease I can say but little, because they are not perfectly known ; 
but we know that hog-cholera is epidemic, and that it is a poison, very irritating in 
its action upon the stomach and bowels ; that it has a preference for localities, and 
prevails moi-e generally upon the borders and in low bottoms than upon lands that 
have been previously overflowed. That it is also contagions we have some good rea- 
sons to believe. One thing I do positively know— that there are some powerful predis- 



96 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

posing causes that can, I believe, be almost or entirely prevented. I will leave this 
point for more time and evidence, as I can only hint at the subject generally at present. 

Fortunately this disease, though very fatal and destructive, often readily yields to 
proper treatment when administered in time. (By far the best plan is the preventive 
trejitment, which is comparatively cheap.) The following prescription will be found 
valuable : One quart pure alcoholic tiucture of camphor, one- fourth pound each of pre- 
}>ared chalk and Jli/dranfis canadcnuis, one pint of tiucture of catechu, and one-half pint 
of laudanum. To administer this prescription lay the hog on its back, place a stick 
transversely between the jaw- teeth, and pour down one ounce of the mixture once every 
two or three hours. If the first and second doses do no good, it is almost needless to 
persevere. The mixture should be well shaken before using. There may be other 
indications that could be met by proper medicines, but generally if the above fails we 
may as well let the hogs go. 

If we carefully examine a hog that has died of cholera we will find the liver and 
kidneys diseased. The coatings of the stomach and bowels will also be found more or 
less inflamed from great irritation. We may also find patches of ulceration, with 
worms imbedded about the kidneys and mesenteric glands. During the prevalence of 
epidemics some hogs may escape the disease, while others may have it in a mild form. 

Some years ago I saw a preventive advertised in a Tennessee i)aper, which I adopted 
in part, as there were some incompatibles in it, and I have found it a complete pre- 
ventive not only of cholera, but of all other diseases affecting swine. It acts gently 
and mildly on the liver and keeps it healthj' ; in a word, it is tonic, diuretic, altera- 
tive, and anthelmiutic in its action. It is composed of the following ingredients: To 
one gallon of tar add four ounces of calomel, one-half pound of copperas, and one-half 
pound of golden seal. Stir the ingredients well, and with a wooden paddle si>read it 
lightly upon an ear of corn, and give one ear to each hog or shoat once every three 
weeks. When diseases are prevailing extensively give one prepared ear every week. 
When hogs are hungry they will eat every grain of the corn and will finally seem to 
relish it. 

In answer to the question as to the average fatality from diseases among swine in 
Arkansas, I believe over half of the number die before they are ready for slaughter- 
ing. There are a great many things recommended as preventives and remedies which 
I have no confidence in whatever. 

Mr. J. J. Litton, Alton, Oregon Coanty, Missouri, says : 

With the exception of hogs, all classes of farm-animals in this particular locality 
have been extremely healthy for some years past. For six months past a disease gen- 
erally known as cholera has been working sad havoc among hogs. But few large ani- 
mals have died from the disease, but a great number of pigs and shoats have been lost. 
The first indications of the disease are seen in the animal becoming stupid, in which 
condition it continues until relieved by death, which occurs within from one to four 
days. Sometimes the throat appears to be affected, and in many instances the feet 
swell and burst open. 

Mr. G. W. CuLLisoN, Allerton, Wayne County, Iowa, says : 

The worst disease among hogs that I have noticed within the last twelve months 
has the following symptoms : 1. An indisposition to eat, accompanied with drowsiness. 
2. Vomiting occasionally. 3. The skin becomes cracked and sore, with increased vom- 
iting and an indication to thump. 4. Thumping increases in severity; skin rolls in. 
folds. 5. Diarrhea sets in, and this and thumping close the scene. 

The disease seems to run in families, but is not otherwise contagious. The mortal- 
ity reaches from 30 to 50 per cent, in a family. No remedy has been discovered by me, 
but with cleanliness and variety of food the percentage of mortality may be mucli 
diminished. 

No name has been given the disease, but many call it cholera. It assumes its worst 
forms during the hot months, especially if hogs are kept in dry pens with no grass and: 
but little shade. 

Mr. C. B. Combs, Lamar, Barton County, Missouri, says : 

Hogs in this locality have been more seriously affected by disease than any other 
class of farm-stock. The disease is supposed to be cholera, and the losses havo been 
quite numerous. All kinds of remedies have been tried, but nothing has been discov- 
ered that proves of much benefit. There have been some losses among cattle by what 
is called by some Texas fever and by others dry murraiu. The only remedy that has 
proved of any value is a purgation of some kind. The animals should be taken from 
the range they have been accustomed to and put up in close pens and fed green fodder, 
which has a tendency to keep them well scoured out. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 97 

Mr. William Johnson, Saville, Crenshaw County, Alabama, says : 

The first cases of hog-cholera that came to my knowledge were in East Tennessee in 
1863 and next in Alabama in 1874. The disease appeared to travel south. The best 
remedy I ever tried was stj'ong lye in food or the tea of poke-root mixed with corn- 
meal ; also a mild tea m.ade of May-apple or mandrake mixed with meal appeared to 
be more effectual than any other remedy tried. 

Mr. JA3IES Weiler, Alburtis, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, says : 

I give you the following preventive prescription for hog-cholera : Salt the hogs twice 
a week regularly, using a teaspoonful of pulverized copperas to every four quarts of 
salt ; or, for 100 hogs, procure 50 bushels of clean wood-ashes and mix therewith salt and 
sulphur and ten pounds of pulverized mandrake-root, and scatter one-half the amount 
where the hogs can get at it ; and at another time scatter the balance in the same way. 
The pulverized mandrake-root acts vigorously on the liver, and both sulphur and 
ashes are good remedial agents in common use. Or take two xjarts of sulphur, one 
part of antimony, one part of saltpeter, one part of copperas, and a small portion of 
asafetida, mis with salt and place in a trough in a dry place where the hogs can at 
all times have free access to it. 

As a preventive for diseases of chickens use asafetida and some finely-ground black 
pepper. Put the same in a piece of cloth or rag, nail it in the bottom of the vessel 
where you water your chickens, or, if the vessel is iron or stone, lay it on the bottom 
and confine it there. You should not use too much at one time. One-half ounce every 
two weeks will answer for fifty or sixty chickens. 

Mr. Evan Good, JSTew Vienna, Highland County, Ohio, says: 

Hog-cholera, so called, is and has been for three years alarmingly prevalent in this 
and adjoining counties. Last year the disease was terribly fatal, probably from 60 to 
70 per cent, of those attacked dying. This year the fatality has not been nearly so 
great, simply for want of material, farmers in nearly every instance having sought 
and found a market on its first appearance in their herds. An exception should be 
made of those cases where the whole herd was attacked at or nearly at the same 
time. 

You ask for a complete diagnosis of the disease. That would be a task to appal the 
stoutest. Probably no two men could give the same report. Scarcely two animals on 
the same farm are held in the same way. Pigs from six to ten months old die faster 
than those of twelve mouths and upward. Many more die after the fattening season 
commences in the fall than at any other time. Hogs having a wide range of woods 
pasture are less liable to infection and more likely to recover when attacked than those 
confined in pens or small lots, notwithstanding the danger of contamination would 
seem to be greater. 

Here are a few of the symptoms as I have seen them and as they have been reported 
to me by neighbors : Fever in nearly all cases ; a dry cough is often a premonitory 
symptom ; vomiting ; purging ; bleeding at the nose ; bleeding through the pores, 
particularly about the head ; paralysis of the hinder parts ; giving way of the fore legs ; 
dropping oft' of the ears and tail ; constipation. One man who saved eleven head out 
of one hundred and four this fall says that the lungs, or the portion next the heart, was 
always diseased, while a membrane which surrounds the heart was tilled with water. 
Sometimes, while eating, a hog will give a squeal of agony, jump a foot or two from the 
ground, and fall dead. No cure has been found. Turpentine and capsicum are the only 
preventives I know of that are worthy the name. They will not always prevent, but 
they have the effect to brace the system for the attack. It is the opinion here that 
those who have seen the most of the disease know the least about it. Those who have 
not seen it have at least a theory. Those who have suffered by it come out of the siege 
with their theories crushed. It is the most confounding and bewildering disease that 
can be imagined ; it will not be investigated. Let the department dig this thing up 
and it will have the everlasting thanks of this plague-ridden section. But do not let 
the investigator enter the field with a theory or he will be disgusted at the outset. 
Let him follow facts and base his theory thereon. 

Mr. George T. McWhorter, Chickasaw, Colbert County, Alabama, 
says : 

I send you, in alcohol, by to-day's mail a number of worms taken from the lungs and 
intestines of hogs that died during the epidemic last summer. This disease was called 
cholera by farmers in this vicinity — a terra, by the way, which is here used to cover 
" all the ills that hogs are heir to." These worms are from two different hogs, several 
miles apart, and show the identity of the trouble. The small worms are from the ali- 
S. Ex. 35 7 



98 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS, 

mentary canal ; the larger oues mostly from the lungs, although nearly all the tissues 
were to some extent infested with them. I found the bowels constipated, notwithstand- 
ing the name applied to tlie disease, and filled with impacted fmces. Mixed with the 
fecal matter and adhering to the walls of the canal were myriads of the small worms. 
I saw no large worms in the bowels. There were numbers of small inflamed points 
along the inner surface of the bowels, but no large patches of inflammation. Perfora- 
tions were i)crhaj)8 made at these points. 

The hogs had been troubled with persistent cough, which led me to examine the 
lungs carefully. Here were found great patches of inflammation, and the larger worms 
were very numerous. The lung tissue in places was entirely broken down and the 
sounder portions riddled with worms. Next to the lungs and bowels the liver suffered 
most. The worms here were also larger than those in the bowels, from which I infer 
that the worm, after being hatched in the bowel, perforates it and penetrates the other 
tissues. Some fattening hogs recently killed show worms in the liver ; but as the hogs 
seemed tolerably healthy, with sound lungs, I doubt their identity with the ones sent 
you. 

From what I have seen of the disease I make the following deductions : 

1. The worms are hatched in the bowels. 

2. They must be destroyed before they leave the bowels. 

3. When the lung is perforated treatment is unavailing. 

4. Almost all cases let alone prove fatal. 

Treatment should be founded on these principles. I recommended calomel and 
arsenic to a number of farmers. Many hogs just taken recovered under this treatment, 
but nearly all the old cases died. 

Mr. Samuel Bake, Amanda, Fairfield County, Ohio, says : 

There have been no contagious diseases prevailing among farm-animals in this neigh- 
borhood except a disease known as cholera among hogs. It has been very fatal in this 
vicinity, and several hundred hogs have recently died from its attaqks. The disease 
does not attack all alike. Some commence by bleeding at the nose, others by vomit- 
ing and purging. Still others will quit eating, lie around a few days, and then die. 
Some will eat with apparent good appetite and in an hour will be dead ; some will 
linger two weeks and then die. About o per cent, of those attacked recover. No re- 
liable remedy has as yet been discovered. What seems to benefit one herd has no effect 
on another. It is believed by many stock-raisers, however, that the disease can in 
a great measure be prevented by using such remedies as are within the reach of all. 
Give your hogs comfortable quarters and plenty of good water. Salt them every week, 
and mix with the salt wood-ashes and sulphur ; have stone-coal for them to run to, 
and feed regularly. Those who have practiced this treatment have saved their hogs. 

Mr. J. K. Pruden, Sidney, Shelby County, Ohio, says: 

I have had a great many hogs to die of a disease called cholera. AVhen it first made 
its appearance on our farm it was very fatal. The animals were handled in various 
ways. Some would vomit, some would purge, some would do both, and some would 
do neither. The few that recovered would break out all over and lose their hair, and 
in some cases the hide with it. In some instances the flesh would slough off in large 
lumps. A few of such cases recovered and afterward made fine hogs. I think the 
disease is a brain disorder and an affection of the lungs, for the hogs have a cough, 
and the voaiiting and purging are no doubt the result of deathly sickness. 

I have tried every remedy I could hear of without any success. What would seem 
to benefit one hog would do no good in other cases. The best thing I have found is 
sulphur and asafetida ; they, however, seldom cure the disease, but they are good as 
preventives. 

For two years cholera prevailed extensively in our flock of chickens, and we lost a 
great many. Finally, we cleaned and limed their roosts, put in plenty of ashes for 
them to w^allow in, and gave them milk to drink, since which time we have lost none. 

There is a disease among sheep here called " sore mouth," which, if let alone, proves 
very fatal. A preparation made of vitriol and chlorate of lime, and used as a wash for 
the mouth, will be found a sure cure. I have seen cases of the foot-rot and scab, and 
I believe the disease the result of too close shedding. I generally keep from one to 
five hundred head of sheep on ray farm, but I am not troubled with this disease. I 
have sheds for my sheep, but I do not confine them. 

Ml-. A. H. Wrenn, Mount Gilead, Morrow County, Ohio, says: 

There has been a slight return of the epizootic among horses this fall, accompanied 
■with a slight cough and a little discharge from the nose. But little medicine was 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS- 99 

given. Bran raasbes and other laxatives to keep the bowels open, with a little extra 
care, have restored them to ordinary health. 

Sheep are affected with foot-rot, scab, and what is known as grub in the head. A 
good many remedies are used, sometimes with success and again without any apparent 
effect. » 

We sometimes hear of a few cases of thumiis and cough among hogs, and now and 
then a case of blind staggers, but few deaths are reported. Charcoal, ashes, salt, and 
even soft-soap, are used as remedies, especially when cholera i)revails among hogs. 

Thousands of chickens die annually from diseases incident to fowls. Many fami- 
lies lose large flocks entire. Wild-cherry and white-oak bark, dog fennel, and red and 
black pepper are used as preventives and remedies. The most successful treatment 
of late is a small quantity of assafetida in water, blue mass in very small pills, and a 
little blue ointment on the head. 

Mr. Jamijs M. Bubt, West La Fayette, Coslioctou County, Ohio, says : 

I can say that, during a residence of near half a century as a farmer in this county, 
with few exceptions the cause of disease among and loss of farm-animals has been the 
result of neglect aud improper treatment. Notwithstanding the best of treatment, 
however, the epizootic prevailed for a time among horses ; and what is known here as 
"colt distemper" frequently prevails, which, if not properly treated, terminates in 
glanders, an incurable disease. My treatment, which proved effectual, was saltpeter 
dissolved in hot water, mixed witli wheat-bran mash and fed warm with oats or chop 
feed — one ounce per dose every third day. 

No contagious or fatal disease has prevailed among cattle in this vicinity. Feeding 
at regular hours in winter, with free access to water and salt at all seasons, has been 
my system, and I have lost none from disease. 

Grub in the head has prevailed among sheep. The disease is incurable, but it may 
be effectually prevented by giving them salt mixed with dry wheat bran as often as 
once a week during the summer and fall months, when the fly abounds which causes 
the disease. The same treatment will prevent the disease commonly called " rot," or 
cure a cold contracted by exposure or sudden changes of the weather. I am not 
familiar with the foot-rot or scab, as it has not appeared in this vicinity. 

The cholera, kidney-worm, and other diseases that hogs are liable to in some local- 
ities are effectually jirevented by giving them free access to the slack or waste from 
our bituminous-coal mines, which abound in this vicinity. Copperas and sulphur are 
its component parts. I have never lost a hog from disease. 

In-and-in breeding is believed to be the cause of all the diseases that fowls are 
liable to. Since we have annually marketed or exchanged all our own raising of 
males and kept our hennery cleanly whitewashed and the floors covered with lime, we 
have lost no chicks or grown fowls from cholera or any other disease. 

Mr. J. S. Elder, Darlington, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, says : 

Sheep are the only class of farm-animals subject to any specific disease, and the most 
troublesome one is that known as " pales." The remedies are turpentine and copperas 
mixed with salt and placed in boxes in their feeding places. But I find they never 
recover their former health. They dwindle away for a year or two and then die. I 
find it almost useless to try to save them. Foot-rot also prevails to some extent among 
sheep. About the only remedy used is sulphate of copper. 

Two horses died in this neighborhood a few days ago. They were sick but a few hours, 
and during this time walked around with their heads down and ears drooped until they 
fell down dead. We have no veterinary surgeon in this vicinity, and therefore I can 
furnish you with no diagnosis of the disease. 

A great many cows annually die here with puerperal fever. There seems to be no 
remedy for the disorder. 

Mr. KiCHARD Wray, Eichmond, McHenry County, Illinois, says : 

I have been breeding stock in a small way for forty years, and during that period 
have had diseases among my hogs three or four times, but fortunately they did not do 
much damage. Four years ago my hogs showed symptoms of disease. When first dis- 
covered two of them could not walk. The place where they slept I foimd to be damp 
and wet. Several of the animals were stiff in their joints, aud in addition were cough- 
ing. I bled the two that were the most seriously affected, iu the mouth, aud put them 
in a hole in the horse-manure pile. I covered them all over, with the exception of the 
nose, with the hottest manure iu the heap and then poured two bucketf uls of cold water 
over them. This was in the morniTig, and I left them there to steam until night. I 
then took them out and they appeared to be well. I had to leave home that day, and 
was absent for several days thereafter. I ordered my men to do the same thing with 



100 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

other hogs that might he Hiniilarly attacked. The next day two other hogs were 
taken sick in the same way, hut instead of putting them in a hot place in the manure 
they put them where the temperature was very low, and the resuU was that they both 
dieil. By separating them into small lots and giving them dry beds to sleep in we lost 
no n)ore. 

I have had sucking pigs affected with fever, hard breathing, and costivoness, for the 
removal of which difiiculty I have used a syringe with some success. The second stage 
of this disease is hemorrhage of the bowels, of which the pigs die. The principal cause 
of the disease, I think, is the lack of dry, warm beds, and the sleeping of too many 
together. 

Several farmers near me have sustained severe losses among their hogs this year. 
One of them told me that spirits of turi)entiue had been of more benefit to his animals 
than anything he had tried. 

Chicken-cholera has prevailed to a considerable extent. In many cases the disease 
has proved very destructive. It commenced in my flock by attacking two turkeys 
which I had bought. I discovered it by a peculiar chirping noise which they made. 
On examining their mouths and throats I found them almost closed with a fungous 
growth. This I scraped off, and then applied quick-lime liberally. Two applications 
of this entirely cured them. I also sprinkled lime plentifully about the roosts where 
the fowls could get it easily. 

Among young cattle we frequently have black-leg, and milk-fever sometimes prevails 
among cows. Abortion among cows also frequently occurs and often proves fatal. 

Mr. Orlando Wilcox, Hinckley, Medina County, Ohio, says : 

Some time last summer Mr. Whipp, of this county, went to East Saint Louis and 
bought ninety head of what are called Cherokee cattle, but their long horns, long legs, 
and gaunt bodies indicated plainly that they Avere of Texas origin. He brought them 
to Borea by rail, drove them home, and put them on to what is known as the Wilson 
farm. Some time in the early part of September his native cattle began to die, and 
kept dying until he lost about thirty head. I ought to have said before that these 
Cherokee cattle were very unruly and went almost anywhere they desired. They 
jumped into most of the neighboring farms, but were driven out as soon as discovered. 
Among other farms they trespassed upon was that of Lewis Conaut, where they were 
not discovered until they had lain down to rest. Soon after three of Mr. Conant's cows 
sickened and died. Upon close investigation it was discovered that these Cherokee 
cattle were infested with wood-ticks, which it was supposed they brought with them, 
as ticks are scarce in this country. The theory of the farmers in this township is that 
the Cherokee cattle communicated the ticks to the native stock. Our native cattle, 
not being used to them, had their blood poisoned, while the others, being used to them 
all their lives, were not affected. People going from a healthy country into a malarious 
district will have the fever and ague and other bilious complaints, while the natives 
who have always lived in that locality are but seldom attacked. 

The cause of the Texas fever was much discussed in our local papers. Many con- 
tended that it was caused by saliva left on the grass by the Texas cattle ; others that 
it was caused exclusively by the ticks brought by the Texas cattle. It is certain that 
Whipp's cattle were badly infested with ticks, as a large number were collected and 
sent to the editor of the Medina Gazette. This was also indicated by the remedies 
used, linseed and kerosene oil. Where this was used in season a cure was effected. 
This Texas fever is the only disease that I know of that has been epidemic among cat- 
tle here. Sporadic cases of various diseases have appeared now and then, but we are 
pretty well versed in such diseases and know what remedies to use. 

Mr. Fred. P. Newkirk, Oxford, Chenango County, New York, says : 

In reply to your inquiries, I would say that abortion in cows and black-leg in calves 
are the principal diseases iu this vicinity. Not keeping cows, I can give you little or no 
information in regard to abortion. Keeping about one hundred calves, I think I am 
■well posted in regard to black-leg. A calf attacked with it will be stiff in the limbs ; 
its eyes will sink in the head and it will lose its appetite. The duration of the attack 
is from two to twenty-four hours. Sometimes they will live two days. I have never 
heard of one recovering. After the discovery of an attack of black-leg the animal is 
as good as dead. If bled no blood will flow. The disease usually settles in the legs, 
hips, or shoulders. The exact locality can be ascertained by rapping on the animal 
•with the ends of the fingers, and when the affected parts are reached the sound will be 
like that produced by ra[)ping on blubber, and, in fact, when cut open the part affected 
will be found black and blubbery. I have cut a slit four inches long in a shoulder 
without a sign of distress, the part affected being entirely dead. 

In those that I have dissected the internal organs were found perfect, but the heart 
and veins were full of coagulated blood as black as tar. The fact that little or no blood 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 101 

can be drawn from the large vein in the neck of the calf attacked is to me conclusive 
evidence that the disease is one of the blood. 

I think bleeding i« a preventive; at any rate, I lost three with the disease in as many 
consecutive days, and I immediately bled the balance in the neck, taking about a quart 
of blood f I'om each, and have not lost a calf since. A neighbor of mine, keeping twenty- 
three calves, lost six during the fall months with the disease. He bled the balance and 
lost no more. The calves are usually attacked after being turned ou " after-feed," and 
should bo bled before, and again in October. 

Mr. T. S. GiLLiLAND, Van Wert, Juniata County, Pennsylvania, says : 

Hogs are sutteriug here from what is known as hog-cholera. They are mostly taken 
with a cough, and some die in a few hours, while others linger for three or four days, 
sometimes for a week or two. When opened the lungs seem to be very much affected 
and have a very offensive smell. Some persons claim that they can detect this smell 
while the hogs are yet alive. They seldom recover. Some apparently get well and 
gain in flesh, and then die. One man brought me a portion of the fatty part of a hog 
that he said had had the cholera and recovered, and had fattened as well as the rest 
of his hogs ; but the meat was a bright j'ellow. I thought likely this discoloration 
■was caused by an obstruction of the gall-duct, so that the gall had disseminated itself 
like in jaundice in persons. 

The cholera seems to be epidemic in its nature, taking off nearly all the hogs in a neigh- 
borhood, while other neighborhoods may entirely escape. Changing hogs from one 
place to another seems to be beneficial. One man had his hogs in pens, and after 
losing between forty and fifty turned them in a. woods lot, after which he lost no more. 
He thought he had discovered the cause. Another farmer had his in a large field, and 
after losing about thirty he put the remainder in pens, and they did well. He thought 
he had found the cause and a remedy. Some of our physicians claim that the disease 
is lung-fever, while others think the aflection of the lungs is not the first cause. 

Chickens also have the cholera. They seem to have a diarrhea. Some will linger 
for three or four days, while others, which seem to be in apparent good health in the 
evening will be found dead under their roost in the morning. Cleanliness of coops 
and roosting-places seems to have a good effect, but is not a sure preventive. Some 
persons claim that the disease is caused by chickens becoming lousy and eating the 
lice. It is claimed that common black pepper and capsicum administered in sour milk 
is both a preventive and cure. 

Dr. C. H. E. Shuttee, West Plains, Howell County, Missouri, says : 

A few hogs have died in this county of a disease called cholera. I do not think the 
disease was cholera ; it seemed to be more of an affection and inflammation of the 
lungs than anything else. I do not know of any remedies that were used, as the dis- 
ease prevailed to so limited an extent as to attract but little attention. There are no 
diseases among other classes of farm-animals in this county. 

Mr. John Hornback, Carthage, Jasper County, Missoim, says : 

We have had no prevalent diseases among horses since the epizootic, four years ago, 
except the common horse or colt distemper, v?hich seldom is treated with medicine or 
proves fatal. 

There is and has been a fatal disease prevailing among the cattle of the county. It 
is known as Texas or Spanish fever, and is very fatal. During the past summer, where- 
ever Texas or Southern cattle were herded nearly all the home or native stock of cat- 
tle died off". In some neighborhoods and settlements there are scarcely any cattle 
left. When first taken they appear to droop around for a day or two, looking very 
gaunt and hollow. They also have a hot fever, with little or no appetite. About the 
third day they appear to fail very rapidly, and in many cases do not live beyond the 
fourth day, and rarely if ever longer than the sixth. If examined after death the 
stomach or manifold, and the food contained therein, will be found as dry as dry 
light wheat bread, and the folds of the stomach will be about as tender as wet brown 
paper. There are many reported remedies for the disease. I have tried a great many 
of them myself, but have never succeeded in curing a single animal. I think the only 
preventive or remedy is to keep the Texas cattle away from our native stock. Our 
cattle never have the disease unless they run with or are grazed on the same pasture 
with Texas cattle. 

For the past two years we have suffered to some extent with diseases among hogs. 
The disease is called cholera by many persons, but instead of but one 1 think there are 
many diseases. During last summer and fall a great many pigs and shoats died. Some 
would die in a very few days after being taken sick, while others would linger along 
and live for nearly a month. It is my opinion that most of the pigs and shoats that 



102 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

were lost died from the effects of worms. Soon after death a great many small worms 
would crawl out of the nose and mouth, and when cut open and examined the stomach 
and lungs would be found infested with laige numbers of small, white, wiry -looking 
worms. I am of the opinion that some of the larger hogs died of the genuine hog- 
cholera, but I have heard of no certain remedy for it. 

Nearly every summer a disease jirevails among fowls in this county. I think the 
disease is what is generally known as chicken-cholera. We have no certain remedy 
for it. 

Mr. Henry Waymire, Little York, Moutgomery County, Ohio, says : 

"We have had no epidemic among horses since the prevalence of the epizootic some 
years ago. I hear of no diseases among cattle and sheep, and presume both classes are 
unusually healthy. There has not been so much cholera among hogs this year as 
formerly. There have been but very few cases in my neighborhood. Wood-ashes, 
fed in slops, are used as a preventive. Turnips are said to be not only a preventive, 
but also a cure. We lose a number of fowls every year from a disease known as chol- 
era. Coal-oil mixed in their feed has proved quite a good remedy. 

Mr. T. J. CoNOVER, Monroe, Butler County, Ohio, says : 

I have had considerable experience with diseases incident to hogs, and ever since 
cholera has been in our land I have been endeavoring to find a cure for it. I have tried 
many preventives and cures recommended by journals, &c., but found none of them to 
be certain remedies. For the last two or three years I have proven by my own experi- 
ments that the process of changing from field to orchard, meadow, woods-pasture, or 
roadside, or any new place will be attended with favorable results. At the first ap- 
pearance of the disease I begin this changing process, I watch the hogs and when- 
ever they come back and lie around the place of entrance I give them a new place, and 
continue to do so through the day as often as I think necessary. I feed them no grain, 
but give them all the slops from the house. My theory is that the well ones will survey 
the new jjlace and the diseased ones will follow them around. This exercise induces a 
circulation and warms up the system. What grass and herbs they get will be found good 
for them. Now for the proof : In July, 1876, 1 had some ninety pigs, and out of this num- 
ber saved seventy-five, which remained in good condition until proper age for market. 
One of my neighbors, who had 120 head, saved but four. Two others, who had over 100 
each, saved but eight, and so on through a long list. My neighbors were trying difter- 
ent experiments with various kinds of medicines, while I was practicing the changing 
process. Thousands of dollars have been fruitlessly expended in the use of medicines, 
from which no benefit whatever was derived. 

Last May my pigs were aft'ected with cankered sore mouths and noses. Their mouths 
were so sore they could not nurse, and they were in an almost starving condition. I 
took them from their mothers, put them in a clean, dry pen, with good bedding, cleaned 
their sores, and applied grease to keep the scabs soft. I then fed them on fresh milk 
with a little water in it, and they soon recovered. Pigs, if taken in time and treated 
in this manner, will generally recover. As to the cause of this disease, I have no knowl- 
edge. 

Mr. Jeremiah Chadwick, Smethpoi-t, McKean County, Pennsylva- 
nia, says : 

There are no diseses prevailing at present among farm-animals or fowls in this 
county. A few, and but very few, horses have died in the oil localities of epizootic. 

I lost four head of young cattle with black-leg, and have heard of two or three other 
cases. The disease and its causes and remedies are so well known that I will not 
attempt to throw any new light on the subject. 

Mr. John N. Gearheart, Troy, Miami County, Ohio, says : 

A disease is prevailing among hogs in this county which is commonly called cholera, 
but it appears to be more like a lung disease. They have widely difterent symptoms. 
Some cough, some have high fever, some are lame, some bleed at the nose, some are 
very thirsty, and all seem to lose their appetites. Soda, soft-soap, wood-ashes, and 
cracklings have invariably proved good remedies for my hogs. I h)st two or three hun- 
dred dollars' worth of swine before resorting to these remedies, but since using them 
have lost none. A farmer near me, who had lost quite a number of hogs, commenced 
to give one pound of soda in slops to 50 head of hogs twice a week, and has since lost 
none. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 103 

Mr. John Gordon, Lyunville, Morgan Goimty, Illinois, says : 

With the exception of a disease amoug fowls, and the so-called cholera among hogs, 
our stock is and has heen reasonably healthy. But our farmers are annually great 
losers by the ravages of the disease called cholera among hogs. Tlio loss in Morgan 
County is estimated at twenty-live thousand head annually, worth, on an average, 
$10 per head, aggregating $250,000 per annum — a loss largely greater than our farmers 
can well boar. There is every reason why Congress should make an appropriation to 
enable your department to investigate the cause of the disease and the remedies nec- 
essary to cure it. I am satislied that if a like disease prevailed among tlie food-pro- 
ducing animals of Europe, millions of dollars would be expended in efforts to discover 
the cause and remedies to prevent and cure the disease. It is too expensive and exten- 
sive for individual enterprise. While we have had the disease on our farm live differ- 
ent times in the last fifteen years, I am as ignorant as to its cause and the necessary 
remedies as when it first came. It seems to come at all seasons of the year, and the 
hogs are generally operated on differently. Many remedies Have been tried on our 
farm, but as yet without beneficial results. The causes are so obscure, and the treat- 
ment is, as far as I know, so unsatisfactory that it is difficult to give anything like a 
clear statement on the subject. I am of the opinion that a commission composed of 
scientific men, employed indefinitely, would in time discover the cause and with it 
the necessary preventives and remedies. I hope that you will at an early day call the 
attention of Congress to the importance of the subject, and that it will make an 
Appropriation sufficiently large to investigate the whole matter thoroughly. 

Mr. J. E. Kakr, Big Flats, Chemung County, Xew York, says : 

About the 1st of October last I bought a lot of cattle in the Buffalo cattle market, 
said to have been raised and fed in the State of Wisconsin, and on the 10th of the 
same month nine of those cattle were sick and one had died. I sent for Professor Law, 
veterinary surgeon of Cornell University, and after examination he said they had the 
Texas fever. I commenced using his prescription to prevent the disease from spread- 
ing and to save the sick ones. Out of nine attacked I lost five head. On the 19th of 
November I bought another car-load of cattle, said to have been raised in the States 
of Ohio and Michigan. About two days ago the same disease made its appearance 
among them, and how many of them I shall lose time will tell. Now, what I wish to 
say unto you is this, as you are at the head of the Department of Agriculture you 
might lay such facts as these before Congress, and ask it to enact some law to prevent 
the spread of the disease by prohibiting the transportation of Texas cattle to the East. 
These cattle are bi-ought to the markets of Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, and indeed all 
the great cattle markets of the country, where they are fed and watered, and the next 
day cattle from other States, or native cattle, as they are called, are brought in, and, 
eating the hay the Texans left, get the disease and spread it all over the country. No 
one is responsible. Farmers who go to the markets to buy cattle are not to blame, as 
they do not know what yards sick Texans have been in, and dealers do not care as 
long as they can sell and get their commissions. I do hope yon will try to get Con- 
gress to do something toward prohibiting the shipping of diseased Texas cattle through 
the country. 

Mr. A. CoFFMAN, Eeynolds, Rock Island County, Illinois, says : 

At present the only prevalent disease among farm-animals here is cholera among 
hogs, and of this there are so many different forms, that it is difficult to give a diag- 
nosis of it. It not only occurs in widely-different forms, but also under circumstances 
and conditions as varied and as widely different. Hence no theory has yet been ad- 
vanced here but that some well-known facts occur which knock the theory "higher 
than a kite." 

The form of the disease which prevails here to the greatest extent, and which 
causes the greatest loss to hog-raisers, is what is termed pig or shoat cholera. I should 
say that it resembles a low form of typhoid pneumonia, generally attended with a 
violent cough, sometimes with vomiting and purging, frequently with sore head and 
eyes — the eyes sometimes bursting entirely out of the sockets. They sometimes live 
for weeks, all the time wasting away, and occasionally die within a few hours. This 
form seldom attacks hogs a year or more old. The more violent forms vary so much, 
that I will not attempt a description. As to the remedies, they are as varied as the 
notions of the owners can make them. Everything that is heard of or can be thought 
of as likely to be of benefit is tried, but as often fails. My own experience is (and I 
have had considerable of it) that medicine is of little use. I had it among my shoats 
last winter, had previously used nothing to prevent it except a little concentrated 
lye occasionally (if that be a preventive), and used nothing while it lasted in the 
way ot medicine. I changed their rests every other day, and had them driven con- 



104 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

siderably every day. Under this treatment I lost but few, and escaped better than 
my neighboi"8. Still I do not advance this as a sure mean* of cure. I have more faith 
in it, however, than in all the drugs of the apothecary combined. Others have tried 
the same treatment to some advantage. The disease is very destructive here again 
this winter. I sincerely hope, with the combined efforts of yourself and the stock- 
raisers of the country, that some preventive may be found for this scourge. 

Mitchell Brothers, Ilannibal Centre, Oswego Coimty, New York, 
say: 

There has been quite a heavy loss here incurred from a disease among hogs. We 
have no name for the disease, as there seems to be no definite knowledge concerning 
it. Some people call it " black teeth." The first symptom noticeable is lameness in 
their hind feet. This continues until they lose the use of their hind legs entirely, after 
which they soon die. They have but little or no appetite after they are taken sick. 
There have been a great many hogs lost by the disease in this neighborhood during the 
past eighteen montlis. Wo lost tive head ourselves last season. We sincerely hope 
some remedy may soon be found. 

Mr. T. P. Hamilton, Hartford, Fulton Coimty, Arkansas, says : 

During the past season we have suiFered the greatest loss ever known among hogs 
in this county. In March last the disease appeared among the pigs and shoats in rather 
a mild form of thumps. The losses were not very great. In the month of August the 
cholera made its appearence, and i>ioved very fatal. The greatest fatality was among 
young hogs. The first symptom of the disease was extreme sluggishness. This was 
generally soon followed by rapid breathing, sometimes by purging, and at others by 
blindness. Sometimes they survive for days and at others die quite suddenly. It ia 
not unusual for the flies to blow them before death. The loss has been fully 50 per 
cent, of those attacked, and of this number at least 10 per cent, have been large hogs. 
We have no remedy for the disease. 

Mr. Samuel Wiedmire, Grami)ian Hills, Clearfield County, Pennsyl- 
vania, says : 

I have lately been informed of the prevalence of disease among fowls in some local- 
ities of this county, but do not know the nature of it, nor any of the remedies or pre- 
ventives made use of. When disease makes its appearance among swine, the principal 
remedies are charcoal and sulphur. As far as I have been informed, most diseases 
among this class of farm-stock yield to this kind of treatment. Some years ago I lost 
a few hogs myself, but I believe the trouble was caused by keeping them too long on 
a plank floor during the winter season and feeding them principally on hard corn. I 
find they always do better where they have pens so constructed that they can have a 
good-sized yard in which to exercise. 

Mr. C. Gingrich, Eeisterstown, Baltimore County, Maryland, says : 

A disease has been prevailing among cattle in the vicinity of Baltimore for the past 
twelve or fourteen years, and in many cases has proved fatal. As most of the cattle 
in this district are milch-cows, the disease prevails most extensively among them. It 
is commonly called lung-fever, but as it is identical with pleuro-pneumonia, it should 
perhaps more properly be called that. It has thus far baffled all medical skill. It 
seems more malignant where a large number of cows are confined in filthy stables. I 
know of several dairj^meu who were compelled to suspend their business on account 
of heavy losses by the disease. Renovating the stalls, whitewashing, using carbolic 
acid, carbonate of lime, and smoking the stables with tar, &c., have liad the effect to 
check the disease for a time, but it is liable to break but again. The symptoms are a 
cessation of the milk secretion, loss of appetite, and stupor, accompanied with quick 
pulse and high fever, and secretions from the nose and mouth. Some animals die within 
a few days, while others linger for some time. Fresh cows are more liable to attack 
than dry ones. Nearly every case proves fatal. The disease is undoubtedly typhoidal 
in its character. Some years ago a bill was introduced in the legislature providing 
for an investigation of the disease, but it failed to pass. 

There is no class of animals among which such heavy losses occur as among swine. 
There is certainly something wrong in the rearing and management of hogs, as the 
losses sustained amount to millions of dollars annually. I am of the opinion that the 
cruel system as now and for many years practiced has a great deal to do in inducing 
disease among this class of animals. The hog is an animal that cannot endure such 
hardships as horses and cattle. In the Western and Southern States swine diseases 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 105 

prevail to au alarmiug extent. In these States a most cruel and injiulicious system is 
practiced in the rearing of the animals. Raised without shelter either from the burn- 
ing sun of summer or the cold storuis of winter, it should not be wondered at that 
they contract disease and die by tlie huudreds aud the thousands. Young shoats should 
not be fed entirely on corn, as this feed produces an abnormal growth wliich results in 
a weakened vitality, aud generally ends in cholera or some other disease iucident to 
these animals. In the Eastern States aud other localities where the hog is raised under 
a better aud more careful system, cholera aud other diseases are not known. I believe 
if a better system were adopted that cholera and many other diseases to which the 
hog is now liable would be aluiost entirely banished. We have sustained heavy losses 
in this county, and must continue to do so until a change is made for the better in the 
treatment of swine. So long as hogs are contiued in dirty, tilthy, muddy pens, and fed 
on nothing but dry, hard corn, we must expect them to sicken and die. The cholera, 
so called, is also typhoidal in character, and this opens up a wide field for investiga- 
tion. 

A disease prevails among the poultry of our county which has been very destruct- 
ive. Some farmers have lost their entire flocks. No remedy has been discovered. 
Preventives are used with some success. The poultry-house should be large and well 
ventilated and whitewashed frequently. The droppings should be removed every few 
days, aud uear the door, exposed to the rain, should be placed a good quantity of lime. 
They are fond of this and will eat it every day. 

Mr. Jacob Grundy, Lewisburg, Uuion County, Pennsylvania, says : 

Hog-cholera prevailed to a limited extent here last year, but I have heard of none 
the past season. Fowls are affected almost every year with various diseases, such as 
roup and cholera, but I think the latter should more properly be called dysentery. 
The losses are never very heavy. I have found wood-ashes aud charcoal a good pre- 
ventive for cholera among hogs. There is no prevailing disease among either horses, 
cattle, or sheep. 

Mr. B. Le Sueur, Kuoxville, Crawford County, Georgia, says : 

We estimate that nearly or quite one-half our pigs die. In portions of this county 
some farmers have lost one-half, some three-fourths, aud a few their entire stock of 
hogs, and many of them were in good condition for slaughtering. The truth is, many 
of our people think it too small a business to doctor a hog ; and the remark is often 
heard : " There is no use in doctoring." They seem disheartened from the start. Others 
change the remedy so often that the medicine kills the animals. As in the West, every 
disease that is fatal to swine exists here. Many hogs have died without either purg- 
ing or constipation, and yet the disease was called cholera. One farmer tells me that 
the livers aud kidneys of his hogs were found almost rotten ; that the skin was cov- 
ered with spots as red as blood, and yet they died of cholera. Any information that 
your department can furnish to stay these fatal diseases among hogs will be highly 
appreciated by the people here. 

Mr. David Bruimbaugh, Hagerstowu, Washington County, Mary- 
land, says : 

The greatest fatality that prevails among the farm-animals of this county is among 
hogs. The disease is what is generally termed cholera. No remedy has as yet been 
found. The animals aifected continue to droop from one to two weeks before death 
ensues. If the department should succeed in finding a remedy for this wide-spread 
and fatal disease the whole country will be greatly benefited. Congress could not do 
a wiser thing than to make a liberal appropriation for its investigation. I had no idea 
of the extent of the losses in this county until I commenced inquiries in order to 
answer your letter intelligently. The disease is often confined to the " pen-hogs," 
during the fattening season. 

]\Ir. C. C. Thomas, Point Pleasant, New Madrid County, Missouri^ 
says: 

So far as my observation goes, the most prevailing disease among hogs is just the 
opposite to what I understand cholera to be. Their bowels are badly bound up, and 
in what few I have opened, I found the excrement in hard, dry lumps, and the en- 
trails badly inflamed, with bloody water both in and on the outside of them. Nearly 
every one so aflected that I turned on green clover got well, but when they are at- 
tacked in this way while on green clover about one-fourth of them will die. I have 
had a few that had sores on their faces, but a few applications of carbolic acid, with 
a little in their food, generally cured them; at least they got well. 



106 DISEASE AilONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Chickens, turkejs, aud Guinea-fowls are affected and die in the same way. They 
mojie about and eat but very little ; their bowels are very loose, and the discharges 
often watery and very offensive. Thej' live from seven to eif^ht days after the attack 
sets in. So far I have been able to find no remedy. I think at least nine-tenths of 
those attacked ilie. 

Mr. Samuel Lea, Leasburg, Cra-wford County, Missouri, says : 

In October, 1876, my swine commenced to get sick, and twelve of them died. They 
were not all affected alike. All of them, however, commenced by appearing dull and 
sluggish, refusing food, and moping around. Some had a cough and difficulty in 
breathing, accompanied by a very feverish condition generally. Still others bad a 
diarrhea, and their evacuations were very black and offensive to the smell. But one 
of those attacked got well. I found her hungry, and' gave her about thirty grains of 
calomel in wet corn-Tueal, which she ate. I have no idea as to how the sickness origi- 
nates. My hogs were thoroughbred Berkshires, and did not come in contact with other 
animals, aud their feed and water were good. No water on my place flows on to it 
from other lands. I fed wheat middlings, and they had the run of a clover pasture, 
orchard, and unbroken woodland. It is now over twelve mouths since I lost a pig. I 
have given the same feed and treatment as last year, and have several of the same 
animals I had then. 

Mr. WiLLiAiM A. Bull, Froliiia, Perry County, Missouri, says: 

We have a disease prevailing among our hogs which I will try to describe. In July 
last it made its appearance about six miles northeast of me ; it is within one mile of 
me now. The hogs are still dying with the malady. The duration of attack is about 
two weeks for grown hogs, but for small pigs about two days. The average fatality 
is ninth-teuths. When first attacked the hogs get lame, apparentlj' as in cases of 
rheumatism, have a dry, hacking cough, are costive, aud have excessive thirst. Some 
have small sores on their legs and ears; some are partially and some totally blind. In 
the last stages of the disease they are purged severely. Among the remedies used I 
will mention calomel, turpentine, sulphur, copperas, tar, poke-root, and many others, 
but all without success. I have not had an opportunity of examining any of the 
hogs after death. They have been differently situated when attacked — in stubble, 
clover, and woods pastures, and some iu pens. 

IVIi". Martin J. Sackett, Houseville, Lewis County, iSTew York, says : 

This is a dairy county, and there is no prevalent disease except among cows. We 
have lost heavily from garget in the udder of cows. Poke-root sometimes helps it, 
but not often. Lumps very frequently come also in the teats of cows — a sort of stop- 
page — which has been a source of great loss to us. We know of no remedy. 

We have suffered also from abortion among cows to the extent, iu some instances, 
of one-half the herd. It has not been so prevalent, however, the past three years as 
it was previous to that time. 

Dr. John M. McGehee, Milton, Santa Eosa County, Florida, says : 

1 know of no diseases affecting horses in this section which do not prevail in 
other localities generally, and I will only mention some remedies which are new, so far 
as I know, and some circumstances connected with those diseases not generally noticed. 
The greatest fatality seems to result from colic, and a new remedy, which has been 
used in this section of the South when all other remedies have failed, has been to per- 
forate the walls of the abdominal cavity at a point just half way between the promi- 
nence made by the hip-bone aud the ribs. This remedy, however, has been recom- 
mended by some modern works on farriery. While on this subject I will here mention 
that before the war, on some large cotton plantations, I noticed that nearly all of the 
mules and horses which died of colic died on Monday, a very few on Tuesday, and a 
still less number on other days of the week. These facts I think poiut clearly to a 
cause and a remedy. The animals being worked all the week in warm weather, their 
exercise brings about a certain degree of digestion and appetite. For lack of exercise 
on Sunday their digestion is weakened, and in most instances colic is the result on 
Monday. It is plain that the remedy for this is to reduce the feed on Saturday night 
and Sunday. 

The next most fatal and common disease affecting horses in this section is that known 
here as " blind-staggers." It is first discovered by some foolish or unaccountable act 
of the animal, and as it advances the intelligence and control of the muscular functions 
become more clearly affected, until the animal seems to be frenzied. Death generally 
ensues from within twenty-four to sixty hours. Examination of the brain shows 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 107 

extensive inflainuiationaud serous effnsiou. The only remedies in this disease in popular 
use, which are relied on, seem to be hercnlean and to some extent empirical. The first 
remedy which I will mention is to bleed profusely on the discovery of the first symp- 
toms of the disease, and then give a dose of spirits of camphor, spirits of turpentine, 
and tincture of asafetida, and whisky. All of this seems very contradictory, but it 
is confidently relied on by many who have witnessed its eftects. I saw it tried once 
in an advanced stage of the disease — too late for any remedy to do any good — but in 
two or three minutes perspiration poured out from every pore. I think if there is any 
good in this dose it is owing to the almost caustic and destrnctive effect of turpentine 
on the flesh of the brute creation. I kuow that bleeding alone will not arrest the dis- 
ease. The other remedy is to take two switches, sharpen and introduce them through 
the nostrils in the region of the brain, then give them a thrust and pull them out, 
when the blood is said to flow freely, and if used in time the horse recovers. I heard 
one man say that he once tried the remedy, and the hoi-se fell as dead as if his brains 
had been shot through with a ball. The preventives are simple and sure. They are 
simply sound food. I know that damaged grain will produce it, even if the damage is 
so slight as not to be I'eadily discovered, as new-ground corn often is, or sliipped corn, 
slightly heated from incipient fermentation, or late corn affected with smut. My 
experience on these points is full. In lS',i6 I lived in Montgomery County, Alabama. 
The corn and cotton crop that year was a failure. Most persons got their corn from 
New Orleans, which had been shipped down the Mississippi Eiver in flat-boats. The 
corn generally looked well, and when planted came up, but much of it was damaged 
and great numbers of horses died of " staggers." I was a boy then, and I heard it 
attributed to the shipped corn ; and I have never liiown a case of " staggers " which I 
could not trace to some of the above-mentioned causes. A few years ago I sold some 
corn to two log-men for the use of their oxen. They had one horse each, and both 
were valuable animals. I knew the corn had been heated, and in the most urgent 
manner cautioned them against giving it to their horses. But they fed their animals 
with it, and both horses died of " staggers." Some pastures at certain times are said to 
produce the disease. In such cases it would seem that it is caused by a web on the 
grass. 

The following remarks on the treatment of horses will perhaps be new to many : 
About twenty-three years ago I had a horse very badly foundered. I tried various 
remedies of empirics, but my horse grew worse. After witnessing his sufferings for 
several days I resolved to kuow what the founder was (having a contempt for such 
works on farriery as I had then seen). I prepared to cut into and lay off the whole 
of the thin covering of the bottom of the foot. Setting my knife obliquely to avoid 
puncturing the capillaries as much as possible, I introduced it at a point between the 
frog of the foot and the toe. As soon as I punctured the thin horny covering a serous- 
looking Huid was emitted. I extended the incision far enough to examine the integu- 
ment underneath this covering. I discovered the mucous covering of the capillaries 
entirely separated from the horny portion of the foot. The vascular portion of the foot 
was highly inflamed and as sensitive as an exposed nerve. I then cut into the other 
foot and let out this serum. It seemed to me to be analogous to an ordinary blister 
on the skin, where the cuticle is lifted up and leaves the mucous coat or serum inter- 
vening. This serum showed no disposition to harden on exposure to the air and stop 
up the orifice, but continued to be as limpid as oil of turpentine. He was a long time 
recovering, Init when he did recover the cure was radical. The foot .was not the 
least afifected. After he passed out of my possession I continued to inquire after his 
welfare. He never foundered again or complained of his foot. Had this lymph re- 
mained in the foot it would have formed a fungus substance, which would eventually 
have produced what is known as chronic founder. This operation should never be 
performed until several days after the founder is known to have caused this effusion. 
The incision should not be large, and should be made very oblique in order to cover 
the integument. After the inflammation had entirely subsided the exposed parts were 
very tender, and I had thin, solid shoes put on, which covered the entire bottom of his 
feet, and he traveled without any difficulty. 

I have had several horses foundered since, and I never found any difficulty in curing 
them in twenty-four hours by fastening around their ankles cloth or rags and pouring 
warm water on the bandages. I have generally carried it so far as to produce blis- 
tering of the ankles, which has sometimes been slow in curing up. This remedy should 
be applied as soon as the founder is discovered, and before the formation of the serous 
discharge. In no case should the horse be used for several days. I believe that oil of 
turpentine would answer the desired end if used on the ankle after several hours' use 
of the warm bath, applying after the hair is wiped dry. 

I have observed in horses a very marked tendency to metastasis when diseased. This 
peculiarity may account for their susceptibility to the action of counter-irritants. 

All other agricultural interests sink into littleness when compared with cattle-rais- 
ing. In the Gulf and South Atlantic coast it is blended with our hygiene and civili- 
zation, and yet it is hard to find an example of any interest so much neglected. Per- 



108 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS.' 

haps it would be best to first explaia the cause of this neglect. lu 1836, and a short 
time after the last Indian insurrection of the Creek Nation, and a short time after the 
massacre of the stage passengers, and the burning of the stage and United States 
mails, I traveled througb the Creeii country from Columbus, Ga., to Montgomery, Ala. 
Sixteen miles from Columbus were found the bones of the stage-horses and some of the 
charred wood of the stage-coach. Every white person had moved out of the nation. 
The public mind was greatly excited, and I was left alone with thirty or forty negroes 
and eight horses to wend my way through the country. There was no corn to be had 
until we reached the station of the United States soldiers, where ample food was ob- 
tained for our horses. Having passed the Creek territory I reached the lime lands of 
Montgomery, where I saw some cattle, and they continued to increase in numbers 
and size the farther I progressed into the prairie lands. These cattle had very much 
the appearance of the Texas cattle now. In the years 183G and 1837 the Indians 
were moved out, and farmers from Georgia and the Carolinas soon occupied the lands 
thus vacated. The grass in the summer and cane-swamps in whiter kept their stock 
in fine condition. The cows had calves every year, and soon the woods were teeming 
with cattle. Almost without care or feed the cows produced an abundance of milk and 
butter the year round. But a change was all the time taking place. The large herds 
while feeding on the hill-sides were cutting the grass roots with their feet and loos- 
ening the soil and sand. The rains would wash this earth and soil down into the edge 
of the cane-swamps, giving the stock a foot-hold to reach the cane on the edge, which 
was otherwise inaccessible. And so steadj^ and rapid was this change that eight years 
after, when I traveled through this section of the country on the same road, those cane- 
swamps were Inarked only by sandy branches with some switch-cane on the edges. The 
cattle-range lasted much longer near the Gulf coast, for the reason that the country is 
more level and generally less inviting, and is farther from the sources of supply and 
population. It was under these circumstances that cattle-raisers formed their habits. 
These surroundings lasted a full generation, and a generation grew up who knew no 
other resources. Cultivated pasturage and hay-lauds are unknown to them, and as I 
have repeatedly reported before to your department, I do not know of one acre of ground 
cultivated in West Florida for pasture and hay, though my acquaintance is very gen- 
eral. That you may be enabled to form a correct opinion of the losses of the cattle inter- 
est in this section, t will give you the system of stock-raising here. About the 1st of Feb- 
ruary each year much of the grass range is burned off, and all the young and tender 
shrubs which grew up the previous summer are killed by the fire. The wire-grass first 
starts to grow and putsforth large bunches of young, tender, and quite nutritious growth. 
This burning is done only in small spots of a few miles square. The cattle soon find 
it out and gather on " the biarn." This burning is done to draw the cattle from the low 
lands, for at this season they are very poor and weak, and hardly able to get out of the 
smallest bog. The weather is generally such that, if there is much rain, the cattle 
catch cold if they lie down at night. Many become stiff and lame, and some are never 
again able to rise to their feet. If they are lifted up they are so far exhausted that 
they rarely recover. The remainder of the loss is in boggy branches, where the cattle 
reach after a little green switch-cane. These losses frequently amount to 80 per cent, 
of the breeding cows and a much smaller per cent, of the dry cattle ; but as the heifers 
are rarely ever sold or killed for beef, the stock is thus replenished. If from accident 
or otherwise fires get started and the woods are burned while the weather is too cold 
for the gras^o grow fast, many cows gather on " the burn " and perish while nibbling 
at the short Herbage. This short grass is very weakening to them, as it inclines them 
to scours. 

The general burning of the woods is about the last of February. The weather at 
this time is usually warm and the grass shoots up rapidly. The cattle recover very 
rapidly, though for a few days they suffer much from hunger, as the whole country is 
a charred waste. 

About the 1st of April the cattle-owners appoint a time and place of meeting to make 
a " drive." All the cattle at pens are collected and the owners separate them. After 
they are separated, the large stock-owners drive fifty or one hundred five or six miles 
away from any other large body of stock and give them into the care of stock-minders, 
who have pens built for the separation of the cows and calves, and whose comiiensa- 
tion for this service is the milk from twenty to fifty cows and the manure from twice 
or three times as many dry cattle. The cows average about one quart of milk per day. 
Since the partial destruction of the range the cows have calves but once in two years. 
Very little milk is taken from what are called the calf-cows, the most of it being taken 
from the yearlings. All the cattle are supposed to be penned every night, and from 
one to three acres of ground is what is csilled " trod." On this " trod " land the stock- 
men plant corn and sweet-potatoes. ■ Some plant a small patch of sugar-cane. About 
the last of July or the first of August the calves are all marked and branded, and 
the whole herd is turned loose to hunt tlie wild oats on the unburued spots of the 
early spriiig. They have free range to gain all the strength they can to take them 
through the winter. Beef so raised is not good. It has but little fiavor, and persons 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 109 

who are able to buy good Texas or western beef will not buy it if they can get the 
better. Some few steers eight years old or nioro make very fine beef late in the fall. 

A moment's glance at this manner of cattle-raising will convince yon of the severe 
trials infants and children from one to three or four years old must undergo. Four 
months of the year they have an abundance of milk, a food easily digested and an- 
swering most oi' the demands of the animal economy. They use little else. Their 
stomachs are fitted to its easy digestion. In an hour it is all taken from them, and the 
most indigestible of all food for children is substituted. Now, new sweet-potatoes, 
corn-bread, and pork or bacon is the food for their tender stomachs to digest. The 
change is too great for their delicate organs of digestion. They feel a restless crav- 
ing for something, and they eat whatever comes in their way— rags, jiaper, pine- 
bark, rotten wood, and finally the clay with which their chimneys are daubed. 

Sheep in this section, like cattle, sufler from few diseases except such as are brought 
on from neglect. The scab is a common disease among them, and so far as I know but 
few attempts are made to cure it. It is also a very common disease among goats. 
Sheep likewise suiier from rot. I have recently tested tobacco as a remedy for this 
disease. Sheep eat it very readily when it is mixed with their food, and soon become 
fond of it. If properly used, I think it will effect a cure. The range for sheep is much 
better than it is for cattle, and they generally keep in good order most of the year. 

I have had a great deal of observation, but little experience, with the diseases of 
hogs. During the war a good many hogs died of cholera, for which there was no 
remedy. Copperas was used as a preventive with some success. Preventives I believe 
to be the only safe policy. 

In conclusion, let me assure you that there is great room for improvement in agri- 
culture in this section, and much can be done by your department if it is afforded the 
necessary means. It is pleasant to witness your efforts to build up the substantial 
interests of the nation, and your confidence in the prospective economy is not a vision. 

Dr. J. G. Hart, Murray, Calloway County, Kentucky, says : 

A disease uniformly fatal to horses has prevailed in this section for two years. It 
appears to be propagated by actual contact with matter or virus, inasmuch as animals 
kept separate though near the disease are not liable to take it. Some regard the dis- 
ease as cold distemper, while others believe it to be glanders. The symptoms are about 
as follows : At first fever, which is soon followed by a dry cough and a nasal dis- 
charge resembling that from ordinary distemper. There is more or less enlargement 
of all the glandular organs so far Ss can be observed. Constitutional disease soon sets 
in, which is denoted by the change in the nasal discharge from a watery to a gleety 
and offensive flow. The animal loses flesh rapidly; the skin soon becomes thick and 
eruptive; the lymphatic glands throughout the body become much enlarged, but never 
soften or suppurate ; the submaxillary and sublingual glands are most especially in- 
volved, at least in most cases to the extent of suppuration and softening. The dura- 
tion of the disease is from two to twelve months. It is invariably fatal. Quite a 
number of remedies have been used, but without success. Veterinary surgeons have 
been employed with like ill success. 

Hog-cholera, with its usual symptoms, has prevailed to a considerable extent in this 
locality. The only remedies that have been used with any degree of success are 
hygienic. If the animals are confined in a dry lot when the disease makes its appear- 
ance, the mortality will be very small. Driukmg cold water appears to Be the imme- 
diate cause of death in a majority of cases. 

A disease called by some hog-measles prevailed here as an epidemic from June until 
October of this year. The disease is characterized by a high grade of fever for two or 
three days, which is followed by an eruption about the head, neck, and shoulders, and 
in some cases of the entire body. This lasts three or four days, when the auimal either 
begins to recover or dies. Salphur and poke-root have been used with apparent good 
success. Hogs should be confiued to prevent them from drinking too much. The 
fatality corresponds with the character of the epidemic as to mildness or malignancy. 

A disease called chicken-cholera has also prevailed quite extensively. By commenc- 
ing early I used carbolic acid with good success for two years, but it has signally 
failed J;his year. Confinement in coops elevated above the ground, with little or no 
water to drink, would seem to be the surest remedy. 

Mr. H. P. Jordan, Victoria, Victoria County, Texas, says : 

Native cattle are free from disease and comparatively healthy, but I think fully one- 
third and perhaps one-half of all the Durham cattle imported into this section of the 
State have died during the past two years from what people are pleased to term accli- 
mating fever. The disease appears to be similar to that which afflicts the cattle in 
Missouri and Kansas, and which is supposed to be imparted to them by the native cat- 
tle of this State. I think all cattle brought here have this disease sooner or later. The 



110 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

first eymptoras of the disease are fever and constipated bowels. The principal remedy 
used is castor-oil. The disease is a very serious drawback to the cattle-raisers of this 
State, who are trying to improve their long-horned Spanish breed with short-horns. 
If anything can ])e done to arrest it, great benefit will result to the people of this State. 
One of ray neighbors lost four out of six fine Durham bulls, another lost three out of 
five, and a few have lost all. 

No unusual disease exists among horses and hogs. Chicken-cholera prevails to some 
extent at times. There are a great many cures recommended, but I think all of them 
fail when the disease gets a good start. 

Mr. John "VV. Gill, Clay Coimty, Missouri, says : 

Hogs die here by the thousands of cholera and are doing so all over the country 
No certain cure has been found. I have used a great many things, and if anything 
has done any good at all it has been spirits of turpentine given in slops. Fowls die 
quite rapidly of cholera. I have used wheat bran and epsom salts as a preventive 
with good success. Dissolve the salts and wet the bran with it and feed. If they will 
not eat, drench them with salts — a teaspoonful at a time once a day. Since adopting 
this treatment I have lost but few fowls. 

Mr. H. G. Keknodle, Kirks\ille, Adair County, Missouil, says : 

A few cows have recently died here of a disease called " mad itch." No remedy 
known or treatment given. 

Over four hundred head of hogs have died of cholera in this vicinity during the past 
two years. Farmers have used every remedy known, but without success. 

Two years ago about all the chickens died. No remedy used or treatment given. 
This statement relates only to my own immediate neighborhood of about two miles 
square or less. 

IVIr. G. W. Raltdabaugh, Celina, Mercer County, Ohio, says : 

The only disease from which serious losses have been sustained is from cholera 
among hogs and chickens. The disease has prevailed quite extensively among hogs 
the past season, and on some farms is still prevalent. Two years since it prevailed in 
a mild form, and about 20 per cent, of those attacked died. This season it was more 
extensive and fatal, and the losses were about 50 per cent, of those affected. 

We thought we had a remedy for the disease, and in many instances it seemed to 
check it at once ; but the past season it failed to bring the expected relief. The pre- 
scription for fifty hogs is as follows : Two pounds black antimony, seven pounds cop- 
peras, five pounds sulphur, and two pounds saltpeter. Two years ago my neighbor gave 
this remedy to his hogs after he had lost twenty-five out of a herd of seventy-five, and 
he lost no more. Notwithstanding the same remedy was given to about one hundred 
hogs this season, about one-half of them died. Two years since my hogs were attacked 
by the disease. I gave them no remedy, but removed them about three-fourths of a 
mile from their old haunts into a woods- pasture, and they all recovered. This season 
they were attacked in October, and out of fifty head about thirty died. 

The disease is always more fatal among pigs than among older hogs. The symptoms 
are not always the same. In the first stages food is taken very reluctantly and does 
not seem to be relished. Indisposition to move and general stupor follows ; a cough 
sets in, which I think is caused by a nauseated stomach, and a great disposition is man- 
ifested to lie on the belly. In a few hours after death in almost every instance the car- 
cass becomes wonderfully swollen. All things considered, this is one of the most diffi- 
cult diseases to understand that animals can be afllicted with. My hope is that your 
investigations may result in the discovery of at least a preventive, if not a permanent 
cure, for this terrible scourge. 

Mr. William B. Arnes, AVarrensburg, Johnson County, Missouri, 
says : 

With the exception of hogs and fowls, our domestic animals are quite healthy. Fowls 
are subject to a disease called cholera, of which I will speak hereafter. Within the 
past two years and a half the farmers of this county have lost heavily by a disease 
among swine erroneously called cholera. During the time indicated the disease has 
assumed three different forms. The first, by which I lost most of my herd, constipa- 
tion was developed. The evacuations were dark and dry. The animal had a feeble, 
staggering walk, and appeared in great pain. Death ensued within from six to ten 
hours. When the weather became cooler the symptoms changed. The bowels were 
loose, there was slight bleeding at the nose, and the urine was strongly colored with 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Ill 

blood. Post-mortem examiuatious showed cougestion of the lungs, and sometimes worm» 
in the intestines. The Last type of the disease is now prevailing among a numbei' of 
herds in this vicinity and is proving very destructive. Occasionally the hair of the 
animal nearly all comes off and the skin is a broad, raw surface. I have had two hogs 
to recover from this form of the disease. I believe the best treatment is to give the 
hogs plenty of room to range over. I keep salt and ashes in my feed-lot and give them 
all the pit-coal tliey will eat, and occasionally a bran-mash wet with poke-root tea. I 
believe poke-root to be a preventive of disease in hogs. So far as my own experience 
goes, I have found it a cure for diseases among fowls. By following the above treat- 
ment, I have not lost a single hog or fowl by fisease this season. 

Mr. James W. Grace, Watterborough, Colleton County, South Caro- 
lina, says: 

The past year has been an imusual one with hogs. They have been attacked with 
a disease known as cholera, which usually kills them within about ten days after the 
first symptoms make their appearance. They refuse to eat and seem to desire to lie 
down all the time, and apparently suifer very much. I have not known anything like 
it in the last fifteen years. It made its appearance about the 1st of September. 

Mr. Aaron Dresser, Hardinsburg, Breckinridge County, Kentucky^ 
says : 

The disease common among hogs, and known as cholera, has prevailed extensively 
in some parts of this county, and has been very fatal. I have heard of no remedy that 
can be depended upon. 

Mr. C. B. EiCHARDSON, Henderson, Rusk County, Texas, says: 

Before the war I lived near the Mississippi River, in Carroll Parish, Louisiana. A 
disease called cholera broke out among the liogs. It was the first epidemic ever seen 
by the planters in that vicinity. Most of the planters had very large herds of hogs, 
as there was a good range in the swamps back of the farms. Every form of treatment 
"was used without any marked success. The attacks of the disease were quite sudden. 
Some would swell up and the flesh would look livid, and they would die in twenty- 
four hours. Some were constipated and others would have diarrhea. Fat hogs, as 
well as lean ones, were subject to attack. I had two killed when first taken, and got 
my family physician to assist me in ra?ik.mg a, post-mortem examination. The bowels 
"were constipated, and the inflammation of the bowels and stomach was very great. 
I kept the hogs in a dry inclosure, under the gin-house and cotton-shed. I put tar in 
the troughs, and fed with corn boiled in lye and copperas water, and poke-root decoc- 
tion to drink, and used various other nostrums in vogue without success. I burned 
the hogs that died. One neighbor drove his well hogs four miles into the swamp, and 
made a man camp with them there, with some success, he thought, as they appeared 
to die at a less rapid rate. 

I have lost some large hogs and pigs this summer with this epidemic here. The dis- 
ease appears to be a violent fever, and kills the animals in a very few days. I put one 
tine hog in a lot where it had a good, dry shelter. I tried to doctor it with liquids, but 
could not tempt it to drink anything. I tried to give it a dose of calomel on a piece 
of beef, but could not induce it to eat anything at all, and finally gave it up to die. It 
lay three or four days in its bed, and after awhile it got up and ate a few mouthf uls of 
corn, and finally recovered without any treatment. I fattened it this fall, and on 
butchering it I found the lungs and intestines adhering strongly to the sides, and the 
intestines also tied in lumps with fine ligaments. On the intestines was a large ball four 
inches in diameter, filled tight with thick matter like dough. 

Many nostrums published as cures have been tried with such little success that the 
farmers now let the disease take its course without attempting to do much of anything. 
When a hog once refuses to eat, little can be done for him. 

Mr. William Dearmond, Irish Grove, Atchison County, Missouri, 
says: 

The disease known as hog-cholera (a term applied to almost every malady that kills 
hogs) has done great damage in this neighborhood and adjoining communities. It is 
the same in almost every instance ; it is only varied by the difterent conditions of the 
animal at tlie time of attack. Here the disease is contagious, and from the time of 
exposure until its development varies from nine to fourteen days. Symptoms, stupid, 
and refuse food, high fever, then eruption of the skin, sore eyes, and bowels either con- 
stipated or the reverse. In such cases death usually results within from four to seven 



112 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

days. Another form of the disease is that of congestion, producing death within a 
very few hours. The average fatality is about 80 per cent. There is no eftectual rem- 
edy known here. As a preventive perhaps complete isolation is the best treatment. 
I have never known an animal to have the second attack. The disease resembles 
measles in tlie human family, and the symptoms are very nearly identical. 

Fowls are dying at a rapid rate throughout this and adjoining neighborhoods. The 
disease seems to be epidemic in form, and kills all on the i)remises. We know of no 
remedy, but as a preventive we use white-oak-bark tea, made strong and mixed with 
corn-meal, and set where the fowls have free access to it. 

Mr. 0. P. Hallis, Bloomfield, Stoddard County, Missouri, says : 

My hogs are dying at present with a disease that is very fatal. Ten head were 
attacked, and five «lied before I commenced treating them. I am now using strong 
soap-suds, copperas, and saltpeter, and the hogs seem to be improving under the treat- 
ment. They are beginning to eat again, and look much better. When first attacked 
their heads and ears droop, they lose the use of their hind legs, and purge and vomit. 
They sometimes vomit blood. The disease jjrevails extensively throughout this neigh- 
borhood. 

Mr. J. Jameson, Greene Couutj^, Pennsylvania, says : 

Chicken-cholera seems to be permanently located here. It has not been so preva- 
lent, however, the past year as ineviously. Remedies are numerous but not very satis- 
factory. So far as personal observation goes, I think calomel is used as a remedy with 
better success than anything else. 

Mr. Egbert W. Fritts, Lanes's Prairie, Maries County, Missouri, says : 

Cattle were quite healthy here until late in the fall, when a few cases of what is 
generally termed the black-leg occurred. There were some half-dozen cases in my 
neighborhood, all of which proved fatal. The animal generally lives from twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours after the attack sets in. Before death stiffness occurs in the 
hind parts, generally in one hip or leg ; the head and ears droop, and dullness and 
stupor are observed. Fever, and a general quivering of the flesh, especially in the 
hind parts where the disease seems to be located, also are observable. After death the 
leg has a black or bruised appearance under the skin. Other parts seem natural ex- 
cept the gall, which api^ears enlarged. Several remedies were tried, but all failed to 
give relief. 

We have a disease among hogs that has killed about 10 per cent, of them in this 
neighborhood. Some people term it cholera, some measles, and some lung-disease. It 
is first discovered by the hog refusing to eat and lying around in a stupid condition. 
Sometimes they will both purge and vomit, sometimes they will purge and not vomit, 
or vomit and not purge, and sometimes they will do neither. After death the neck 
and chest turn spotted, and the iusides are often quite pieded. Sometimes they appear 
nearly rotten ; at other times nothing of an unusual character is observed. The dura- 
tion of the disease is from one to three days, but occasionally a case will linger for a 
week. After recovery from the first attack, when attacked a second time, a cough 
sets in, and they usually die in a short time. Those that recover are hard to make 
thrive or look well again, so it is generally decided here that but little is gained by a 
cure. Several remedies have been tried — in fact nearly everything that could be 
thought of — but nothing has proved very successful. I had several hogs attacked, but 
lost none. I used turpentine as a remedy. I was compelled to drench some of them, 
but generally I was able to administer it in slops or over their fet^d. I told my neigh- 
bors of it, some of whom tried it and were successful, while others pronounced it a 
failure. I believe if used properly and in time it is not only a preventive but also a 
cure. From a tea to a table spoonful twice a day for two or thi-ee days is the way I 
administer it. The disease seems to be contagious, as it is generally from seven to nine 
days after it makes its appearance among a gang of hogs before others take it, and 
then dozens may be attacked within a period of twenty-four hours. Dr. Grace, who 
lost a hundred head by the disease, tried drugs, but finally gave the matter up and 
considered the malady incurable. 

Mr. H. H. Cunningham, Steubenville, Jefferson County, Ohio, says : 

In times past we have had foot-rot, so called, and paper-skin among sheep, and 
cholera among fowls. Foot-rot to my knowledge has never originated" here, but has 
been introduced by careless handling of sheep brought from other places where it 
seems always to exist. The localities in which it develops itself without inoculation 
are in low marshes or moist grounds where the feet are always wet or damp. It is 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 113 

iiuqiiestionably a disease caused by wet feet, and a cure without removal from the 
locality that caused it is an impossibility. The proper preventive would be the drain- 
age of all moist soils, and keep the animal from coming in contact with those already 
diseased. For a cure the removal to dry soil is indispensable, then the paring of the 
feet and the application of strong caustics, such as blue vitriol, nitric acid, or butter of 
antimony. This, with close, careful attention for a few mouths, will usually effect a 
cure. 

As regards " paper-skin," no cure has as yet been discovered (at least I have no 
knowledge of any). From my own observation I think it could be easily prevented. 
It is my opinion that the disease is occasioned by deficient nutrition, as it has always 
occurred in cold, wet seasons, when pastures are constantly wet and either have some 
of the elements of nutrition washed out of the grasses, or it may be the lack of heat 
and sunshine fails to develop those qualities. This, in connection with the unfavor- 
able effects of the weather upon the constitution of the animal, is abundant cause for 
the low and feeble condition that always precedes this disease, or rather this is the 
disease itself. A supply of grain in such seasons, sufficient to keep up the normal con- 
dition of the animal, would, in my .judgment, be a sufficient preventive. 

In regard to " chicken-cholera," I would say for this locality that any disease that 
is fatal to the fowls is so called. I do not know what cholera really is as applied to 
fowls, and know no remedy. But I do know that the avoidance of close breeding and 
good care and cleanliness, with healthy food and enough of it, is a sure preventive. 

Mr. J. To WELL, Ivtiiikiii Coimty, ]Mi.ssi.ssippi, s;iys : 

A disease called charbon killed half the horses and mules and many cattle in Rankin 
County, Mississippi, and vicinity, in 1867. The same disease is reported to have pre- 
vailed fatally for the past two years in some parts of Louisiana. This disease partakes 
somewhat of the symptoms of erysipelas in the human family, being characterized by 
local inflammation, pain and swelling in some portion of the animal's body, most fre- 
quently in the neck, breast, flank, or sides, and is very readily communicated from 
diseased animals to healthy ones by house-flies, which carry the virus from one to 
another. But my purpose is not to give a treatise on the disease, but simply to point 
to a remedy that proved speedily efficacious in nearly every case in which it was em- 
ployed. Fish-brine is the remedy, and it was used as a local wash to the inflamed 
parts. Much friction was used and the surface kept wet with the brine until the ani- 
mal was cured. It is necessary to keep the animal in the shade (stabled) and protected 
from horse-flies while under treatment. Epsom on Glauber salts were employed inter- 
nally, given in sassafras-tea wlieu the case was obstinate. Three-fourths of the cases 
treated yielded readily to the tish-brine wash alone. 

Mrs. Mary E. Donley, Kuoxville, Marion County, Iowa, says: 

Hog-cholera has been raging all over our county for several years, and so fatal has 
it proved that it is regarded as incurable. Many remedies have been proposed and 
tried with no good eft'ect. The symptoms are, the animal is seized with a hacking 
cough similar to that of bronchitis, refuses to eat, and turns of a purplish color. I have 
seen some on our farm where the ears would become badly swollen, and blood would 
ooze out of them before death. Diarrhea generally ensues. We have thought that in 
several instances a change of locality abated the disease. Death generally occurs in 
two or three days; however, in many instances, they are dead before you know any- 
thing ails them. I suppose ninety -nine out of every hundred die, or ought to, as they 
never do any good afterward. 

Diseases among cattle are not much dreaded, that known as black-leg being perhaps 
an excei)tion. I do not know any symptoms ; generally find the animal in a helpless 
condition. If taken in time the disease can be cured by an application of turpentine 
on the back, over the hips, and on the swollen parts. Must be bathed in with a very 
hot iron. In fatal cases the animal lives about three days. 

Sheep here have become so badly diseased with scab and foot-rot as to make sheep- 
raising very unprofitable. We find that thorough dipping in tobacco-tea is a certain 
cure for scab. I have also heard that if blue vitrol is mixed with water and the sheep 
compelled to walk through it once a day for a few days it will likewise eftect a cure. 

The raising of poultry is not considered near so profitable as in former years, because 
of the ravages of cholera. The fowl mopes around or remains on the roost until it 
dies, which is a very short time. After death the liver is found swollen to about twice 
its natural size. The heart is also found enlarged. I am sure I have checked the dis- 
ease several times by using the following recix)e: One tablespoonful of finely-ground 
black pepper, same quantity of alum, and one teaspooful of soda, mixed in one gallon 
of sour milk, and placed where the fowls can drink as often as they choose. 
S. Ex. 35 8 



114 DISEASE AMONG SWiNE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. JA]MES T. D0NAI.DSON, Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky, 
says : 
Hog-cholera is the only devastating disease our farm-auimals are afflicted with. 

Dr. K. BuCKHAM, Phelps City, Atcliison County, ^Missouri, says : 

Our loss in hogs by what is improperly called cholera has been very great. In the 
winter of ^18G5-'6G the losses amounted to at least $;I00,000. The symptoms are gen- 
erally stupor, indisposition to move, stiffness of the joints, eyes weak and watery, 
sometimes red ; constipation of the bowels ; discharges black and hard at first. In 
some cases diarrhea sets in with bloody discliargesand vomiting ; high lover and great 
thirst; occasional bleeding from the nose; in some cases they have cough, in others 
none ; the skin turns a dark purple on the sides, abdomen, and throat. Tlie duration 
of the attack varies from one day to a month. I think about SO per cent, of those 
attacked die. Those that recover iieel off like a child with scarlet fever. Fast mor- 
tem examinations reveal the following diversity of phenomena: Congestion of the kid- 
neys ; blood in the ureters and bladder. In other cases these organs appear healthy, 
and the bowels contain a green, degenerate bile of an acid character; in other cases 
the liver is black in a state of decomposition with empty gall bladder ; again the spleen 
is congested and distended to three times its normal condition. In some cases the lungs 
showiutlammation, with dark spots interspersedthroughthem; and again, in some cases, 
the stomach contained a green acid fluid, the action of which had destroyed the 
nmcous coating of the walls of the stomach, rendering it not thicker than brown paper. 
It will be seen from this that different organs are affected in different hogs afHicted 
with the same disease. I have paid particular attention to the progress of the disease, 
and I am satisfied it is contagious. In all cases where healthy hogs have come in con- 
tact with diseased ones they have been infected. I know of no remedy. We have tried 
everything recommended, but without sticcess. The only safety is in preventives, and 
the surest preventive is to keep sick hogs away from tne well ones. 

A few cattle have been lost, in pens, by a disease which seems not to be understood 
here. I am told by those who have made examinations that after death dark congested 
blood is found about the joints. There is no cure that I know of. 

Cholera exists among fowls, and it is quite fatal. About .')0 per cent, of those 
attacked die. Smart-weed, cut fine and mixed with dough or given in strong tea, is a 
good remedy. 

Mr. J..E. Gray, BrenLam, Wasliington County, Texas, says: 

A fatal disease commonly called cholera exists among fowls here. The symptoms are 
first a drooping appearance and disposition to remain on the roost until late in the 
morning ; indifference about food ; the wings droop or fall ; great thirst, as they drink 
frequently. Sometimes they show signs of gapes. These symptoms continue from two 
to three days, when death ensues. When the disease strikes a llock it carries <iff from 
50 to 80 per cent. This season one liock of seventy had but seven left. My wife 
has used the following remedies with apparent success, but more as a preventive than 
a cure, viz., red-pepper, sulphur, alum, copperas, turpentine, or rosin, with lime-water 
to drink. I dissected one that died suddenly, and found the liver in almost a state of 
decomposition. This leads me to the belief that the liver is greatly implicated in this 
disease. 

Mr. George A. Hyde, Keating, Pennsylvania, says: 

There is no disease among farm-animals in my neighborhood except garget among 
cows. The remedy is soft-soap and milk of equal parts, one quart every other day 
until there are sigus of improvement. Others give four ounces per day of saltpeter, 
mixed with pale molasses. These remedies, if properly used, generally effect a cure. 
Saltpeter and sulphur is a preventive, or in fact anything that will cleanse the blood, 

Mr. J. D. Smith, Greig, Lewis County, New York, says: 

A disease made its appearance among cattle in this county in July, 1877, where it still 
exists. It attacks old and young. TLe first symptoms are manifested by stiffness and 
great pain, as the animal moans continually and so loud that it may be heard some dis- 
tance, loses its apnetite and cud, and has no action of the bowels ; manure, if any, is as 
l)lack as ink ; if a fresh cow, the milk dries up entirely within three hours, and the ani- 
mal almost invariably dies within forty-eight hours. On opening the animal blood is 
found in bunches in the veins, the fiesh is bloodshotten on the stomach, and iuffanima- 
tion of the bowels is revealed. No very close examination has been made here. Vari- 
ous remedies have been tried, and I have succeeded in curing one of my own cows that 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 115 

"was attacked by the disease. I gave her one pound of Glanher's salts dissolved in warm 
water, and every hour for six hoars aavc her a (piart of strong boneset tea, rubbed her 
body and joints with a woolen rag to start the circulation of the blood, and in a week 
after the attack she was able to raise her end, but gave no milk for two weeks. At the 
end of three weeks she appeared as well as ever, and is all right now. This disease pre- 
vails on sandy soil, where the feed is good and the water is pure. It is new to us, and 
is alarming. No cattle have been attacked with it since they were taken from pasture 
and shut up. 

Mr. John Armstrong, Coryell, Coryell County, Texas, says : 

Having resided on a farm in this county for twenty-two years, and knowing some- 
thing of diseases among liorses here, I will try to answer some of j'our inquiries. Span- 
ish fever, when I first came here, was the dreaded disease, but I think as soon as horses 
are acclimated they are less subject to it, and it is also less fatal. Before the war, I 
lost several valuable animals by it. Sym])toms: Moping around, or standing still 
much in one place; very high fever; slightly swollen in the throat; great ditUculty 
iu swallowing ; inability to lower the head to drink; stiffness in the hind parts and 
tenderness in tbe loins ; a slight bran-and-water-looking discharge from the nostrils. 
The duration of the disease, which generally terminates iu death, is from four to five 
days, sometimes the animal lingers for several days. 

The first animal of mine that recovered was a large Tennessee mare, twelve years 
old and iu fine condition. As soon as I observed the first symptoms of the disease I bled 
her copiously, and iu three hours after she could drink water from a bucket by hold- 
ding it up to her. In about five hours she ate a wheat-bran mash (one gallon), an in 
twelve hours had a fine appetite, eating and drinking all I would give her. She was well, 
but weak from the loss of much blood. She was never sick afterward, and died in colt- 
ing, at the age of nineteen. Of the second case, a wild, unbroken four-year-old gelding. 
I bled him till he staggered, put water up for him iu a trough, and sheaf-oats, and left 
him loose in the lot, as he was too wild to drink from a bucket held by a man. He re- 
covered at once from the disease, but, like the mare, shed off his hair until his back 
and sides were naked. Since then I have lost none. Seeing the remedy at page 39 of 
the Agricultural Report for 1869, 1 have used it with entire success, greatly preferring 
it to bleeding, which weakens so much that the animal is unfit for service for some 
time after. Many here believe the Spanish fever and the so-called epizootic to be the 
same. However that may be, animals having green, nutritious grasses, or a green 
wheat field to run on, will not have either disease to hurt them. 

Mr. W. E. Grant, Carrollton, Carroll County, Kentucky, says : 

AVe are troubled moi-e in this immediate locality with the loss of hogs than any other 
class of farm-animals, and mj^ observations have been confined chiefly to the progress 
of the disease called hog-cholera, and as it relates more nearly to young pigs from four 
to twelve weeks old. Among the first symptoms are shivering, slow and careful move- 
ments, and a desire to remain almost constantly in the warmest sleeping plape they 
can find. They eat very little. Iu those that are not weaned, and in some that have 
been, a thick wax collects on the eyelashes aiul fastens the lids together. On opening 
the lids by force the ball of the eye appears perfectly white, and is entirely devoid of 
sight. The discharge from the bowels alt first is like thin wheat-flour dough, but to- 
ward the latter stages of the disease becomes quite black, and has a very otlensive odor. 
Coughing is very frequent — often one of the first symptoms. The attack lasts from 
five to ten days, sometimes longer. Should any apparently recover they rarely ever 
become of any value. 

No remedies have proved beneficial to young pigs, though many have been tried. If 
the brood-sows were kept in perfect health the pigs most likely would not be attacked. 
The most successful treatment for preventing the spread of the disease that has been 
tried here is as follows: Remove all aft'ected ones from the drove as soon as the first 
symptoms are observed. They had better be killed and bnried, but may be put in a 
remote lot by themselves. Change the diet of the well hogs as much as possible ; keep 
by them at all times a mixture of coal-ashes (seven parts) ground sulphur (two parts) 
and one part of pulverized copperas. All the coal-ashes and fine coal that the hogs 
will eat should be given to them. 

With all the light we haA^e on the subject we are still very much in the dark, and 
some farmers have become so much discouraged in their fruitless efibrts to arrest the 
disease when it once gets among their hogs that they have given up swine-raising in 
disgust. 

Chicken-cholera has given much trouble to poultry-raisers here lately. The most 
noli eable symptoms are drowsiness, disposition to remain all day on the roost, and 
an active discharge from the bowels. A great many remedies have been used, but none 
have proved of any permanent benefit. Five dro[)s of carbolic acid in a half gallon of 
water for the fowls to drink seems to have arrested the disease for a time in some poul- 
try-yards. 



116 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
Mr. L. S. MOKROW, Duvall's Bluff, Trairie Ooimty, Arkansas, says : 

Cattle have been subject to two diseases here, both of them sliowing symptoms sim- 
ilar to dry-murrain. Various remedies have been used, but with very little success. 
Some say that turpentine, used interually and externally, is a good remedy, but I know 
of but very few cases where any benefit was derived from its use. Home-made lye- 
soap has been used in a few cases with slight success. 

Hogs have died largely of a disease called cholera by many farmers, but by examin- 
ing those that died the trouble was found to be caused by worms about three-fourths 
of an inch iu length. These worms were fouud iu great abuudauce in all the hogs 
examined. 

Chicken-cholera has prevailed here for the past three or four years, and many fowls 
have died during that time. The symptoms are about the same as elsewhere. 

Mr. M. J. Saddler, Dexter, Stoddard County, Missouri, says: 

Hogs are seriously afflicted here with a disease called cholera. When affected with 
this disease they appear mopish, rr'fuse to eat, have high fever, break out in lumps, 
bleed at the nose, and die soon, I have kuowii a few cases where poke-root tea affected 
a cure, but the best remedy is cq^ual parts of logwood and blue vitriol, steeped aud ad- 
ministered to the animal. 



Mr. E. T. Bently, Tioga, Tioga Couuty, Pennsylvania, says : 

The hog-cholera is unknown in our county. The oaly disease affecting hogs iu this 
-county is an old malady, knpwn as throat distemper. Sulphur aud ashes placed in the 
trough where they eat, once' a month, is a preventive, but not one farmer iu twenty 
takes this precaution. 

Mr. Horace Martin, Corning, Holt County, Missouri, says: 

I have been a resident here nine years, and during that time no disease has prevailed 
among farm-stock, except a disease among swine. Raising corn aud feeding cattle 

aud hogs is the principal industry in this 
vicinity. During the last three years the 
losses among hogs have been greater 
than heretofore within the circle of my 
observation. There is a singularity 
about the spread of the disease which to 
me is unaccountable. Some years a far- 
mer will lose nearly his entire stock, 
while his neighbor adjacent will remain 
entirely exempt from it. Then in a year 
or two the conditions will be reversed. 
I will give jon the statistics of the last 
three years of this aud adjacent sections, 
numbering the farms 1, 2, 3, &c., my 
locality being farm No. 1. Two years 
ago at this date (September 1) N. Rosa- 
lins, No. y, lost 210 liead of hogs out of 
his feeding pens. He did not count the 
young shoats, which were not confined. 
No. 8 lost oO, but iu a tenant's pen at his 
own feediug-yard he lost over 200 head 
more. Farm No. 5 lost 3G ; others none. 
Last fall No. 1 lost 57; No. 2, 80; No. 3, 
45; No. 4, 64 ; No. 6, between 30 aud 40 ; 
others none, or very few. This fall, iu a 
herd of 150, I have lost none. Neither 
has 2, 3, 4, and 5, while 6, 7, aud 10 have lost over 100 head. These were fatteniug- 
hogs, not shoats, and weighed from 200 to 3.')0 pounds. 

The characteristics of the disease are various, although in numerous cases no symp- 
toms of disease were observable. In the morning I would tiud hogs dead that the 
night before I thought were well ; yet on examiuation I would liiul the lungs, intes- 
tines, and skin very red and engorged with blood, but I supposed it was a natural 
consequence of their dying with all their blood in them. Unless the hogs are quite 
young the liver is always found ulcerated and otherwise diseased. Tiie tirst symptom 
noticed is reluctance to leave their beds. Rout them out aud they walk as though 
they were stiff. Their urine is highly colored or bloody. Possibly tliey may bleed at 
the nose; then they are sure to die in less than twenty-four hours. When found dead 







4 


.5 


6 


3 


2 


7 


1 


10 




•t 


i 


9 









DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 117 

the nose is nearly always bloody. Sometimes the disease commences with a cough, 
panting at the sides and Hanks, and a refnsal to eat. They then linger along for a 
week or ten days, when they usnally die. With the experience I have had with it I 
believe it to be more properly a typhoid fever. There are nnmerons remedies for sale, 
held as secrets, yet I never see any good effects produced by them when used in a herd 
of sick animals. They may bo valuable as preventives. For eight years past I have 
endeavored to keep up my herd to one hundred and fifty head, feeding from seventy- 
five to eighty each year. Except daring last fall I have had no disease among them. 
I have dry, open sheds for them to sleep in, and feed them all the ashes we make, 
mixed with a little salt. Occasionally we mis several tablespoonsful of sulphur, or 
about half as much copperas, with the ashes, say ouce or twice a mouth. We give them 
all the corn they will eat up clean. 

Many hogs are dying all through this section of the country. I think you have 
iindertaken a difticult task in trying to convince the average Congressman of the 
necessity and utility of appointing a commission to investigate the diseases prevalent 
among farm-stock. ' But it is a subject that calls for immediate investigation. This 
immediate vicinity has not, I thiuk, suffered larger losses iu comparison with the 
number of hogs kept than other neighborhoods in general. Yet this school dis- 
trict, comprising four full sections of land and two fractional sections bordering on 
the Missouri River, has in the last three years lost certainly ten thousand dollars' 
worth of hogs. Hence the aggregate losses in the State must reach high in the mill- 
ions of dollars. 

Mi\ W. C. Hampton, Moimt Victory, Hardin County, Ohio, says : 

The disease among hogs does not seem to be so fatal in our county as in many other 
places. From the result of investigations I should say the disease was intestinal fever, 
or perhaps consumption. The first symptom of the complaint is a bad cough and a 
refusal to take food, especially corn in the ear, which they will smell of and pass by. 
Perhaps their jaws are too weak to crack the grain, for they will eat it when ground 
into meal. They continue to lose flesh for a month or more, when they die. A few 
have so far repovered as to permit fattening. Upon examination the livers and lungs 
of these animals are found greatly deranged, both being covered with white spots. 
Another peculiarity is that the intestines and stomach are very much reduced in size, 
which I think would indicate the effects of a high state of- fever. No remedies have 
proved of any benefit. We have tried sulphur, tar, and copperas. . Those saved were 
fed freely on" corn-meal. This may have had a good effect in keeping up the strength 
of the animal until the disease abated or was worn out. 

Chicken-cholera has been severe iu some sections of this county. In this locality it 
-was more modified and slow, but finally sure in its operations. They would mope 
around for weeks before death ensued. The disease must be much the same as that 
-which atliict hogs, as the liver is found greatly enlarged and iu a decaying condi- 
tion. 

Mr. Georqe ^y. Parker, Yandalia, Audrain Comity, ^Missouri, says : 

There are but few fatal diseases among cattle here. Sometimes they die of a disease 
called black-leg. I know of no remedy, but salt given at regular intervals at all sea- 
sons of the year will be found a good preventive. I have handled many cattle at a 
time, and with very good success. Iu a herd on the grass beside mine twelve or four- 
teen head -were lost while I lost none. I salted my herd regularly, while my neighbor 
failed to take this precaution. I salt twice a week, and have [regular days for so 
doing. 

The prevailing disease among hogs is called cholera, but I have my doubts about its 
being that disease. They are attacked in a great many different ways. Some die sud- 
denly and others linger for a long time. Breeding young hogs has a teudency to pro- 
duce diseases. A general preventive will be found iu breeding from none but trld and 
mature animals. 

Mr. H. M. Engle, Marietta, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, says : 

My own immediate vicinity has thus far been almost entirely exempt from epidemic 
diseases among farm-stock, except epizootic among horses several years ago and chicken- 
cholera now and then. The former made a clean sweep, i. e., few animals escaped the 
disease. The cause or causes I have never had satisfactorily explained. Chicken- 
cholera I had for the first time last summer, and I am confident it originated in neg- 
lecting to keep their roosting places regularly cleaned. I have no faith in any of the 
nostrums so generally recommended, but have in pure air, pure water, a change of 
feed, and a clean feeding-place. The cause is a disordered condition of the bowels, 
similar to that of cholera in the human ; and anything that will restore them to their 
normal condition will effect a cure. By attending to sanitary requirements, and feed- 
ing whole grain well dried, even to browning, effected a speedy cure in my fowls. 



118 DISEASE A'MONG SWINE AND OTIIEK DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. J. S. N. Xewmyee, Loue Lake, Mason Coiiuty, Missouri, says: 

Heavy losses Lave been sustained in this section by a disease among swine called 
cholera. There are several ditterent diseases classed under this name, or else the dis- 
ease has many ditterent phases. I have been raising and fattening on an average 
abput 100 hogs per year, and had very good luck until last January, when my animals 
commenced dying, and since then I have lost 200 head. I had I'JO head on the first 
visitation of the disease, and out of that number lost 100. I did nothing to prevent 
the spread or to cure the disease — only separated the well from the sick hogs, but this 
seemed to do no good. Those first attacked died in a few days, and were full and plump 
"when death ensued. After a few weeks they lingered along for a good while, and were 
generally reduced almost to skeletons before they died. The last ones that died had 
"what wc here call thumps, and they lingered along three weeks before they died. A very 
few recovered after they had become so poor aud thin that they could scarcely stand. 
At theexpiratiou of about two months I commenced buying another herd, weighing from 
80 to 140 pounds each. I purchased them at difTerent points, getting from six to ten at a 
place. Afteralittle while they also commenced to get sick and die, and I lost 15 out of 46 
in that lot. I used remedies with this herd, but do not think with any good results, al- 
though several of them recovered. Someof them had high fever, and others passed bloody 
urine. This was in May and June. In September following my pigs took sick, and 
in a very short time I lost 35 out of a herd of 38. These pigs were suckling at the time 
the disease broke out among them. They and their mothers were confined in the same 
lot with 40 hogs I was fattening, but none but the pigs were affected in any way. I 
have known several such cases in this neighborhood, and therefore I am not inclined 
to believe that the disease is contagious. 

I believe an investigation, as you propose, will result in much good. It should be 
made thorough and complete, aud the disease is so wide-spread and involves such vast 
interests that the government should afford ample meaus to investigate, and, if pos- 
sible, determine its cause or causes. 

Mrs. J. S. Tost, Pottstown, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, says : 

We have had some cases of pleuro-pneumonia among horses iu this section of the 
county. Symptoms: The animals lag in their walk, aud manifest little desire for 
food. They have a cough, with discharges at the nose aud mouth. The remedy used 
is forty drops of aconite and eighty drops of muriate tincture of iron in water, given 
twice a day. The animal should be well rubbed. I am informed by a veterinary sur- 
geon that horses afflicted with the epizootic five years ago are more liable to this disease 
than others. The disease is quite fatal. Some horses live but a few days, while others 
may linger for several weeks. If proper remedies are immediately used tw^o-thirds 
will recover. A ^mnl -mortem examination reveals the pleura in a high state of inflamma- 
tion, presenting a purple-red color. The blood is water}-, aud about the lungs is found 
pus. 

A few cattle have also had pleuro-pneumonia. The symptoms are about the same as 
in horses, with the exception that the cough is harsher. Twenty-five drops of aconite 
and fifty drops of muriate tincture of irou iu water, given three times a day, is the 
remedy used. 

There have been some cases of hog-cholera in this locality. When attacked the 
animals swell and turn purple ^bout the jowls, and have a white appearance about 
the nose and mouth. If not immediately attended to they will die in three or four 
days. Aconite in water (twenty drops) is used as a remedy. If the hog does not vomit 
Avithiu two hours, ten drops more should be given. Kub the neck aud jowls twice 
with an ointment made of four ounces of iodine mixed with one pint of lard. 

Chicken-cholera has prevailed here- for several years past. They often die before 
you are aware that there is anything the matter with them. When attacked they re- 
fuse foQd, the comb becomes very dark, almost black, as does the flesh after death. 

Mr. J. F. Tube, Poplar Bluff, Butler County, Missouri, says : 

A disease prevailed among hogs in this locality last summer, and about one-tenth of 
this class of farm-animals died of it. The disease was called measles. The animals 
would first break out in small red spots, which would soon turn into large sores. 
After this death soon ensued. No remedy was found that proved of any benefit. 

IMr. E. BuRKET, Arch Springs, Blair County, Pennsylvania, says: 

There have been very fatal diseases prevailing among fowls iu this locality for some 
years past. I have known many flocks to nearly all die, and some of them were com- 
posed of perhaps one hundred and fifty head. During the fall I lost ninety head my- 
self. The disease seems to prevail at any season. We have found cayenne pepper, 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 119 

mixed with corii-iuoal, about as good a romody as any. There are many other reme- 
dies used, such as ahim-water, asafetida, red pepper, itc. Tliere was no disease 
among fowls here until the foreign varieties were brought into this locality. 

Dr. R. J. Spurij, Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky, says: 

Ten or twelve years ago a committee of physicians was appointed by the Fanners' 
Club of this county to investigate the subject of so-called hog-cholera, then and now 
very prevalent here. The undersigned was one of this committee, and during the 
progress of this investigation a large number of posl-mortcni, examinations were made, 
the subjects for examination being taken at all stages of the disease, from its incipient 
stage to its close in death. Coi)ious notes were made of everything observed, but 
through the death of the chairman they have been lost, yet suthcient facts were im- 
pressed on the writer's mind to warrant him in bringing them to your attention. This 
malady among hogs is so well known that a description of its symptoms and progress 
is unnecessary. Suffice it to say that, whatever may be its cause, it does not occur in 
single cases, but when a herd of hogs is attacked by it but few escape. Pigs and 
small shoats seem more liable to it than older hogs. It also proves more destructive 
to the former than to the latter. As "there is nothing in a name," this disease had 
just as well be known by its popular name of "hog-cholera" as any other, although 
the name in many cases leads to doubt and hesitancy from the fact that looseness of 
the bowels is expected, when directly the opposite may exist. Purging may be present 
in one case, and constipation in another. In the jmtsl-mortcm examinations made it was 
found that the lesions of the diftereut organs were not uniform. The liver in one case 
would be found engorged or inflamed, and in another not affected. In another case 
the stomach would be found ulcerated or inflamed, while in still another it would be 
found in its normal condition. Some would have inflammation of the bowels, and 
others not; worms would be found in the bowels of some, while none would be found 
in others. There was one organ, however, in which the distinctive process was very 
uniform ; indeed, in the forty or fifty cases examined I do not remember of a single 
exception. This was in the lungs, and is known as inter-lobular inflammation, and 
incident to the early stages of the disease. In more progressed cases there was no 
general difli"used inflammation or hepatization. There was one other thing uniform in 
every case, and this was in the condition of the blood. This was placed under a mi- 
croscope of rather feeble power, and the blood-disks or red globules were found to be 
changed from their normal configuration. In recent cases the number of disks found 
to be changed were limited, but very general in those where death had resulted from 
the disease. The bloQd-disk in the hog in its normal condition is nearly circular, has 
smooth edges, and when piled one upon another resemble somewhat small heaps of 
silver money without the milling around the edges. The change which had occurred 
was a shriveling or corrugation of the edges. Their appearance bi'ought to my mind 
the scalloped edge of the bush-squash of our summer gardens. The cause of this we 
Avere unable to determine, from the fact that our microscope did not possess sufficient 
power for the purpose. We drew the conclusion, however, that they had been pierced 
or penetrated by some low order of organized life which we had not the facilities for 
detecting. 

The writer is a farmer, and raises a considerable number of hogs annually, but he 
has not had this disease among his swine siuce the investigation detailed above, 
although it has prevailed to a considerable extent upon adjoining farms, and in a few 
instances diseased hogs of the neighborhood have mixed with his herd. He has per- 
sistently pursued a course of prevention, which may or may not have been the cause 
of his exemption. His course has been to give his hogs salt and sulphur once a week 
in the proportion of two of the former to one of the latter, always giving them as much 
as they will eat. They should have it both in summer and in winter, and without any 
regard to weather. In addition to this he uses wood-ashes freely, upon piles of which 
he throws salt. He has pursued this course with the hope of preventing the disease, 
as sulphur is destj^uctive to low orders of animal and vegetable life. 

]Mr. J. r. Tylee, Sniitliport, McKeau County, Peuusylvauia, says : 

The most prevalent and fatal disease to which any class of farm-stock is subject here 
is black-leg among cattle. It rages only among dry stock and calves, or yearlings. 
When I came to this locality in 1870 I was told that the young cattle were dying ofl" 
at a ra^iid rate with a disease that no one seemed to understand. I afterward discov- 
ered that this fatal disease was black-leg. With the exception of the past season, it has 
prevailed every year since. It seems to be more prevalent and fatal during the hot 
season of the year. I have never known a case to recover. The disease comes on sud- 
-denly, and generally terminates in death within from twelve to twenty-four hours. 
The symptoms are a swelling of some part or parts of the body, stiffuess of the limbs, 



120 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

aud sometimes short and quick breathing. A blubber appears under the skin of the 
part swollen, and the tlesh becomes black, hence the name given the disease. The best 
preventive known is bleeding in the neck. Feeding of saltpeter with provender is also 
said to be a preventive, but is not so sure as bleeding. 

Mr. John D. Cooke, Wlieatlaiul, Hickory County, Missomi, says : 

Hog-cholera prevails here, and I have had it to contend with. After fruitless ex- 
periments I am satisfied there is but one thing that will cure or prevent the disease, 
and that is too expensive. I am sure that if a beef could be slaughtered every day or 
two, and the carcass given to the hogs, that the well ones would escape the disease, 
and those not too sick would be cured. Blue-mass for fowls sullering with the cholera 
will be found of more real value than anything else. 

Mr. B. W. Hamlin, Betliany, Wayne County, Pennsylvania, says : 

Black-leg, or hoof-disease, among cattle has proved fatal in numerous cases here. But 
very few of those attacked recover. 

Large numbers of young pigs died last spring from pneumonia or inflammation of the 
Inngs. No remedy was found. 

Mr. J. T. Hester, Corsicana, jS'avarro County, Texas, says : 

Horses and cattle are measurably healthy, but hogs are jiretty generally affected 
with something like cholera, and the losses are quite heavy. No specific remedy has 
yet been found, but a teacupful of turpentine to one half bucket of shelled corn, well 
mixed, has proved quite beneficial. 

Fowls are subject to a disease which canses them to droop around for a few days 
and then die. They rarelj' recover. The disease is generally called cholera. No rem- 
edy has been found. Your department will confer a great blessing on the country if 
it succeeds in finding a care for cholera in hogs and chickens, and liver-rot in sheep. 
This last-named disease can be prevented, but with present lights on the subject it 
cannot be cured. 

Mr. William S. Eand, Yanceburg-, Lewis County, Kentucky, says: 

Hogs being the staple product and source of the principal revenue of this county, 
I have given special attention to their treatment and the diseases to which they are 
incident. In the limestone sections of this county the fatality of diseases has been 
most disastrous. Hog-dealers have tried all the remedies aud practiced every kind of 
treatment. In herds where an animal has died those remaining have been separated 
aud quartered in small lots in distant localities, and this treatment has generally been 
more successful than any other. The symptoms of the disease are widely different, 
and what will cure one wonld seem to kill two. Sometimes temporary relief may be ob- 
tained, and the animal apparently be in a fair way of recovery: but in all probability 
in a day or two afterward it wonld be found iu a dying condition. Mr. Brazil Lyle, a 
hog-raiser iu the mountains, has been successful in treating the disease with the free 
nse of coal-oil, given in half pints aud by injection. The same remedy has failed else- 
where. Capt. Jack Henderson, who has had large experience in the treatment of the 
disease, has arrived at the conclusion that it is incurable. He has tried all the reme- 
dies, but his losses have been very heavy. 

It has been stated and generally credited that the mountain or mast fed hogs escape 
this disease. In order to satisfy myself on this point I this fall made a protracted trip 
to the mountains of Eastern Kentucky for the purpose of observing the operations of 
the disease iu the very highest latitudes of the State. In two instances the whole of 
two herds of fat hogs, ready for the market, died within two days, shortly after my 
arrival. They had previously shown no symptoms of the disease. Other lots, in the 
same neighborhood, showed no signs of disease. 

It is most painful to witness the disastrous results of this mysterious and fatal dis- 
ease on the young farmers of the interior. They grow a crop of corn to feed to hogs, 
buy the hogs generally on credit for a few months, and then, when they are almost 
ready for the market, this scourge comes along and carries them all off. The farmer 
is left without corn or other supplies for his family, and is also in debt for the hogs 
"which he has lost. I could name several instances where the wolf is now at the door 
of many of the hard-working, honest farmers of this section, and if it is within the 
means of your department and the agency of the National Congress, in the name of 
God and humanity push forward the work for the speedy relief of the great jiroducers 
of the land. 

Fowls are subject to sudden and fatal attacks of disease. I know many farmers who 
have lost hundreds of fowls without warning. At the present writing the disease is 
prevailing extensively. All the remedies and preventives known have been used with- 
out efiect. Whatever the papers publish is greedily accepted and tried, but generally 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 121 

■what succeeds in one locality fails in another. Those who take the most pains to avoid 
the disease suffer the most. New locations and fresh walks, with pure water to drink, 
is highly recommended. The latest preventive and cure is tohacco-pills, given when 
the fowls are drooping, either in food or otherwise. 

Mr. L. D. Van Dyke, Clarksville, Red Eiver County, Texas, says : 

The most serious disease aifecting horses and mules and causing serious loss among 
these animals is called " hlind staggers." For many years it was the prevailing opinion 
liere that this disease was caused by feeding worm-eaten or unsound corn, but in ld75 
our loss in this and adjoining counties was very serious, and we never had heavier or 
better corn than in that year. Stock not in use and fed entirely on grass are not liable 
to contract the disease, and nearly all those attacked ^vould recover if they were turned 
on grass as soon as the first symptoms appear. 

The first symptom of the disease is a disposition to sleep, and a dull, stupid appear- 
ance generally. As the disease progresses the animal becomes blind, and the disease 
soon assumes the form of brain-fever. Some die in twenty- four hours, while others may 
linger for weeks. I have relieved several by boring through the skull to the brain 
with a small penknife. They recover their sight immediately and become very docile ; 
but it is evidently a disease of the stomach, and I think much of it is caused by too 
severe labor when the stomach is full, although it has raged here as an epidemic. 

A disease affected the hogs in this county last spring which caused very great loss. 
It was evidently a disease of the lungs, as the symptoms were a dry cough and diffi- 
culty in breathing, similar to that produced by eating cotton-seeds. About 50 per 
cent, of those affected died. I am told that all were cured that were given copperas 
and gunpowder. Here in the South, where for many months in the year hogs have to 
find their own support as best they may, I attribute most of the diseases to which they 
are incident to worms. All diseases to which they are subject here are called cholera ; 
but I have had no experience with regular cholera in hogs. 

Much of the disease among chickens called cholera is produced by their eating hen- 
bane or nightshade, which grows very plentifully throughout this country. The 
chickens eat it with avidity in the spring season. 

Mr. E. S. Brown, Betlileliem, Xortliaraptou Comity, reimsylvania, 
says : 

Since the epizootic malady some years ago among horses, the most fatal disease, and 
the worst one that we ever experienced, was the spinal disease among the same class 
of animals. The horse would be taken out of the stable apparently well, and after 
being driven a mile or two would fall down, completely paralyzed, and unable to get 
up behind. As this disease appeared in the early part of winter, during snow and bad 
roads, unless within calling distance and with the assistance of a dozen strong men, 
the animal was in danger of perishing on the spot. I have taken mine home on low 
sleds, rolled them off into large and warm stables, padded them all round with straw 
to keep them from knocking their brains out in their frantic efforts to get up, and 
then iised the following remedies with success : I took an empty salt-bag and filled it 
with clover-heads. Upon this scalding water was poured, and it was then applied to 
the skin as hot as could be borne. This was renewed every half hour by careful men 
during the whole night. The horse was then rubbed dry and a mild laxative medicine 
used for a few days. After that the horse was raised to his feet by means of a side of 
leather to which was attached rings and pulleys. This was done at intervals of six 
hours. The horse was allowed to stand about thirty minutes, when he was let down 
again, and this operation was then suspended for eight or ten days. If left to lie 
without being compelled to stand up they will never recover. Veterinary surgeons, 
who tried the old remedies of bleeding and purging, and applying tvirpentiue to the 
spine, lost every horse so treated. 

Disease among fowls has been general, and the losses have been very heavy. Nei- 
ther the poor man's dozen nor the rich man's hundreds were spared. They died by 
hundreds and thousands. Most of them would droop for a few days and then die. 
Others would die upon their roosts or nests. Young and old seemed to fare alike. No 
remedies proved effective. The disease continued over a period of five or six years, 
utttil it was thought none would be saved. People continue to lose some, but the dis- 
ease is now abating. The best remedy I know of is wheat-bran made into a thick 
paste with milk and liberally sprinkled with red pepper. They eat it ravenously. 

Mr. Amos Woodling, Beacli City, Stark County, Ohio, says : 

Heavy losses have been sustained among fowls by the ravages of a disease called 
chicken-cholera. Entire flocks have been destroyed by it. The fowl becomes stupid, 
loses its general brightness about the head, diarrhea sets in, and the result is death 
within three or four days. After death the liver is found to be of a light clay color. 



122 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Dr. William Gutch, Blakesbuig, "Wapello Couuty, Iowa, says : 

I have special inquiry ■with reference to the disense among swine known here as hog- 
cholera. The sympttinis are — the animal refuses to eat, vomiting and purging set in 
occasionally, but not uniformly : there are muscular twitchings of various parts of the 
body. Death often talies place within twenty-four hours. The causes of this disease 
are very obscure, as it occurs under every variety of sanitary condition. But from its 
extensive prevalence here, and from tlio manner in which it frequently si)reads, I have 
uo doubt but that it is highly contagions. Nearly every kind of treatment (including 
the use of many vaunted specifics) lias been tried by the farmers here, but the uniform 
testimony is that they all fail to produce any benefit. 

For several years past a liighly fatal disease has prevailed in this section of country 
among different members of the gallinaceous family, viz., turkeys, Guinea hens, and 
domestic fowls. It is known here as chicken-cholera, and occurs esi)ecially where 
great numbers of fowls are kept together, and is, I believe, caused by bad sanitary 
conditions. The animal mopes around, has an uncertain gait, purges, and usually dies 
in a very short time — sometimes in a few hours, but geneially not for several days. 
The remedies are thorough cleanliness and ventilation, with lime, sand, and a mixture 
of corn-meal and Venetian red. These, if they do not cure the disease, will usually 
lireveut its further spread. 

Mr. J. W. Means, Carthage, Jasper County, Missouri, says : 

From my own experience I am prepared to say that hog-cholera is contracted by 
feeding and watering them in nnclean places. My neighbor is now losing hogs every 
day, while I am losing none. I have about two hundred head on an adjoining farm. 
His hogs are fed in unclean i^laces and sleep about old straw stacks, and mine do not. 
I feed plenty of salt, lime, and soda, and am satisfied hogs will not take the disease if 
given these preventives in time. I feed hundreds of head, and have never lost any. 

I also feed a great many cattle, but have never lost any by disease. I use salt, ashes, 
and madder twice a week. A great many people lose cattle by allowing their hogs to 
run with them. When eating green corn the hogs chew the stalk until all the strength 
is extracted. They then drop it ; it dries; the cattle eat it, and it clogs the stomach 
and produces what is called the " mad itch." A great many cattle have died from this 
disease this year. 

Black-oak bark boiled in water to a strong sirup, and kept where the fowls can have 
access to it, will be found both a remedy and preventive for chicken-cholera. Sulphur 
fed with corn-meal is also good. Lime and ashes will destroy tlie lice which infests 
them. 

Mr. F. M. Gumming, Harrisouville, Cass Couuty, Missouri, says : 

This immediate vicinity has suffei'ed immensely from the ravages of the disease known 
as hog-cholera. During'the early part, and indeed almost entire winter, it disappears 
or scarcely makes an appearance, but during the months of March and September it 
breaks forth in most fatal forms, frequently causing the death of every hog on a farm. 
I have known as many as sixty and eighty to thus die in one week on a single farm, 
leaving not one to commence restocking with. The disease assumes two forms. The 
first, and what I presume to be cholera proper, commences with black discharges from 
the bowels, which continue until the animal " wears it out," or becomes a gaunt skeleton 
and dies from mere exhaustion. The second form commences with an utter refusal to 
eat, stupid appearance of the animal, high fever, very constipated bowels, and a great 
desire for cold water. This form generally proves fatal in three or four days. When 
dead, blood gushes from the nostrils, and upon examination the lights resemble coagu- 
lated blood of the consistency of cream. This disease causes greater losses to the 
farmers of this corn-producing couutrythan all other diseases affecting farm-animals 
combined. 

Mr. W. B. Harsha, Harsliasville, Adams Couuty, Oliio, says : 

A disease prevails among hogs in this section which is generally called cholera. Sct- 
eral herds were attacked by it during the dry weather of last fall. But I think instead 
of its being cholera it was pneumonia. The first noticeable symptom was coughing. 
Then follows fever, no desire for solid food, and constipation of the bowels. About 
all those first attacked died, but after we commenced doctoring we saved some. We 
gave a physic of sulphur and saltpeter, followed by the use of Font's cattle-powders, 
or fluid extract of aconite and belladonna, equal jiarts, and one teaspoonful at a dose. 
Toward the last this cured nearly all the animals affected, and we believe the use of 
the cattle-i)owders prevented the further spread of the disease. 



DISEASE AMONG SWI^E AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 123 

Mr. Thomas 13, Tyler, Ottuinwa, Wapello County, Iowa, says: 

llog-cholera has beeu the prevailing disease among farm -animals here, and it has 
been very fatal and destructive. There is more or less ot this disease every year, and 
those attacked seldom ever recover. The cause, in my ojiinion, is the lack of proper 
care. Large numbers are kept together, and they are allowed to sleep in old rotten 
straw-stacks, which engenders disease. With proper care I think the disease would 
entirely disappear. 

Until this fall cattle have been very healthy in this vicinity. A disease is now pre- 
vailing among them which is very destructive. It is called "black-leg." The Weekly 
Courier of this place says : " William Shepherd, living four miles north of this city, 
has within a very shorttime lost eleven head of fat cattle from a disease which seemed 
to balUe the skill of the most successful veterinary surgeons. Yesterday he lost another 
line animal, and sent for Dr. Hinscy for the purpose of holding a 2;o.v^/»or/c;» examina- 
tion. The examination was held, and the doctor informs us that he found that the 
cattle had been dying of 'malignant anthrax,' or black- leg. In the case he examined 
he found the cavities of the heart occupied by a clot of blood as black as ink, and 
nearly the size of his fist. The mass was firm and tough, and when removed the blood 
of the arteries, of the same consistency of that of the center of the heart, followed its 
removal in strings the full size of the arteries and several inches in length. The dis- 
ease is very contagious from a dead carcass, or from the blood of the animal when 
tasted by other cattle. * * * The doctor gives it as his opinion that when stock 
is afiV.cted by this disease the farmer would, in the event the case proves fatal, do 
well to bury the carcass of the animal without even removing the hide. So far as 
known there is no remedy for the disease, and the best thing to do is to prevent its 
spread. Two or three other farmers have recently lost cattle." 

The following treatise on this disease i§ from the pen of Professor Shaefer: 

" Its attacks are confined almost entirely to animals that are in high condition or 
rapidly improving ; we shonld say too high condition and too rapidly improving. In 
some instances the disease will give some warning of its approach ; but generally the 
beast will appear to-day perfectly well and to-morrow he will be found with his head 
extended, his flanks heaving, his breath hot, his eyes protruding, his muzzle dry, his 
pulse quick and hard — every symptom, in short, of the highest state of fever. He 
utters a low and distressing moaning; he is already half unconscious; he will stand 
for hours together motionless, or if he moves or is compelled to move, there is a pecu- 
liar staggering referable to the hind limbs, and generally one of them more than the 
other; by and by he gets uneasy; he shifts his weight from foot to foot; he paws 
faintly and then lies down; he' rises, but almost immediately drops again; he now 
begins to be, or has alreadj^ been, nearly uuc(Miscious of sui-rounding objects. 

"There are many other symptoms from which the different names of the disease 
arose. On the back or loins or over one of the quarters there is more or less swelling. 
If felt when it first appears it is hot and tender and firm ; but it soon begins to yield 
to the touch, and gives a singular crackling noise when pressed upon. One of the 
limbs likewise enlarges, sometimes through its whole extent, and that enormously. It, 
too, is at first firm atfd hot and tender, but it soon afterward becomes soft and flabby, 
or i^its when pressed npou, i. e., the indentations of the fingers remain. When exam- 
ined after death, that limb is full of red putrid fluid ; it is mortified, and vseems to have 
beeu i)utrefying almost during the life of the beast. Large ulcers break out in this 
limb, and sometimes in other parts of the body, and almost immediately become gan- 
grenous ; pieces of several pounds in weight have sloughed away ; three-fourths of 
the udder have dropped off", or have been so gangrenous that it was necessary to re- 
move them, and the animal has beeu one mass of ulceration. The breath stinks hor- 
ribly ; a very offensive and sometimes purulent and bloody fluid runs from the mouth ; 
the urine is high-colored or bloody, and the fieces are also streaked with blood, and 
t^je smell from them is scarcely supportable. 

"In this state the beast will sometimes continue two or'three days, at otlier times 
he will die in less than twelve hours from the first attack. In a few instances, how- 
ever, and when the disease has been early and properly treated, all these dreadful 
symptoms gradually disappear, and the animal recovers. 

" It is to a redundancy or overflowing of the blood, the consequence of the sudden 
change from bad to good living, that tLis disease most commonly owes its origin. It 
is most prevalent in the latter part of the spring and in the autumn, and very often 
at these seasons of the year proves destructive to great numbers of young cattle in 
different parts of the States. It is sometimes, however, seen in the winter and the 
early part of spring, when the cattle are feeding on turnips. Some situations are more 
subject to this complaint than others. It is most frequent in low, marshy grounds and 
pastures situated by the side of woods. 

" It is a disorder of high condition and over-feeding. The times of the year and the 
character of the cattle prove this. It occurs in the latter part of the spring, when the 
grass is most luxuriant and nutritive, and in the autumn, Avhen we have the second 
liush of grass; and the animals attacked are those principally that tire undergoing 



124 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

the process of fattening, and that have somewhat too suddenly been removed from 
scanty pastnrago and low feeding to a profusion of herbage, and that of a nutritious 
and sfimulating kind. Tiie disease sometimes occurs when the cattle have been re- 
moved from one pasturage to another on the same farm : but more so when they have 
been brought from poor laud at a distance to a richer soil. There are in the latter case 
two preparatory causes — the previous poverty and the fatigue and exhaustion of the 
journey. 

" This disease rarely admits of cure, but fortunately it may in general be prevented. 
If the malady is discovered as soon as it makes its appearance, the beast should be 
immediately housed, and then from four to eight quarts of blood taken away, accord- 
ing to the ago and size. Two hours after bleeding give a purging drink, as follows : 
Epsom salts, 1 pound; powdered caraway seeds, i- ounce; dissolve in a quart of warm 
gruel, and give (which will be found of a proper strength for young cattle from the 
age oiE one to two years). 

" The bleeding should be repeated in three or four hours, if the animal is not mate- 
rially relieved ; and a third bleeding must follow the second, if the fever is unabated. 
There must be no child's play here ; the disease must be knocked down at once or it 
will inevitably destroy the beast. The physic likewise must be repeated until it has 
had its full etiect. 

"As soon as the bowels are well opened the fever-drink No. 1 (tartar-emetic, 1 drachm : 
powdered digitalis, i drachm ; niter, 3 drachms ; mixed in a quart of thick gruel) should 
be administered, and repeated morning, noon, and night, all food except a little mash 
being removed. 

"At the first appearance of the disease the part principally affected should be fomented 
several times in the course of the day with hot water, and for at le.ist an hour each 
time. For this purpose there should be two or three large pieces of llannel iu the 
water, that after one of them has been applied thoroughly hot and dripping to the 
part aftected, another equally hot may be ready when this gets cold. 

"As soon as the fever begins evidently to subside and the beast is more himself and 
eats a little, the fever-medicine must not be pushed too far. It should be remembered 
that this is a case of highly inflammatory disease which soon passes over and is often 
succeeded by debility almost as dangerous as the fever. The ox therefore must not be 
too much lowered; but, the fever abating, mildest tonic drink (gentian, 2 drachms; 
emetic tartar, l- drachm ; niter, ^ ounce). Give in gruel. 

" If this does not bring back the fever it may be safely continued once every day until 
the ox is well, or the quantities of the gentian maj^ be increased and the emetic tartar 
lessened and at length altogether omitted, the niter being still retained. 

"A seton (of black hellebore root if it can be procured) should be inserted into the 
dewlap, and if the beast can be moved it should be driven to much scantier pasture. 

" Should not the disease be discovered until there is considerable swelling and a crack- 
ing noise in some tumefied part, a cure is seldom effected. Bleeding at this stage of 
the complaint can seldom be resorted to, or at least one moderate bleeding only should 
be practiced, in order to subdue any lurking fever that may remain. If a cure is in 
these cases attempted, the tonic drink should be given, which may invigorate the sys- 
tem by its cordial and tonic powers, and prevent the mortification extending. 

" The swelled parts should be frequently bathed with equal portions of vinegar and 
spirits of wine, made as hot as the hand will bear ; or if ulceration seems to be ap- 
proaching, slight incisions should be effected along the whole extent of the swelling, 
and the part bathed with spirits ot turpentine, made hot. 

"If ulceration has commenced, accompanied bj^ the peculiar fetor that attends the 
disease, the wounds should be first bathed with the disinfectant lotion (solution, 
chloride of lime in powder, ^ ounce ; water, 1 pint ; mix). 

" The hot spirits of turpentine should be applietl immediately after this and continue 
in use until either the mortified parts have sloughed off or the sore begins to have a 
healthy appearance. The tincture of aloes or Friar's balsam may then follow. 

" Since so little can be done in the way of cure, we next anxiously inquire whether 
there is any mode of prevention. The account which we have given of the disease 
immediately suggests the prevention, namely, to beware of these sudden changes of 
pasture ; now and then to take a little blood from, or to give a dose of physic to, those 
beasts that are thriving unusually rapidly, and whenever the disease breaks out on 
the farm to bleed and to purge and remove to shorter and scantier feed every animal 
that has been exposed to the same exciting causes with those that have been attacked. 
The farmer should be particularly watchful during the latter part of the spring and 
the beginning of the autumn. He may thus save many a beast, and the bleeding and 
the physic will not arrest but rather assist their improvement. He who will not attend 
to a simple rule like this deserves the loss that he may experience." 

Mr. James C. Fairbank, Coucord, Morj^au County, Illinois, says : 

In cattle some heavy losses have been sustained from "Texas fever," so called. The 
disease has been confined mostly to native cattle in this vicinity, and to these only in 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 125 

cases where tliey have been iii the same pasture, lot, or cars, or across tlie track of the 
Texas cattle. It does not seoiu to he contagious I'roni being near in separate pastures. 
About two weeks after exposure the cattle cease to eat and soon die. In one case a 
man had eighty head of extra line cattle, just ready to ship. In August ho bought a 
lot of Texas cattle and turned them into his pastures. He then changed them, putting 
the native fat ones in the pasture where the others had been. They soon after com- 
menced dying, and nothing seemed to check the disease until eight had died. They 
were sixteen-huudred-pound cattle. A neighbor went to Kansas and brought in thirty- 
live or forty head of steers weighing about twelve hundred pounds each. He did not 
know that they had been exposed in any Avay, and they could not have been except in 
the cars or in lots where they were temporarily quartered. Just two weeks after, and 
before he knew anything was wrong, two of them died. He finally lost nearly half 
the lot. Some ettort Avas made to doctor them, but without success. The disease al- 
ways disappears with heavy frosts. 

Several cows have recently died, just after calving, with milk-fever. The only 
thing I have known to help them was to drench freely with melted lard and turpen- 
tine ; say one pint of lard to two tablcspoonfuls of turpentine, and repeat the dose, if 
necessary. 

The hog-cholera, so called, has been the greatest scourge we have ever experienced. 
During some years from 60 to 75 per cent, of the hogs are lost by it. The usual symp- 
toms, as now manifested, are a loss of appetite, cough, an inclination to scratch and 
sometimes to thump, and general lassitude. They then incliue to "pile up" in their 
beds, and many of them die during the night. No purging or vomiting is observed, 
but ratlier a severe constipation, and the excrement is dry and hard. Many die just 
after drinking, especially fat ones. Some will eat their regular amount of feed until just 
before death, while others will become greatly emaciated and linger for weeks before 
death relieves them. Mr. Thomas Danby, of the English settlement, says he had a 
large sow to lie thi-ee weeks without either food or water, and then get well. Some 
years since a few of my fat hogs cracked open on the back. These cracks extended to 
itho bone, and in some cases the fat aud flesh sloughed off. A few affected in this way 
recovered. 

Most hogs that die of cholera will bear gathering up and hauling to the grease-fac- 
tory ; but a neighbor of mine, who had some very fat ones die of a sort of congestic n, 
attempted to skin them, but they were so offensive that he had to desist. The blood 
had settled all through them, and had turned the fattest iiorlions of them very black. 
The bones were very tender and apparently rotten. 

The disease seems lo have no fixed or certain symptoms. Sometimes it will only at- 
tack young pigs, and only ceases when there are none left to kill. Entire litters often 
die while the mother remains comparatively healthy. In other instances only fat hogs 
may be attacked, but generally the heaviest losses are sustained among shoats weigh- 
ing from 75 to 125 pounds. Very often its sweeps over a whole neighborhood, and 
Images as a contagions epidemic. In such cases only those exposed to the disease suffer, 
while isolated herds remain exempt. Upon the first evidences of the disease it has got 
to be the practice to separate the hogs and scatter them over the farm as much as pos- 
sible, and if they are being fed on dry food to change them to grass. This course 
seems to have a tendency to check the disease. The losses generally range from 25 to 
80 per cent, of all the hogs; sometimes it reaches even higlaer than this. I made an 
estimate once of a circle of one mile, taking my own place as the center, and within 
That circle fi(> per cent. died. Mi'. Danby, spoken of above, lost 160 out of 200 head. 

The so-called^cures are various, but as cures they are mostly failures. Preventives are 
often used with great benefit. But, however strangely it may seem, what may be suc- 
cessful as a preventive or cure in one case may utterly fail in others. Mr. Danby tried 
turpentine, using in one season ten or twelve gallons mixed in swill, but without suc- 
cess. He now feels that he has found a sure remedy in the use of quick-lime, ashes, and 
salt. He feedsit to his hogs ouce or twice a week, and if they are coughing and not eat- 
ing with their usual relish he keeps it constantly in their feed-troughs. Since he com- 
menced using this preventive he has lost no hogs. Mr. Carter, a relative of mine and 
a large hog-raiser, says he has never been troubled wi th cholera to any great extent. 
His reliance is upon the use of turpentine, salt, aud ashes, regularly and steadily given. 

J. M. Thompson, a neighbor, thinks he has a certain preventive and sometimes a 
cure for the disease, in a mixture composed of arsenic, copperas, suljihur, asafetida, 
lime, salt, and ashes. He feeds to them once a week, and, if cholera is around, oftener. 
He regards arsenic as the main ingredient. Samuel Newton recommends to every one 
the use of copperas, sulphur, and black antimony. He says their constant use has 
proved of great benefit to him, as well as to others to whom he recommended the pre- 
scription. Mr. H. Engleback fed a large number one year on slops made from ship- 
stuff, bran, Sec, in which he constantly used soda. He had good success, while others 
immediately around him, who fed on corn, lost heavily. Some use ashes, sulphur, and 
salt, otliers copperas, ashes, and salt, and still another salt and ashes. These are gen- 
erally used as preventives. If the hogs have cholera arsenic is given, and if they are 



126 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

past eating thoy are drenched. During one yearniy son utterly failed with all these 
articles. Nothing whatever seemed to do his animals any good. They were large, 
line, fat hogs, in apparent good health, yet they died daily. After a great many died 
ho was advised to use mutton tallow. When this was used freely it seemed to check 
the disease, but when he ceased to use it, because of the expense, the disease returned 
with great fury, and swept ott' from 00 to 75 per cent, of those left. He is now using 
J. M. Thompson's remedy, and so far with success. I know of one case where a hog, 
seemingly almost dead, was cured by drenching with melted lard and then giving it 
Mr. Thompson's arsenic mixture. Tlie experience of all seem to bo about this — pre- 
ventives are a success if used regularly and judiciously, but if tiio hogs are once 
attacked there is nothing that will prove of much benefit. I think the disease is both 
epidemic and contagidus. I have been thioug') two sieges of it. In the first instance 
it was evidently epidemic, passing from east to west, and taking all in its course. lu 
the second instance the disease was imparted to my herd by an infected shoat that 
found its way into my iuclosure. 

I forgot to mention in the proper place that I found some benefit result from burn- 
ing and charring the carcasses of the dead hogs and feeding the refuse to the living 
ones. 

This subject is one of vast importance to the farmers of this country, and I trust 
you may receive an appi'opriatiou suthcient to make a thorough and speedy investiga- 
tion, in order that the cause may be discovered and a sure remedy be found. 

Mr. n. TI. Mitchell, Lemon, Wyoming County, Peuusylvania, says : 

There is no disease prevailing in this locality at present, nor has there been the past 
season. lu an experience of over forty years as a farmer I have invariably found that 
an ounce of preventive is worth a pound of cure — that is, by judicious feeding and 
care I have found that all classes of farm-stock are less liable to be attacked by any 
prevailing disease than those illy cared for and in a measure left to shift for them- 
selves. Protection from the blasts and storms of winter, plenty and frequent changes 
of feed, and an abundance of salt has always been my motto, and I have never lost but 
one cow and two or three calves by any disease in all these forty-odd years. The ben- 
efits of good care and feeding were very apparent during the prevalence of the epi- 
zootic among horses a few years since. By protection from cold currents of air, espe- 
cially when the horse was wet with sweat, plenty of salt, potatoes, and laxative food 
generally, many animals escaped altogether, while those that did have it escaped 
withoutany serious results. I have lately heard of a very simi)le and sure remedy for 
this trouble. It is, to take five or six onions and put them in the feed box of the 
horse and let the aninaal help himself. After eating two or three he will begin to 
snutt' and blow, when his nose will commence to run, and soon thereafter he will be a 
well horse again. 

After having lost some valuable hens with the gapes, I took a tablespoonf ul of hog's 
fat, melted it, and poured it down the throat of one so near gone that it could not 
stand up. In a day or two, without other treatment, it had entirely recovered. Others 
may have known of this remedy. I did not. 

Mr. P. E. White, Denmark, Lewis Coiiuty, ^^ew York, says : 

A new disease made its appearance the past summer among horses, which is calle<l 
spinal meningitis, and bailies all medical skill. In the last case which came under m.y 
observation the horse, to all appearance, was well in the morning but died before 
noon. The animal, when attacked, begins to droop very suddenly, refuses to eat, 
shows signs of pain, drops to the ground, and is never again able to rise. They usually 
lie flat on one side, and never seem to move a muscle even in the throes of death. 

Colic, in its various forms, causes the death of more of our valuable horses than any 
other disease, and an ettective remedy would be of great value to the owners of these 
animals. Various remedies have been prescribed for this disease, but they often fail. 
Colic terminates one way or the other in a very few hours, and therefore requires 
speedy and careful treatment. 

We do not know of any prevailing disease in the herds of our county except that 
of abortion among cows." This direful scourge and fearful drawback to the dairying 
interests of this locality has been prevailing lieie for severjil years, and still continues 
•with unabated progress. Thousands of dollars are yearly lost to the farmers by the 
ravages of this disease alone (we term it a disease, for we know of no other name to 
give it). We have known of large dairies where nearly three-fourths of the cows 
would abort, and yet no key has been found to unlock the mystery. It is well known 
that large sums of money and much time have been expended to solve this mystery 
without arriving at the true cause or source of the trouble. We would therefore rec- 
ommend that abortion in cows be one of the diseases nuirkcd iov a special and thorough 
investigation by your department. The welfare of the farmers and stock-growers of 
the country demands this. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 127 

In swine there lias been more or less mortality the past seascm, especially among pigs 
from one to two mouths old. We liave known of nine or ten pigs of tliat age to die one 
after the other, and all apparently of the same disease. Tlie lirst symptom noticeable 
is a loss of the use of the hind parts. They commence to drag their hind legs after 
them, refuse to eat, and usually die within a few hours. Sometimes when affected 
with the disease they will give a squeal and drop dead without further ceremony. No 
remedies, so far as we can learn, have been administered for the arrest of the disease. 
Some call it a disease of the kidneys, but we are not prepared to state what it is. We 
only know it cleans out a pen of hogs (it prevails also among grown hogs) in double- 
quick time. 

]Mr. Joseph Love, Bacon, Coshocton County, Ohio, says : 

The principal disease here among poultry is called chicken-cholera. The first thing 
we observe is a diarrhea. The head becomes pale and the fowl commences to droop 
and is disinclined to move about. There seems to be fever and thirst, the fowl drink- 
ing verj' often. When the internal parts are examined the liver is much swollen and 
is dark-colored. W^hen a flock is attacked the greater part of them die. We have 
found no specific for it yet. We think the exclusive use of corn as food has a tendency 
to bring on the disease. In my own case I have found that rich brau mixed in dish- 
water and occasionally in milk makes a healthy feed ; so does wheat-screenings. Pure 
water is very essential. Fowls are not as particular as other animals as to what they 
drink. They will drink drippings from manure heaps and other filthy places as 
greedily as from pure sources. I think cleanliness in all respects would ward off the 
disease. 

Mr. M. Stocking, VTahoo, Saunders County, Nebraska, says : 

Previous to 1876 the swine of this county were healthy. The annual loss from dis- 
ease probably did not reach 1 per cent, of the whole number. In the fall of 1876 the 
cholera broke out near Ashland, along Salt and Wahoo Creeks. During 1877 the dis- 
ease has proven exceedingly virulent along all water-courses, and has baffled all reme- 
dies. In the beautiful valley of Wahoo fully 95 per cent, of those attacked have 
died. On uplands the disease has proven less virulent, many large herds having 
wholly escaped thus far. 

The immense aggregate annual losses from disease which occur among our domestic 
animals, and the danger of importing others from abroad, imperatively demands na- 
tional legislation and the establishment of a school where veterinary science shall be 
thoroughly taught. 

Mr. Isaac Hoofer, Lebanon, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, says : 

A few cases of what is generally termed cholera has occurred among hogs here, but 
the cases have been so few that the subject is hardly deemed worthy of notice. 

Among horses the only disease deserving notice is " inflammation of the intestines," 
which, if not promptly attended to, generally proves fatal in a tew hours. The symp- 
toms are great restlessness, pawing the ground, letting themselves fall, and showing 
by many ways that they suffer great pain. The cause is chilling of the blood by drink- 
ing cold water when heated, or getting wet when heated, or sometimes it may be 
brought on from unwholesome food or irregular feeding. The cure is one ounce tinc- 
ture of asafetida, one and one-half ounce tincture of opium, and one-half ounce of 
sulphuric ether, mixed with half a pint of water and given to the suffering animal. 

Having made considerable inquiry among horse-dealers and horse-farriers as to the 
cause of diseases in horses, I feel satisfied in saying that over one-half of the diseases 
to which these animals are subject are brought on by irregular feeding, and three- 
fourths of the other half from unwholesome food and abuse. 

Mr. George A. Shibian, Shermansdale, Perry County, Pennsylvania, 
says : 

There has been some cases of what is called -'black-leg" among yonng cattle in this 
vicinity. I don't know anything about the disease, but have heard that there ia no 
remedy for it — that cattle that are attacked by it must die. 

There have also been a few cases of cholera among hogs in this locality. There 
seems to be no remedy for the disease — at least all I have tried to doctor have died. 
Those that have free access to charcoal and mud-holes seem to escape the disease. 

Chicken-cholera is very common, whole flocks dying within a few weeks. We have 
tried soft feed, in which alum was dissolved, and also put alum in the water which 
they drank, with, I thiiik, beneficial results. 



128 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
Mr. F. r. SonoFiELD, Buffalo, Dallas Couuty, Missouri, says : 

Last year a good many liogs died here with a disease commonly called cholera. 
Doubtless this was the disease in most cases, but not in all. This year a few stock- 
hogs have died from the eifects of like diseases. Few remedies have been used, and 
these with but jioor success. Turpentine, aslies, soft soap, &c., have seemingly checked 
the disease in some few cases. 

Mr. William Zimmerman, James X-lloads, Somerset County, Peuu- 
sylvauia, says : 

We are sometimes troubled with a disease known here as "black-leg" among our 
cattle. lu most cases the animal indicates great pain, and generally dies within a few 
hours. If the skin bo removed after death mortified spots are frequently found. I 
once arrested the disease, after losing half my herd, by daubing their feeding trough 
with pitch-tar, and feeding rosin mixed with saltpeter and sulphur. 

The only trouble I ever have with hogs is the result of a kidney disease. This I 
generally cure by feeding corn boiled in strong lye. I also put wood ashes in the feed- 
iug-trough occasionally. 

Mr. Ben.jamin M. Hall, South Eaton, Wyoming County, Pennsyl- 
vania, says : 

What is called "hollow-horn" among cattle is frequent here. The remedies are to 
slit the tails, bore the horns, and pour peppery, irritating fluids into the ears. When 
this is done the animal generally recovers. 

A few winters ago a disease raged among our cattle for which we had uo name. 
They lost the use of their limbs, and would swing their heads back and forth as if in 
great pain and distress. They died within from six to twelve hours from the time they 
were taken sick. I lost five head, and I believe every animal that was attacked died. 
We were foddering corn-stalks at the time, and the coru-fodder that year contained an 
unusual quantity of smut. 

What is called chicken-cholera is quite common. One-third of an ounce of calomel 
mixed with food for twenty full-grown fowls has been used as a remedy with good 
success. In neighboring towns, where fowls are kept confined in yards or pens, many 
are dying. The disease is called roup, for which no remedy is known here. I am not 
sufficiently acquainted with the disease to describe it. 

Mr. J. W. Stewart, Lancaster, Scliuyler County, Missouri, says : 

There are no diseases that amount to anything among our farm-stock except among 
hogs, and they are so complicated I can scarcely describe them. Some of the animals 
seem to be atllicted with two or three diseases at the same time. At least four or five 
distinct diseases prevail in this vicinity. The first is the cholera, for which we have 
no remedy. The second, " thumps," which is not very fatal. Indigo- water and cop- 
peras is the best remedy so far discovered for this disease. Third, quinsy, for which 
no efi'ectual remedy has been discovered. Fourth, bleeding of the nose. Fifth, enlarge- 
ment of the upper jaw. In this disease the hair becomes coarse like bristles, and seems 
to stand on end. Sixth, a very fatal disease, which kills the animal in less than six 
hours. I have seen hogs aiitlicted with three different diseases in a pen containing but 
eight animals. No remedy for the three last named diseases is known here. 

Messrs. M. K. Prime & Son, Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, Iowa, say: 

The breeders and pork-producers of this locality have been troubled a great deal 
with what is termed " hog-cholera." In pigs the first symptom of the disease is a 
cough. Some of them, if let run a few days or a week or two, will be attacked with 
the " thumps." This is the first stage of the fatal disease of cholera. The next symp- 
toms are stupidness, loss of appetite, inclination to lie in their nests, great thirst, and 
continuation of cough. Some will purge freely until all nutriment seems to have 
passed from them. The urine becomes very red, and a slimy excrement passes from 
the bowels. They live but a few days after these symptoms are manifested. The 
symptoms of the disease are about the same in more aged and full-grown hogs. Our 
opinion is that the disease is caused by feeding too much rich food, and then a sudden 
change on to pastures. Overfeeding also produces disease. The diet of a pig when 
first commencing to eat, and also that of the mother while suckling, should be of light, 
easily-digestible food, containing sufficient nourishment to sustain them well. Should 
the pigs take cold and commence to cough, give them a small amount of Glauber salts, 
sulphur, and ginger, or something that will produce a similar eftect. Farmers gener- 
ally use, and with considerable success, salt, wood-ashes, soapsuds, or small quantities 
of soft soap. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 129 
Mr. J. A. Gundy, Lewisbiirg, Uuion County, Peunsylvania, says : 

There has been but little stock affected by. any disease in this county that I hare 
heard of. The usual disease known as chicken-cholera prevails, for which every person 
has his own remedy, but nothing that has proved positively satisfactory. I have found 
white-oak bark the best remedy. It acts as an astringent, and should be given by 
soaking thin feed in the liquor. 

I have often had my hogs attacked with a disease which affected them in the back 
and legs to an extent that they could not walk. I always found them ready to eat 
chicken excrement, which I gave them daily in (quantities of say a half spadeful. The 
results were always satisfactory. 

Mr. E. J. IIiATT, Cliestcr Hill, Morgan County, Ohio, says : 

Onr time has mostly been occupied in breeding sheep. We have made examinations 
of flocks in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and to a limited extent 
in Missouri and Massachusetts, and also in our own State. We have found that climate, 
soil, and lay of laud have a great influence in regard to the health of different breeds 
of sheep. Our experience has been largely with the merino breed, but not entirely so. 
We consider this section as healthy and well-adapted to the successful growing and 
improvement of the merino as any section we have visited. In this and adjoining coun- 
ties the diseases of sheep that most i)revail are more destructive to youug animals — 
lambs and tegs — from lambing until the first shearing. There is a disease prevailing 
here in wet seasons which is very generally called " paper skin " or " pale disease." It 
is probable that a number of distinct and sepai-ate diseases, or causes, are here called 
one disease, and given the above name. Grub in the head, tape-worm, lung-worm, 
stricana or strichnia, and some others are frequently spoken of by the wool-grower as 
one disease — "paper-skin." The lack of a sutflcient quantity and proper quality of 
feed is a great cause or assistant to diseases. 

Grub in the head is not a new disease, but it is a very difficult one to prevent or 
cure, and it is more or less destructive on all kinds of soils and to sheep of all ages. 
There are two sufficient reasons why the disease is difficult to prevent : First, because 
the insect or fly that causes the disease eats but little or nothing during its life; and, 
second, because it deposits in the nostril of the sheep a living grub or larva. The 
disease is difficult to cure on account of its location. Turpentine and tobacco-liquid 
are sometimes administered with a syringe or by pouring in at the nose, but with not 
very good effect. The fly attacks the sheep more generally from the middle of June 
to September. Great injury is done to large numbers of sheep annually that are not 
destroyed. It is difficult to determine the per cent, that die, but the actual fatality 
is not greater than in some other diseases. 

Perhaps more deaths occnr from tape-worm than from any other disease, especially 
during wet seasons, when grass is abundant. It sometimes affects lambs at three 
months old, but does more damage to tegs just after weaning and previous to the 
appearance of good grass in the spring. Those affected become weak, pale, and do not 
grow; eat reasonably well, but irregularly ; drink abundantly and frequently; in the 
first stages of the disease seem to lack power more than flesh. It has less effect on 
grown sheep. Those affected would appear to become wilted or shrunken ; the skin 
becomes very pale and thin ; the wool does not separate from the skin as in other dis- 
eases. In the last stages the animal lacks blood. Occasionally they die within two 
or three months, but more generally they live for a longer period. I have doctored 
for this disease with very good results, having cured nearly all cases that were thor- 
oughly tested. I use pumpkin-seeds, and administer by either feeding in other feed 
or by making tea. I also feed pumpkins, including the seeds. Information as to the 
cause of the tape-worm, and a preventive or cure, is greatly needed by the sheep- 
growers of the country. 
' We have no knowledge of the cause of the lung-worm — a name given for the want 
of a better perhaps. It affects young sheep in a greater degree and to a greater extent 
than matured animals. The worm is a small white one, and is found in considerable 
numbers in the lungs, or in the tubes connecting the wind-pipe with the lungs. The 
disease is less frequent than either of those named above, but the fatality is greater 
in comparison with the number affected. The symptoms are weakness, failure to eat, 
loss of flesh, and a cough. This disease is but little understood by the wool-grower. 

Stricana or strichnia is perhaps a very incorrect name for the disease I wish to 
describe. It is caused by a very small worm, so minute, indeed, that it caunot be seen 
without the aid of a magnifying glass. It is believed to cause the sheep to pick or 
bite the wool from its sides, flank, and other parts, until the fleece becomes more or 
less ragged and wasted. The skin becomes rongh and shows symj)toms of disease. It 
is not contagious, but attacks sheep of all ages. It is more damaging in flocks that 
have been closely bred "in and in" for many years; indeed, this is the case with most 
diseases. As both a preventive and cure, wood and cob ashes with salt are used with 

S. Ex. 35 9 



130 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

partial success. We have seen sheep in Veruiont aud Massachusetts badly affected 
with this disease as well as in our own State. 

A disease prevails in some i)arts of Ohio and Pennsylvania, and probably in some 
other States, that destroys large numbers of lambs annually. They are sometimes at- 
tacked by it at the age of three weeks, but oftener after they are two months old. 
The stomach, liver, and gall seem to be the only parts aftected. There have been but 
lew cases in this county, and we have no name for the disease. It is supposed by some 
to be caused by eating a poisonous weed, and by others by overfeeding on grass when 
too young. Wool is sometimes found in the lamb's stomach. The )>est and fattest 
lambs are fretjuently destroyed by the disease, with but little duration of illness. 

Heavy losses are also annually sustained by diarrhea and djseutery. Proper food 
and management have moie to do in preventing and curing these diseases than most 
others. The treatment {ind medicine that have been most successful are the same as 
those used in the human family for like diseases. A statement giving the best reme- 
dies and treatment of all these diseases would be received by thousands of sheep-raisers 
with great profit and many thanks. 

Mr. A. G. Gakdner, Eutlaud, Meigs County, Ohio, say.s: 

All farm-animals in this locality are comparatively healthy and free from epidemic 
or prevaling diseases. With fowls, however, the case is quite different. The los-ses 
have been heavy, and complaints are heard from every neighborhood of the terrible 
ravage of what is termed chicken-cholera. Whole henneries have been depopulated. 
No form of treatment appears to check the progress of the disease. I have never lost 
a fowl myself, and yet I raise from seventy to one hundred annually. I give my fowls 
full farm range, change my cocks each year by getting eggs from the best possible 
breeds, and select the best formed stock from these. They have high out-door roost- 
ing-places most of the season, but in cold, winter weather I confine them in warm, 
clean, well-ventilated roosts. 

Mr. X. B. Petts, Liucolii, Beutou Coimtj', Missouri, says: 

There is no disease existing among any class of farm-animals except among hogs, and 
among this class of stock there?are several diseases, viz., measles, lung-fever, cholera, 
and worms. In this vicinity and throughout this county measles has prevailed to an 
alarming extent, and probably more hogs have died from it than from all other diseases 
combined. But nearly every farmer designates the disease as cholera. In measles the 
hog refuses to eat, lies much of the time in his bed, goes often to water to drink, but 
not to wallow, and grows poor very fast. The hog has a slight hacking cough. Ijf the 
eruptions break out thickly all over the body the animal generally gets well ; but if 
they do not, or after breaking out they should go back, the hog dies. There is a very 
offensive stench about their sleeping-places. Everything kept in a drug-store, and in 
quantities to astonish and alarm an alopathic physician, has been given, and the won- 
der is that so many have lived. All kinds of food have been given, but with no appa- 
rent beneficial results. The only thing claimed to have done any good whatever was 
a tea made from peach-tree leaves, limbs, or bark. This brings the measles out thick, 
and if the hog has a dry bed and is kept from water the chances are in his favor. The 
bowels should be kept oiieu, and not more than live or six should be conhned in the 
same jjen. 

For worms we give a teaspoonful of turpentine once a day for a week. From one- 
half to two-thirds of all hogs affected with diseases have died. I doubt if any have 
died of cholera. 

Mr. E. D. Hushing, Eock Point, Independence County, Arkansas, 
says : 

A disease commonly called hog-cholera has prevailed extensively throughout this 
section. The symptoms are vomiting and purging, and death in a very short time. 
About two-thirds of those attacked die. Tliose that recover dwindle away and be- 
come almost worthless. Various remedies have been tried, but whether with any 
beneficial results is not known. A neighbor of mine, Mr. William H. Dood, after losing 
about one-half his herd, used tar water, which seemed to check the disease ; at least he 
lost no more. The disease made its appearance in my herd in last September. It 
pi'oved more fatal among my pigs and shoats, though I lost some bacon-hogs. I fed 
sulphur and copperas in swill, and in about four weeks the disease abated. I lost 
about one-tifth of all my hogs. The disease is still raging in some localities. 

Dry murrain prevails to some extent among cattle. If given in time, the following 
remedy is said to be successful : Two dozen eggs well beaten and mixed with about 
an equal quantity of soap-suds. Milch-cows seem more liable to the disease than other 
classes of cattle. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 131 

Mr. L. N. IlALBERT, Bonliani, Fiiuiiiu Coimty, Texas, says : 

We are not often troubled with diseases of a prevalent character among farni-aui- 
rnals, yet now and then wo have glanders in horses, a disease which tho old Texans 
denominate " Mexican distemper." When introduced upon a farm or t)n a range it 
proves very disastrous, and is beyond cure. I had it in my stock in 1871, and before 
becoming satisfied as to what it was, I used every remedy within my knowledge or 
that I could hear of. Finally I resorted to what I now believe to be the only remedy — 
powder and lead. It is much more fatal, does its work more rapidly, and is more to 
be dreaded among mules than among horses. I lost some of my best plow-teams of both 
mules and horses before I was able to an-est the disease by a change of stables, lots, 
&c., and the killing of those afflicted. I have also been greatly annoyed with fistula, 
a very bad tumor or rising on the withers. I have used manj^ remedies, such as scar- 
ring with spirits of turpentine, lancing and putting in arsenic, burnt alum, concentrated 
lye, &c., but never succeeded in arresting but one case, and tiiat at a very early stage. 
This I did by burning with a red-hot ring, circling the rising. A sure remedy is to 
rowel with a red-hot steel spindle through the cartilage of the neck, just missing tho 
blade-bones. This operation never fails to cure. 

I ought to have stated, while on the subject of glanders, that the symptoms are 
thickness of wind and stupor from three to live days before the nostrils begin to dis- 
charge. The discharges frequently begin in the right nostril several days before the 
left one is affected. The discharges are of a yellowish color, sticky if taken between 
the fingers, and becoming more abundant and oft'ensive the further the disease pro- 
gresses in its fatal work. The disease continues until suffocation ends the life of the 
animal. 

Mr. John M. CHArMAx, Charleston, Mississippi County, Missouri, 
says : 

The fistula, a terrible and oifensive disease, makes its api^earauce on the withers of 
the horse just at the top of the shoulder-blade, at first upon one side only, but if the 
progress of the disease is not checked it will hnallj'^ pass to the other side. A bruise 
of some kind is nearly always its cause. This the horse may receive in various ways, 
by striking the top of his shoulders in passing under a low stable-door, by bites from 
another animal, by rolling on stones or roots, or by an ill-fitting saddle. The disease 
is easily cured by the use of the following remedy : Take one-half bushel of may-apple 
root and pour over it about four gallons of water, and boil down to one gallon. Strain 
this, and mix with it about one-half gallon of old grease. Place the mixture on the 
fire and stew down to one gallon. During this process throw into it about one-half 
pint of salt, then let it cool, and it is ready for use. It should be applied with a mop 
or brush every morning, but the sore should be washed clean the night before. An 
application of this remedy will cure almost any case of fistula in from two to six 
weeks. 

Founder prevails to a great extent in this locality. The first noticeable symptom is 
the restlessness of the horse and frequent shifting of the fore feet. The pulse is 
quick and his nostrils have a red appearance. The horse indicates his sufferings by 
heavy grunts. He does not stand long upon his feet, but cannot lie down in the 
usual manner. After making several eftbrts to do so he will rise up, turn round, 
change his position, and resume his feints to lie down. The remedy for this disease is 
to bleed freely withoutjdelay. Let the blood run free, and take at least a gallon of it. 
The object of this is to draw away the blood from the overloaded vessels of the feet. 
Always bleed in the neck. After this prepare a kettle of hot salt water, and drench 
with it as hot as the horse can bear it. Next bathe his feet and legs with it, and rub 
them well with a rough cloth. Make this application three or four times in the course 
of an hour, and then rub well around the edge of the hoof with turpentine. Do not 
attempt to work the animal until he gets entirely well. Another remedy is to pour 
the frog of the foot full of turpentine, hold it up, and burn the turpentine out. This 
is a little barbarous, but it is an infallible remedy, 

Pole-evil is a tumor that comes on the head, or, more properly speaking, on the ex- 
treme forwai-d part of tjie neck, just back of the ears. It is generally caused by being 
struck on the head by an enraged groom, and if it produces no other bad results it is 
sure to raise a large lump. I do not know of a case that ever caused death, but if not 
checked, the disease will render the horse unfit for use. The same treatment as in 
fistula will always effect a cure. 

Mr. G. W. Johnson, Humboldt, Hunt County, Texas, says: 

Blind-staggers in horses is perhaps the most fatal disease we have here. The remedy 
is to bleed freely from the neck, taking enough blood to cause the horse to show signs 
of faintness. Then give a drench composetl of a tablespoonful each of spirits of tur- 



pentine, ammonia, and camphor, with about a pint of milk-warm water. Always 
drench throiij^h the month — never throngh the nose. Tlien bnrn tar, feathers, woolen 
rags, scraps of old leather, &,c., under the nose. If this treatment is given nine cases 
out of ten will recover, if the horse is able to stand upon his feet when it is com- 
menced. 

Both dry and bloody murrain are very fatal to cattle in this vicinity. The best 
remedy for the first is a strong tea made of the common may-apple root, and for the 
latter "saltpeter and gnaiacum. 

Cholera is the most fatal disease affecting hogs. The best remedy we know here is 
equal parts of gnaiacum and copperas and .Jerusalem oak seed, say a tablespoonful of 
each mixed in slojis sufficient in quantity for live or six head of hogs. This has proved 
a good preventive as well as a ciire. 

Cholera is also fatal among all our domestic fowls. The best remedy I have tried 
is pulverized mustard-seeds. No particular quantity is prescribed, but it should be 
given freely. It will be found a cure as well as a preventive. 

Mr. A. A. EuDY, Knob Lick, Saint Francois County, Missouri, says : 

There are but very few, if any, diseases affecting horses, cattle, or sheep. Our main 
trouble seems to be with hogs and chickens. We have tried many remedies, some of 
which have proved of some value, and others of none whatever. It appears that every 
disease affecting either hogs or chickens is called cholera. Some of the swine are taken 
with a cough, and a swelling about the glands of the throat and neck, and generally 
live from one to ten days. Others have what I would call the measles. The skin be- 
comes very red, and if they do not die, but on the contrary should recover, it will re- 
main so for months. The following remedy, if administered in time, will be found an 
almost certain specific: Two and one-half pounds flowers of sulphur, one and one-half 
pounds pulverized copperas, one-half pound black antimony, and one pound of well- 
slaked lime. Mix well together, and then add one pound to a sufficient quantity of 
corn-meal or ship-stuft' for twelve hogs. Put it in small piles on the ground, so that 
every hog will have a chance to get at it. As a remedy, it should be given every day 
until the hogs recover. After that, a like amount should be given once a month as a 
preventive. The hogs should, also, have all the wood-ashes they will eat. A good dis- 
infectant may be fouud in lime. After slaking, take a broom, wet it in the lime-water, 
and sprinkle it over the beds of the hogs, until the ground is white, and about the 
coops and roosts of the chickens, if they are affected with cholera. 

Mr. W. W. MuRrnY, Madelia, Watonwan County, Minnesota, says : 

With the exception of " blackleg," so-called, among cattle, I have never known of 
any epidemic disease among farm-animals in this vicinity. This disease carries off 
each spring, generally in March and April, a number of calves. There appears to be no 
remedy known for it here. I never knew of a case being cured. The loss in any one 
herd is not very large, but the annual average loss in the county is jirobably $500. 

Mr. E. B. Cassilly, South Charleston, Clark County, Ohio, says : 

There is no disease prevailing among farm-animals in this locality except cholera 
among hogs. This disease has been very prevalent in this neighborhood and adjoin- 
ing counties during the past summer, but has somewhat abated. Very few farmers 
have escaped its ravages. Probably one-half the last spring crop of pigs have died, 
and also a large proportion of the older hogs. I hear of one farmer who lost one hun- 
dred fat hogs. Not one in fifty recover. The symptoms are drooping of the head and 
ears and loss of appetite, heavy breathing followed by thumps, and purging and vomit- 
ing. The disease terminates fatally in a very few days. I have never known one to get 
well. Remedies without number have been tried, but without producing any good 
results. At least one thousand hogs have died in this township (Madison) during the 
past summei", and yet no remedy of any value has been discovered. 

Mr. L. T. Current, Brownsville, Saline County, Missouri, says : 

Several diseases prevail among hogs here, but they are all called cholera. In some 
cases the symptoms are similar to those of lung-fever in the human family. Post- 
mortem examinations in some cases show the lungs to be destroyed, and in others gorged 
with blood. In other cases the hog is aftected with vomiting and diarrhea. These 
symptoms indicate cholera, a disease which generally proves fatal, in many cases, 
within a few hours. It is my opinion, as well as the opinion of some of our best stock- 
raisers, that most diseases of hogs are caused by worms, for upon examination their 
intestines have been found to not only contain worms but to show holes in various 
places, which were evidently made by them. 

The remedies used are as various as the opinions of the farmers concerning the cause 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 133 

of disease. Copperns is jjencrallygiven, also sulphur, turpentine, and manyothcr things. 
The best preventive so tar found is black antimony and uiaddei". It should be given 
about once a month. I use it and have never lost a hog. I also give my hogs coal and 
ashes, which also has a tendency to keep this class of farm-stock in health. 

Fowls are also alHicted with a disease similar to cholora in hogs. As a remedy we 
use petroleum, onions, and common red-pei)per. In the winter season these articles ar« 
mixed with thin feed, and in the summer in the w^ater given them to drink. 

Dr. P. A. Faris, London, Laurel County, Kentucky, says : 

Hogs are the only stock that we have much trouble with. They sometimes have 
dysentery, which I think is caused by eating clover, grass, and weeds, without a due 
proportion of grain, greasy slops, and salt to make digestion perfect. During the win- 
ter many are lost with mange, asthma, &c., which is caused by their sleeping in old 
straw and maniue heaps. A few die from i>lenro-pneumonia. But those who provide 
good dry leaf-beds for their stock, and feed them dilt'ereut varities of food, lose none . 

Mr. Simon Doyle, Eiishville, Schuyler County, Illinois, says : 

In 1876 I lost 87 hogs by fever. They were invariably taken with a chill, followed 
by stupor and fever. There were no signs of cholera in any single instance, or any 
cough. Usually from four to six days, and sometimes from ten to twelve, intervene 
between the time of attack and death. I used many remedies, none of which were 
effectual in either curing or checking the disease. A large and strong sow, and the 
last one attacked, was the only animal that recovered. Some of my neighbors had 
hogs similarly affected. Others differed widely in the main symptoms, which were 
coughing, and bleeding at the nose, and death in from four to ten hours. In some cases 
■worms were supposed to be the cause of death. 

Mr. A3I0S EiLEY, Xew Madrid, 5^ew Madrid County, Missouri, says : 

Hog-cholera, or " heaves," as some call it, is the most fatal of all diseases among 
farm-stock in this county. It is more fatal among the younger than the older hogs . 
Very few, if any, of those attacked recover. The symptoms are wheezing and cough, 
something like the thumps in horses. The duration of the disease widely varies. I 
have sometimes used corn, soaked in a solution of arsenic, with good effect. It is dan- 
gerous, however, to give this to pigs and sows. If the disease once gets into a herd it 
rarely stops until it cleans out (destroys) all the young hogs. 

Mr. Joseph Borders, Painstville, Jolinson County, Kentucky, says : 

Farm stock in this locality is seldom affected with disease of any kind. Sometimes, 
however, that di-eadful and very common disease known as cholera gets among our 
hogs and fowls and proves very destructive. Our hogs have escaped this year, but we 
have not been so fortunate with our fowls. The disease is general, and prevails at all 
seasons of the year. If there is any cure for it we have never been able to lind tha 
remedy. As to its cause I am ignorant. The disease scarcely ever reaches those fowla 
that are allowed to run iu the woods and have a wide range. 



Mr. Sidney Greig, Yermillionviile, La Fwyette Parisli, Louisiana, 
says : 

Until within the last few years no fatal epidemic was ever known to exist among 
our domestic animals. But now, on the return of the spring and summer months, we 
have a disease which attacks horses and mules, and sometimes cattle and sheep, and 
is very fatal. From the rapidity of its action there is rarely time to administer any 
remedy, and if any is given, not knowing the nature of the disease, it is only a lick in 
the dark — death is certain. The disease is endemic in its nature, confining itself one 
season to a certain locality, when it will disappear, and the next season it will make 
its appearance .several miles off'. I have been a careful observer of this disease, for I 
have been one of the sufferers from it, and will give you as exact a diagnosis as I possi- 
bly can. The symptoms are drowsiness, loss of appetite, and fever. As the disease 
advances the animal becomes restless, and walks continually, although without seem- 
ing to suffer any great pain until the last hour preceding death, when the agony is 
intense and pitiable to behold. In the last stages a profuse sweating ensues, and the 
animal shakes as if in a congestive chill, and soon fall and dies. A iwsi-mortem exam- 
ination reveals the whole internal organs a mass of congestion, and the heart, liver, 
lungs, and intestines covered with a yellow, jelly-like substance. Neither a preventive 
nor a cure has as yet been found for the disease. The only preventive seems to be 



134 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

found in tlic lonioviil of tlic stock until cold weather sets in. After careful considera- 
tion I am fully convinced that it is a malarial disease, similar to that which affects the 
human family, but of a much more violent character. I have no douljt if like reme- 
dies could be applied in the be<finninjnj of the attack many animals could be saved. 
The causes, in my opinion, have the same origin as in cases of mahirial or intermittent 
fever which afHicts the inhabitants of Lower Louisiana, viz: Tiie want of proper 
drainage, the use of impure drinking-water, and the lack of proper care, especially of 
our work animals, for it is this class that suffer the most. The duration of the attack 
is from six to twelve hours. 

When this disease makes its appearance, had we a competent veterinary surgeon to 
make a careful investigation of its symptoms from the first stages until the final act, 
and a scientific post mortem examination held, there can be no doubt but it could be 
robbed of its present terrors, and many a poor man's heart caused to rejoice thereof. 

Mr. ITenry ]M. Daiinall, jr., Gaj'oso, remiscot County, jMLssouri, 
says: 

We Iiave but little disease among farm-stock here, except blind-staggers in horses 
and a disease called cholera in hogs. Several horses have died of the former during 
the past few years, and the cholera has at times been quite fatal to the hogs. The 
first symptom of the last-named disease is a slight cough. Their eyes soon become in- 
flamed, and they appear to get sore all over. They often have a number of abscesses 
and tumors on them. The disease is of several weeks' duration, and is generally very 
fatal. As a remedy I have used with good success one tablespoonful oJE carbolic acid 
in slop sufficient for twenty head of swine, giving it to them once a week. 

Mr. A. M. Ellison, Beaver, Douglas County, Missouri, says : 

There are no diseases of any kind existing among farm animals in this locality except 
eholera in hogs. The first symptom of the disease observed is a refusal of the animal 
to eat. In some cases the teeth seem to be sore, so much so indeed as to prevent the 
animal from chewing corn. Thev often linger from ten days to two weeks, but the 
disease generally yjroves fatal within that time. Those that do recover generally shed 
most of their hair. A few animals are affected with a cough. We have no remedies 
for the disease. 

Mr. M. S. Bakteam, Ironton, Lawrence County, Ohio, says : 

The disease among the hogs of this county is generally known as cholera. It has 
been very iirevalent this year, and the losses have been quite heavy. One farmer lost 
150 head, including stock-hogs, which was about all he owned. The disease does not 
seem to be so prevalent among fat hogs nor so fatal as it is to those in moderate condi- 
tion. Those running at large seem most liable to the disease. No remedies are used. 

A disease among chickens is very prevalent, and is not confined to any particular 
section or locality. It is supposed to be cholera. The only remedy so far used has 
been black-pepper, but without beneficial results. 

Mr. C. J. C. BoYNTON, Pulaski, Williams County, Ohio, says : 

For a number of years past we have been troubled with a disease known here as 
chicken-cholera. Three years ago this fall I had 1.50 head of pure breed and half-breed 
Light Brahmas. They were attacked with this disease, and in about a month or six 
M'eeks I lost over 100 head. When first attacked the head of the fowl would turn pur- 
ple, and it would begin to droop and mope about. In a little while diarrhea would set 
in, and the excrements would bo of a greeuish color. The fowls lived but a short time 
after the first symptoms showed themselves ; some would die in a very few hours, 
while others would linger for a day or so. Since that time the disease has visited the 
llocks of about all my neighbors aiul with about as fatal results. We have found no 
sure remedy for the disease. We tried indigo in the water they drank, a solution of 
white-oak bark, and many other things, but without apparent benefit. 

Mr. Peter IIolloway', Monclova, Lucas County, Ohio, says: 

A very fatal disease has prevailed among hogs in this vicinity. Mr. H. L. Holloway, 
of Springfield, had HO head attacked with it. It seemed to partake of the nature 
of a lung disease, as it was attended with coughing and a high fever. The teeth also 
appeared to be tender and sore, as the animals could not bite corn off the cob. Those 
that died were almost completely covered with sores. The cause or origin of the dis- 
ease is unknown. One theory is that they contracted the disease by lying and wallow- 
ing in the mud and water from the overflow of an artesian well strongly impregnated 



DISEASE AMONG SWIXE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 135 

with sulpliur. The disease was first observetl September 1, its greatest fatality occurred 
October 10, and the hist death on December 20. Of the 90 head attacked, t'vo 
were shot, three recovered, and all the rest died. The skin on those that recovered 
nearly all peeled oft". They were in good condition np to the time of attack, having 
run in blue-grass and clov(>r pasture during July, August, and September. Those that 
were afflicted were carefully cared for. The remedies used were arsenic, calomel, char- 
coal, sulphur, copperas, fresh meat, and carbolic acid, but without any beneficial effect. 
The age of these hogs ranged from four weeks to five years. 

The disease is regarded as contagious, for the following reason : About the time of 
the commencement of tlie disease, but before ho Avas aware of its existence, Mr. IIol- 
loway sold a sow and five pigs to a Mr. Graham. They were taken to a distant neigh- 
borhood and put into a pen with another pig. Soon after they were taken sick and 
died, as also did the pig which was confined with them. In an adjoining pen were six 
fattening hogs. One of these was taken sick, and in order to prevent the further 
spread of the disease Mr. Graham killed the balance. 

There has been a very fatal disease prevailing among the chickens in this neighbor- 
hood, which is variously called the roup, the hen fever, and the hen cholera. Fowls 
attacked with it appear stupid at first; their combs turn purple, and they gape fre- 
quently. They have been known to die within four hours after the first symptoms 
were observed, and seldom live more than a day or two. Guinea-fowls seem to suffer 
from the same disease. The most successful remedy used was a strong decoction of 
white-oak bark, made by boiling in water and mixing with cornmeal, adding about 
two-thirds of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper to the quart of feed. They also placed 
the ooze in vessels where the fowls had easy access to it. This seemed to check the 
disease at once. 

Mr. C. Lewis, Xew Yieuua, HigLlaud Couuty, Ohio, says : 

The hog is by nature a very healthy animal, and should be the same in his artificial 
or domestic state. Therefore, in investigating his present condition, reference should 
be had to his original habits and surroundings ; and the nearer we can approach this 
in his domestic condition the better. We find that in his natural state his home is in 
the forest, where he can roam at will and indulge his appetite in partaking of its pro- 
ductions in the form of roots, grasses, herbs, fruits, berries, nuts, &c., in their proper 
season and natural purity ; making his bed in leaves by the side of logs or other tem- 
porary shelter, changing the same at pleasure, and reconstructing his bed out of new 
material, and all the time using his " snoutish" proclivities to the full bent of his in- 
stinct. Thus we find him a healthy, and in his maturity a powerful animal. Now, the 
nearer we can conform to these first principles or habits of the animal the better, for 
the preservation of health and jirevention of disease is far better than all the remedies 
known or unknown. In his natural condition we find him comparatively free from 
all filth, dust, and foul air, making his bed out of leaves or grass on the ground, sleep- 
ing few in a bed, and drinking pure water. And now, as to his domestic condition, 
I will not say habits, for he is no longer free to exercise these ; and right here is the first 
line of demarkation between health and disease, and must be so considered if we wish 
to arrive at the truth of the matter. The cause of the disease seems to be more easy 
to point out than to remove. In the first place, there are, as a general thing, too many 
hogs kept together in the same inclosure, which gives them an opportunity to " pile 
up" in their beds when the weather is cold and stormy, becoming not only over- 
crowded but over-heated; thus laying the foundation for disease by disturbing their 
normal condition. By this confinement they are also compelled to a greater or less ex- 
tent to be ever present with their waste matter, which at certain seasons is more det- 
rimental than at others; hence at such times they are mora liable to attack by the so- 
called epidemic diseases. 

Another cause of derangement and disease is dust, which is generally most abundant 
at the season when the waste matter is most offensive and detrimental, thus producing 
a double aggravation of the eause of disease. Another productive cause is the habit 
of keeping the same stock of hogs on the farm for a number of years, even when there 
is an annual change of male hogs. If a change of pasture will make fat calves, an 
entire change of stock will certainly produce better and more healthy hogs, other things 
being equal. 

Now as to the diseases to which the hog is subject: Though naturally healthy they 
can secrete a mountain of disease, and it does seem that a diseased hog is the worst 
diseased animal on the face of the earth. There appears to be an epidemic disease of 
the lungs, commencing with a cough and followed by loss of appetite, general debility, 
and finally running into something similar to lung- fever, which is generally fatal. The 
principal producing and exciting causes of this disease appear to be dust, too many 
occupying the same bed, foul air and exposure to cold, wet storms. (The disease seems 
more common among pigs and shoats.) There is also a disease of the bowels, which 
might be termed cholera or diiirrhea, and seems to prevail more extensively among hogs 



lo6 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

fed on dry corn. I have never known a hog fed on soft or cooked corn to be afflicted 
"with the disease. There is still another disease, tliat of the spine or hind legs, which 
appears to ditler from the so-called " kidney-worm," and is not unlike rheumatism as 
it aliects the human family. This is generally fatal. There are also diseases of the 
liver, intestinal worms, iScc. 

Mr. J. M. Anable, Naples, Ontario County, Xew York, says : 

"We have been very much annoyed by abortion in cows. It seems liable to come on 
at any time. No cause has been discovered, and of all the remedies that have been 
tried none have proved of the least beuelit. When it gets into a herd it generally 
affects from one-third to one-half. 

There have been a few cases of blackleg among calves that were in good condition. 
About all of the cases proved fatal. No i>reventives or remedies have been found. 

Garget or udder-ill has been the source of much annoyance with our best cows. The 
disease affects the udder and causes the milk to become lumpy ; if the disease is severe 
it becomes bloody, the teats swell, and hard bunches appear on the udder. As a remedy 
one quart of warm lard and one-half y^int of molasses given as a physic, together with 
frequent bathings of the bag with cold water and drawing off' the milk three or four 
times a day, will be found beneffcial. If inllammation should be great ap})ly fomen- 
tation to soften the udder, and use a mild liniment or ointment. About 20 per cent, 
of our cows are affected by this disease, and about 10 per cent, of these are rendered 
unfit for daily purposes. 

Mr. H. H. Wilson, Salem, Livingston County, Kentucky, says : 

In 1874 I had ten head of shoats that took the cholera, and eight of them died. I 
tried many remedies, among others tea made from May-apple root, red pepper, asa- 
letida, «fec., in slops. I also gave them soft-soap and salt mixed with wheat-bran, at 
the rate of about one gallon of soft-soap to sixteen head of hogs. Only those hogs 
that were able to eat the preparation recovered. I have since given soap and red-pep- 
per tea as preventives, with, I think, good results. A neighbor of mine, Mr. Phil. 
Graham, who is one of the most successful hog-raisers in this county, says that poke- 
root tea will cure cholera in hogs. 

Mr. E. L. Ragland, Hyco, Halifax County, Virginia, says : 

Diseases among hogs in 1877 were unusually prevalent. More than half of those 
attacked by cholera died. Measles and quinsy were not so fatal. Measles was th 
most prevalent disease during the past year. Cattle are annually subject to distem- 
per, a violent grade of fever that iirevails more or less every year. More than half of 
the animals attacked by the disease die. We have no reliable remedy for it, but have 
found a preventive that has proved very efficacious. It is this : To a bushel of red 
clay add one gallon of salt, four ounces of saltpeter, and two ounces of sulphur. Mix, 
adding sufficient water to make the mass of the consistence of mortar, and put it in 
troughs for the cattle to lick. 

Mr. J. K. Kjdd, Kidtlrige, Osage County, Missouri, says : 

Hog-cholera, so called, has been and still is quite prevalent in this section of the 
county. On the first indications of the disease the hog sometimes coughs, but not al- 
ways. Sometimes they are constipated and again quite lax. They refuse food, go 
about in a kind of listless, drooping manner, and apparently have fever. Several have 
died on my place. They were not confined in pens, had au extensive range, selected 
their own beds, and in doing so avoided the hog-house. A variety of remedies were 
given them. Sweet milk and allspice, poke-root juice administered in slops, coal-ashes, 
sulphur, «Slc., were given, but with little apparent benefit. A majority of those at- 
tacked die. 

Chickens are .also subject to a disease called cholera, for which no specific has been 
discovered. Those affected seem stupid and drooping, the crop and liver swell, and 
they die suddenly and by dozens. 

Mr. Amos Todhunter, Xew jMartijisburg, Fayette County, Ohio, says: 

The most prevalent disease in this locality is among hogs, and is called cholera. As 
it has not visited my farm, I asked the assistance of Dr. M. Todhunter, who is familiar 
"with the disease, and he responds as follows : 

The first symptom is that of fever of a typhoid form. Then follows a disturbance 
of the head, lungs, and bowels. When the lesion was on the brain sores would appear 
about the head, and the ears would ulcerate and emit a ^ery oirensive stench. When 



DISEASE AMONG SWIKE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 137 

seated on the Inngs there was an almost constant cough. When dead the lungs of 
some were found to be almost rotten, and smelled so bad that it was difticnlt to 
handle the carcass. In the absence of the above symptoms the animals seemed to 
live longest ; that is, longer than when the lesion was on the bowels. The bowels 
ulcerate, and the ulcerated matter passes ott' with the fecal discharge. Constipation 
prevails in all cases. Those that are relieved earliest of this ditliculty are the most 
apt to recover. 

I tried all the remedies known, and they were very numerous, without much appar- 
ent good. The best treatment I found was to change frequently the locality of feed- 
ing, and to give them a good supply of salt and ashes, mixed with bran. This I fed 
whether the hogs were sick or well. I put the sick ones to themselves on a grass-lot, 
and fed lightly with slops, putting sufficient sulphate of magnesia into the slop to 
produce an operation on the bowels. I continued feeding lightly until there were 
signs of returning appetite, when I commenced gradually with corn. 

I am of the opinion that over-feeding in the start is the cause of these diseases in 
swine. 

As to my own experience I will say that I raise from 50 to 100 head of hogs annually 
on my farm. It has been my j^ractice to change their locality quite often during the 
course of the season, and to give them all the slops and soap-suds from the kitchen 
and wash-house. I also give them ashes and cinders from both coal and wood, adding 
salt, and occasionally a little sulphur, which I think has a tendency to destroy the lice 
which infest them during dry weather. I do not house them unless the weather is 
very inclement. They seem to thrive best when they have plenty of leaves to bed in. 
Next to this is corn-fodder, wheat and oat straw not being so good. With this treat- 
ment my hogs have remained healthy, w^hile those of my neighbors have been attacked 
and died of the various diseases to which they are incident. 

Cholera also prevails in this locality among domestic fowls. Some farmers have lost 
very heavily. Many remedies have been used, but without apparent benefit. 

Mr. W. A. Hel:?!, Sugar Grove, Butler County, Kentucky, say.s : 

The principal disease to which horses are subject here is a contagious distemper, 
which is most prevalent in the spring of the year, but frequently returns in the fall. 
The disease prevails throughout this State, and perhaps others. The fii'st symptom 
is a slight cough, which continues until it renders the animal unfit for use. Loss of 
flesh, stupidity, and apparent laziness are characteristic. If the animal does well, after 
coughing for some days, it will eject large lumps of matter from the nostrils; but if 
the disease assumes a fatal form the throat becomes swollen, until breathing is almost 
stopped. It is not often fatal, but it frequently att'ects the breathing of the animal to 
such a degree as to injure its sale and use. 

The prevailing disease among hogs in this section is what we call cholera. Whether 
it is the real cholera or not I do not know. The first symptom is a refusal of food. 
The lungs, lights, and liver all seem to be affected, and breathing is rendered very 
diflScult. The disease has been very fatal in many of the Middle States, as it has here. 
The animals rarely, if ever, recover. When a cure does seem to be effected tiie hair 
always remains rough and of an unhealthy color. 

Mr. George H. Judson, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas, says : 

The facility with which horses and cattle are raised here, without any care other 
than marking and branding, has bred -a carelessness among farmers and stock-raisers 
that is truly deplorable. Trusting to nature entirely to provide food for their stock, 
when a cold winter follows a droughty summer, thotisands of cattle and many horses 
die of starvation. The introduction of railroads has brought a new class among us, 
and they are bringing a better grade of cattle with them. Lands are being fenced 
and stocked, and some care is beginning to be observed in the treatment of farm-ani- 
mals. Whether disease will follow is yet to be determined. 

I have been a raiser of sheep for several years past. The only disease seriously 
affecting them here is apoplexy. Our oldest and fattest animals are generally the 
ones to snffer. From a small flock of .540 I this year lost 110 head, nearly all of which 
were wethers and excessively fat. There are no previous symptoms. To an inex- 
perienced shepherd the sheep appears remarkably well, and apparently very happy, 
often frisky, when he suddenly makes a leap into the air, falls, and in less than three 
minutes' time is dead. This disease ojdy occurs in excessively hot weather when water 
gets low, or when they have to bedriven some distance to water. I have heard of no 
remedy of any value. Some starve their ^sbeep by keeping them in their pens until 
eight or nine o'clock in the morning, and then folding them early in the evening. This 
may do, but I doubt it. 

Last fall we had a new disease among chickens. Something like a pimple or wart 
appeared on the heads of the young chicks, and after a fev.' days. the chick would lose 



138 DISEASE AMONG SWIXE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

its sight, and tlien wander aimlessly around until it starved to death. These warts 
made their api)earance on the eyelaslies and about the hills. Copperas-water was 
freely used, .and all the adults saved, liut the younijf chicks were not benefited. In 
fact, they were not much cared for, as they were a cross between the common fowl and 
Brahmas. Had it occurred anion;^ the fiill-bloods, in all probability th<>y would have 
heen saved. lu all other respects the chicks were in good health, as they liud an ex- 
cellent appetite. 

Mr. George W.. Minier, Minier, Tazewell County, Illinois, says : 

Our chief trouble hy way of disease is with swine. The disease is known as cholera, 
but doubtless the cause of it is an intestinal worm or parasite. Sometimes the lungs 
are allected. From the tirst the animal refuses food, it is mopish, coughs, and some- 
times has what is vulgarly called " thumps," i. c, shortness of breath with quick beat- 
ing sides. One of our best remedies is indigo dissolved in water. Our domestic fowls 
are aflected much in the same way, aud people give the di.sease the same name. Our 
more hardy and early varieties, such as Dominique, Game, &c., are seldom sick, and 
it may be that our finer varieties brought with them the germs of the disease. 

]\Ir. R, II. Lice, Duvall's Bluif, Prairie Count}-, Arkau.sas, says : 

The principal diseases affecting cattle in this county are known as dry and bloody 
murrain. Dry murrain, which is supposed to be caused by insufficient supply of water, 
is cured by large doses of calomel. There are many other remedies for it. We have 
no successful remedy for bloody murrain, and very few animals attacked by it re- 
cover. 

Horses are seldom affected with diseases, but last summer a neighbor lost five head 
Avith a malady jjreviously unknown here. The animals were taken with a limping in 
the fore legs, but recovered from this in a few hours, when a high fever set in. Tlie 
horses did not lose their .appetites, but took feed liberally. Every case, and there were 
a good many in the neighborhood, proved fatal within from three to five days. Many 
different prescriptions were given, but they all failed to give relief. The animals did 
not appear to be much distressed at any time. They generally died very suddenly 
and without a struggle. 

Fowls have what is called chicken-cholera, a disease which is almost invariably 
fatal. The liver is generally found to be very much enlarged. I have tried calomel, 
quinine, rhubarb, cayenne pepper, copperas, sulphur, and indeed almost everything 
else, without success. 

Mr. James Bowlden, Will's Point, Van Zandt County, Texas, says : 

Most horses, but particularly young stock two years old, are, in the winter and 
spring of the year, attacked with a disease similar to the epizootic, and many stock- 
raisers think it one and the same disease. It is generally known here, however, as the 
distemper. The symptoms are cough, swelling of the glands of the neck, and a pro- 
fuse dischJirge from the nose of a thick, green-colored matter. It is sometimes fatal, 
but riirely so, and the animal often recovers without any help. All that seems neces- 
sary is good warm stables and careful feeding. Spanish fever attacks manj' animals 
brought in from other States. All imported animals are subject to this disease until 
they become thoroughly acclimated. 

Cattle are subject to a disease called murrain, which generally proves fatal. Various 
remedies have been tried, but with little success. Imported stock (short-horns) are 
subject to a disease called by some Texas fever and by others Spanish fever. The dis- 
ease is very fatal, as but few animals survive. No satisfactory treatment or remedy 
has been found. 

Hog-cholera seems to be more fatal than any otlier disease affecting farm-stock. 
The symptoms .are loss of .appetite, blindness, «lullness, and weakness in the loins. 
Kerosene-oil and turpentine have been used quite successfully as a remedy when admin- 
istered during the first stages of the disease. Many suppose the cause of the disease 
is from worms in the kidneys, as these organs are found, after death, to be more or 
less affected. Chicken-cholera is also quite prevalent and fatal. We have no pre- 
ventive or cure. 

Mr. Ja:mi3S AV. Terrell, Quallatown, Jackson County, Xortli Caro 
lina, says : 

Here in the mountains of Western North Carolina, by far the greater part of the in- 
come of the people is derived from the sale of horses and cattle, particularly the lat- 
ter, while hogs, sheep, and poultry contribute in a smaller proportion. As we work 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 139 

our horses and mules while younj;, and sol] a larjie proportion of thoui after maturity, 
it is only in rare instances that one ever dies. Tlie epizootic 8Nvei)t aloujj in the fall 
of 1872, but by the time it reached us it had assumed so mild a tyi)e as to do but little 
harm, and it has not since roapi>eared. Our youujj horses sometiuies have something 
like iutluft]]za, but it seldom proves fatal, the animals rccoveriug without treatment. 
Wiiat is known as " bots " or " <>rubs " is the only really formidable disease that at- 
tacks the horse here. Tlie 8yuii>toms are restlessness, loss of appetite, tlie eyes appear 
weak and the whites enlarfjed, or more apparently visible, the gmns and lips i>ale and 
clammy. The animal frequently turns his heail toward his Hank, lies down fre- 
quently, but does not roll as with colic. As a remedy I can scarcely think of anything 
in the whole veterinary i>ractice that has not been recommended. Sage-tea followed 
l>y a purgative, sweet milk and molasses, spirits of turpentine, a bluestouo i)ill, are 
among the most commonly-applied remedies. I look, however, upon a copious drench, 
say a (luart, of a strong decoction of the common garden tansy as the most efficacious. 
I do not give it as a specific, but I have not yet known it to fail, if given in the early 
stages of the disease. As a preventive, keep a cloth saturated with hog's lard in the 
stable during the months of August and September, and occasionally or daily rub the 
horse lightly with it over the parts where the "bot-fly " deposits its eggs or nits on 
the hair. These nits by some means get into the horse's stomach, and hatching there 
produce the grub. Grease kills the egg and prevents its hatching. 

Hogs have cholera, or a disease which we call cholera, that in the last two years has 
cut our hogs down below the demand for home consumption. The symptoms are loss 
of appetite, disinclination to move, vomiting, diarrhea, erujition of the skin, loss of 
hair. and. of course, great loss of flesh. It is very fatal, killing, I think, over half the 
animals it attacks. It seems to be epidemic. I do not think it is contagious. What 
causes it ? A writer in Illinois — vide Country Gentleman — says an exclusive corn diet ; 
but here it attacks equally our hogs in the wild mountain range with those raised on 
the farm, those fed on kitchen-swill, garden-vegetables, or by a mixture of all these 
things. It also attacks all breeds from the Berkshire down to our native razor-backs, 
and all the intermediate grades. We have no remedy. A good many things have been 
tried, and sometimes the animal gets well, but I believe as large a proportion without 
as with treatment. My own experience, corroborated by that of some of my neigh- 
bors, is that a plentiful supply of fresh wood-ashes and charcoal, with a little salt, 
kept where the hogs will have continual access to it, is a preventive. One would be 
surprised at the avidity with which they will eat this mixture. I lay great stress on 
this preventive, for I do not remember that I ever had an animal attacked with the 
disease when it had been supplied with the mixture, and, as a verification of the 
adage that "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure," I have never had a 
hog to recover from the disease. 

We also have chicken-cholera, but I know neither remedy nor preventive. I only 
know the chickens refuse to eat, droop a few days, and die. A neighbor tells me : " Feed 
your chickens on dough made of corn-meal and soft (lye) soap and they will not have 
the cholera." It is simple and worthy of trial. 

:Mr. Albert Badger, Nevada, Yeruon County, Missouri, says : 

Last year this county lost many thousands of dollars in horses, cattle, and hogs, and 
this year seems to be no exception, as the same diseases have prevailed to a greater 
or less extent every year, for thirty j'ears past. I believe this can be said of every 
county in the State. At least 80 head of horses have died in this county since Oc- 
tober, 1877, from the eflects of eating worm-eaten corn, and in all probability as 
many more will die before grass comes in the spring. It is true this loss can be avoided 
by carefully removing all worm-dust from the corn before feeding, but many never 
know the danger until too late. Others, boys and hired help, although often warned 
to be careful, are just the opposite. The symptoms of the disease are various; some- 
times it results in blind- staggers, crazy fits, stupidity, and general prostration ; some- 
times they will sit for a long time like a dog. I believe, from the start, they are par- 
tially blind or entirely so. The disease has never been cured, and we sorely need an 
antidote for this worm-poison. 

We also lose quite a large per cent, of horses every year by bots. The fly which 
produces this grub is very plentiful in prairie countries. Specifics arc used which 
sometimes succeed in causing the worms to let go, otherwise the horse dies. I lost one 
of the finest animals in this part of the county during the past summer, within fifty 
minutes after he was attacked. One of my neighbors lost two last week, and so they 

go- 

The most troublesome disease among cattle, which yearly hangs to us, is blackleg, 
for which we have no preventive or cure. The disease is most prevalent and fatal 
among calves and young stock. It invariably attacks and kills the fattest and most 
promising calves, and leaves the poor and runty ones. Either a preventive or cure 
would save millions of dollars annually to the people of this State. I might as well 



1 10 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

state here that a drove of Texas cattle slipped through this county in September last, 
and left a disease which killed at least $2,000 worth of native stock. I lost five head of 
cattio myself by it, aud I can say with all truth that we would all feel much safer if 
wo had a remedy for this terrible scourge. 

Your department should never rest until Congress furnishes the means to sift the 
terrible disease of hog-cholera to the bottom, aud through science and experiment 
find either a preventive or cure. There are more hogs that die of this disease every 
year than are consumed by the people of the Western States. Our farmers could 
afford to pay one-fourth of the national debt to be relieved of this one disease ; and 
if they had certain cures for poison by worm-dust, for bots lyid blackleg, the amount 
eaved in twenty years would pay another fourth. 

Cholera is very destructive to all kinds of domestic fowls. I have recently lost over 
one hundred chickens by it, and one of my neighbors as many turkeys. The loss was 
equal to 96 per cent, of our flocks. AVe have no remedy for the disease. 

Mr. W. L. RoBBiNS, Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky, says: 

For the last twelve months we have been suffering from a disease called hog-cholera* 
Examination after death reveals an atfection of the lungs and intestines. The hogs 
live but a short time after they are taken with the disease, and generally die in their 
beds and apparently without much suffering. We have beeu unable to find a remedy. 
Copperas, arsenic, sulphur, salt, and wood-ashes are used as preventives, and it is 
thought with beneficial results. Not over 10 per cent, of those attacked recover. 

We also suffer to some extent witli chicken-cholera. Alum administered in wheat- 
dough is regarded as both a preventive and cure, but it cannot always be relied upon 
as either. 

Mr. Geoege Hunter, Carlinville, Macoupin County, Illinois, says: 

Presuming that breeders of the several classes of farra-animals and fowls will re- 
spond to your circular-letter with such information as concerns mainly the class with 
which severally they are most conversant, I shall confiue myself to a few pertinent 
facts coming under my observation as a breeder of swine. I state upon careful Ln- 
qniry and personal observation in my own neighborhood and adjacent localities, that 
about 20 per cent, of the entire hog crop, in numbers, die annually of the various dis- 
eases incident to swine. Of this loss about 15 per cent, is probably due to hog-cholera, 
and the remaining .5 per cent, to other (practically) obsciu'e ailments. In this section 
of Illinois, which is one of the heaviest corn and pork producing regions of the West, 
I should estimate the loss annually, in dollars, by the diseases among swine, as equal 
to about one-fourth of the entire hog product. From the mass of general statistical 
information to which one properly turns in this connection, it may be inferred with a 
reasonable certainty that in this class of animals alone the country at large sustains 
an annual loss of at least $15,000,000 by the ravages of disease, the State of Illinois 
bearing perhaps i52,.500,000 of the loss as her share. 

As to measures of prevention or treatment (inquired of), whatever may be known 
to veterinary science, or possibly professional skill, nothing, by way of general relief, 
has been accomplished. No precautions of a general character, to prevent the spread 
of contagion ; no concert of action for the purpose of disinfection, has ever, so far as I 
know, been attempted. And basing my observation upon the magnitude of the inter- 
est involved, the wide-spread character of the evil, and the highly contagious and fatal 
character of the disease prevailing, I respectfully submit that no amount of private 
enterprise or personal effort can avail for the protection of the public good, aud that 
no system of prevention or disinfection can ever be adn])ted, of a sufficiently general 
or nniform character, to be eliective in pi'otecting the public interests in this matter, 
unless that system rests upon the authority of goverument, aud an adec^uate fund, 
such as Congress alone can provide. 

It can scarcely be of service to increase the enormous mass of confused, illogical, 
and contradictory reports of diseases and treatment which are found at every hand, as 
enough already appears in these accounts to show that nothing more is to be hoped 
for in that direction. Facts enough have been laid before the public, observations and 
conclusions enough, bearing the test of scientific experiment, have been made, upon 
which to predicate the belief that a competent commission, having the requisite author- 
ity and funds, could easily frame and establish a system of simple sanitary measures, 
which, being generally applied to this class of farm-animals alone, would result in avast 
saving to the country, eveii though no specific cure for that dreadful scourge, " hog- 
cholera," should be discovered. Let the appropriation be made, let the commission be 
authorized, an<l let its investigations be thorough and searching. This I take to be 
the general view of the subject on the part oftliose who have given the matter atten- 
tion. 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 141 

Mr. M. Blevins, Maysville, Beuton Coimty, Arkausasi, says : 

In reply to your circular-letter of recent date, I would say that out of 110 head of 
cattle I have lost 23 with a disease we call murrain, and out of 70 head of hogs I have 
lost 20 with cholera, so called. I think the average loss among the farmers in this 
county is about the same. We have no remedy for either disease. 

Mr. M. A. Knight, Middlebiirg, Clay County, Florida, says : 

For many years past a disense called staggers has prevailed among horses in this lo- 
cality. It is a disease of the brain, and in my opinion is brought on by over- work, or 
in permitting the animal to graze during the heat of the day. The symptoms are an 
entire loss of appetite, costiveness, restlessness, a disposition to walk and seemingly 
not caring where, and oftentimes describing a circle. As a remedy bleeding freely in 
the hind parts is practiced with considerable success. I prefer to cut oif the end of the 
tail, and if necessary cut oft" a second time if the first operation does not give a free 
and continual flow of blood. Then bathe or rather pour cold water on the head until 
the disease is arrested. This should be followed by a good dose of Epsom salts, say one- 
fourth of a pound dissolved in water, and repeat if a free movement of the bowels 
does not follow the first dose. 

In the early recollection of the writer, say twenty-five or thirty years ago, this dis- 
ease was very fatal to horses, probably not more than one in twenty being saved by 
treatment then in vogue. Since the foregoing remedy has been practiced from 50 to 
7.^ ))er cent, of those attacked by the disease recover. The disease is prevalent only 
during hot weather, and seems to principally alfect the brain. It is doubtless brought 
on by exposure to the sun either while working or grazing. 

Mr. Walter Babnes, Larissa, Clierokee Couuty, Texas, says : 

Among hogs the principal diseases are known as cholera, quinsy, and kidney- worms. 
With cholera the symptoms are a constant retching, with slight mucous discharge, and 
staggering and apparent blindness. Death generally ensues within from three to 
twelve hours. The disease is very fatal, and but few of those attacked recover. I 
assisted a short time ago in opening a hog that had cholera last fall (1876), and during 
this year (1877) which had occasional spells of loss of appetite, without any otherappar- 
ent ailment. The body, entrails, pleuro, and vitals of the animal were all gi-own to- 
gether, and had to be separated with the knife. The liver was twice its natural size. 

With the quinsy there is a difficulty in breathing and swallowing, which continues 
until the animal dies. I know of no remedy for either cholera or quinsy. 

With kidney-worm the animal shows weakness in the hind legs, staggers, and unless 
relieved gets down in the loins and drags its hind legs on the ground until it dies. As 
a remedy give small doses of strichniue twice a day for three days, and pour a teaspoon- 
f ul of spirits of turpentine on the loins twice a day. 

Among fowls the cholera has been prevalent in many localities. Those dying of this 
■disease are found to have an enlarged liver. Sometimes this organ is increased to two 
or three times its natural size. I believe fowls need salt as much as farm-animals, 
and mine get it. To my knowledge we have never lost one by disease, while all my 
neighbors lose more or less. 

Dr. Andrew J. Willis, Saratoga Springs, New York, says : 

The only disease that has prevailed here among farm-animals during the past year 
was intestinal fever in swine (cholera). All cases proved fatal. The average dura- 
tion of the disease was two days. No treatment seems to have been given. I saw 
none of the ca-ses, and the only information I have I received from eye-witnesses. The 
symptoms and lesions described were those of hog-cholera. There were seventy cases 
in all. From the information I have been able to glean I am of the opinion that the 
disease was not of a contagious character; but I think unwholesome food contributed 
largely to its diffusion, if not to its development. The }aogs were fed with food from 
the large hotels in this place, wbicli nsu.illy contains a large per cent, of green vege- 
tables, which, in warm weatijer, rapidly undergoes decomposition. I am informed 
that tliG feeding-troughs were never cleaned out, though swarming with maggots, and 
that the pens emitted a terrible stench. From this it will be seen that the swine were 
not kc*i)t in the best of hygienic conditions. The outbreak cannot be traced to con- 
tagious influences, nor can we say it appeared spontaneously, although we must con- 
■cede tliat some cases probably originated spontaneously. No doubt the unwholesome 
food favored the development of the disease l)y loading the blood with deleterious 
organic matter, and so brought about a susceptible condition of the system. 



142 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Mr. J. L. Sears, Valley Mills, Bosque Couuty, Texas, says : 

We lost a few of our horses and mules last winter by a disease called bliiid-sta^^i^ers, 
and this winter a good many work animals, both horses and mules, have died from a 
similar disease. It is supposed to be caused or superinduced by worm-eaten corn. I 
lost one horse and had several others attacked by the disease, but relieved them by 
smoking with i)ine-tar, woolen rags, and red pepper, and by giving them large doses 
of bromide of potash. I also bled in the neck. A very strange thing about this dis- 
ease is the fact that every horse attacked loses the sight of his left eye, yet you cannot 
detect any difi'ereuce in the appearance of the eyes. They both look natural, yet the 
animal cannot see one particle with the left eye. They will not see yon if you approach 
them from the blind side, but as soon as you show yourself on the riglit side they be- 
come alarmed, Avheel from you, and throw themselves against the walls of the stable 
with such force as often to knock themselves down. When in the lot they will con- 
tinue to turn round in a circle until they fall, and then, unless ])ronvptly treated, will 
die in a few hours. Out of twenty attacked in this neighborhood ten have died. 
Since quitting corn as a feed and substituting oats my animals have done well. 

Swine have not done very well for the past two years. A great many have died 
from a disease called cholera, but I am of the opinion that a great many more die from 
the etl'ects of eating cotton-seeds and cockle-burs than from cholera. 

Mr. John Pit:man, London, Laurel County, Kentucky, says : 

The most troublesome disease we have to contend with is cholera among hogs. The 
losses were A^ery heavy during last fall. With the cold weather the disease has disap- 
peared, and no animals seem now to be affected with it. The first symptom of the disease 
is a stiffness of the limbs, the animal moving about like a foundered horse. The eyes 
become watery, the hog vomits frequently, and the excrements are bloody. The hog 
generally dies within twenty-four hours. The best treatment is to change their quar- 
ters frequently, and feed them turnips (tops and roots), potatoes, pumpkins, and such 
things. If they can be induced to eat, the chances are favorable. If they will not eat 
there is no need of giving them medicine. I had eight cases of cholera in the fatten- 
ing-pen last fall. After live had died I turned the others out into a lot and fed 
on turnips, giving slops occasionally, in which I put a little copperas and salt. The 
three sick ones recovered on this diet. At the same time I lost about twenty pigs that 
Avere running at large. I gave nothing in the way of medicine, except calomel to one, 
and it died. The symptoms were stiffness, blindness, coughing, and watery eyes. The 
whole lot died within a period of twenty days. 

Mr. AY. B. Flippin, Yellville, Marion Couuty, Arkansas, says : 

A few^ cases of hog-cholera are reported in the county, but whether the hogs die of 
cholera or from the effects of eating cotton-seeds where cattle are fed is hard to deter- 
mine. I am sure that more die in this locality from the effects of feeding on these 
seeds than from other causes or with other diseases. 

Professor James Law, of Cornell University, Ithaca, ;jf. Y., says : 

A life-long study of the diseases of domesticated animals has convinced me that 
government interference in such matters is altogether uncalled for, excepting in the 
case of such maladies as are commuuicable by contagion or otherwise from animal to 
animal, or from animal to man, and viae versa, and the existence of which in this coun- 
try, or in one with which we have commercial relations, endangers our live-stock 
interests or the health of our people. Apart from these, the duty of the Executive will 
be sufdcieutly f ultilled in the foundation and maintenance of a fully ecpiipped veter- 
inary college and experimental station, similar to those of Continental Europe,' and 
under such supervision and control as will protect it against those debasing courses 
which proved the ruin of the two earliest American veterinary colleges (Boston and 
Philadelphia). Such a school would be of unspeakable advantage in investigating 
the diseases indigenous to our different States and Territories, and in sending out 
men on whose knowledge and judgment the stock-owner may implicitly rely when- 
ever such diseases appear. It would be more reasonable for govenmient to undertake 
to nuike every one a physician and surgeon for the human race thau to make every 
stock-owner a safe medical adviser upon the diseases of his six or eight different genera 
of domestic animals. 

To furnish an account of the non-tran.smissible or sporadic diseases of animals that 
we see in this and in oMier localities would necessitate the wriMng of a considerable 
book, and I cannot do better in this respect than refer you to " The Farmer's Veterinary 
Adviser," which I published last year, and two copies of which will bo found in the 
Congressional Library. It is true that these sporadic diseases are greatly increased by 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 14o 

inattontiou to the laws of hygiene, but they extend no further than the stock of the 
individual owner, and in no sense endanger that of his neighbor, nor of the country at 
large. 

If now we come to the contagious and communicable diseases of animals, we are 
confronted by an entirely different state of things. Here the existence in the utmost 
confines of our territory of one diseased animal, or even of its dried or otlierwise vir- 
ulent products, is a source of danger to the entire country. Here tlie individual owner 
can plead no inherent right to preserve and treat the diseased animal at the expense 
of an unlimited iux^rease of the poison with each day of such preservation, and of 
an imminent aud ever-increasing danger to the live stock of his neighbors and of the 
commonwealth. If a State or county harbors such a disease it cannot expect to main- 
tain the same fiee and unrestricted commerce with adjacent nations as if it bore no 
such elements of danger. The virus of the contagious disease may be compared to a 
seed which in suitable soil and climate xmdergoes an extraordinary increase with each 
successive generation, aud is only limited by the lack of new ground into which it 
may spread. Now we have at the mercy of such diseases no less than 90,000,000 head 
of farm quadrupeds, of a money value of nearly $iiO0,OOO,O0O, and all this is placed in 
jeopardy by the existence of contagious diseases, whether generated in our own land 
or imported from abroad. But the money value of the whole of our live stock fur- 
nishes but an imperfect idea of the losses that would be entailed upon us consequent 
on the general diffusion of contagious disease. Some of the most deadly plagues, such 
as rinderpest, boviue lung-fever, sheep-pox, and hog-cholera, prove fatal to about one- 
half of the animals attacked, and as a new and susceptible generation is exposed 
every year, the monetary depletion in a generally infected country is to be estimated 
rather by the amount of yearly increase in numbers than by the losses of the tirst 
year. The results of such plagues are to be looked upon as a yearly tax of the most 
oppressive kind, which tend to increase in all cases, by extension, with the lapse of 
time, and which will always be heightened in equal ratio as we improve the kind and 
multiply the numbers of our live stock. What is still worse, the permanent fertility 
of the soil is in a great degree dependent on the numbers of the live stock which it 
supports, therefore any inevitable rediiction of the animals, or anything that renders 
the soil or district inimical to such animals, will lay the foundation for an increasing 
sterility whenever it is unremunerative to bring manures from a distance. If we now 
consider that in self-supporting countries four-tifths of the population live by the cul- 
tivation of the soil or by the rearing of stock, we can estimate the stupendous inter- 
ests involved in the occurrence of such pestilential devastations. As regards property 
at stake, we own incomparably more live stock than any nation of Europe, Russia aloue 
excepted. The following table, giving a comparison of our live stock with that of the 
two foremost European nations, will amply illustrate this : 



United States (1875) 

Prussia (1877) .. 

Great Britain and Ireland (1877) 



Horses and mules. 



11,149,800 
3, M52, 237(1867) 
2, 790, 851 (1874) 



Cattle. 



Sheep. 



27, 870, 700 35, 935, 300 
7,906,818 I 22,262,087 
6, 115, 491 I 30, 313, 941 

I 



Swine. 



25, 726, 800 
4,875, 114 
2, 422, 832 



In absolute numbers, then, we exceed those nations by three, four, and even five 
times in all classes of farm-animals excepting sheep; and yet, in relation to our terri- 
tory, our live stock is very deficient. We must increase our live stock if we would main- 
tain the fertility of our land ; and when our stock approaches, as it one day m ly, to 
that of the whole continent of Europe, we will be exposed to dangers equal to those 
of Europe in centuries jjast, if we continue to ignore the animal pestilences in our 
legislation. 

As illustrating the possibilities of such losses, I may state that a single extension of 
such a disease as rinderpest has cost Western Europe as much as 30,000,000 head of 
cattle, probably worth |;1,500,000,000. In eighty years of the last century it cost 
France alone 10,000,000 head of cattle. (Faust.) In the six years preceding 1862 lung- 
fever and epizootic aphtha cost Great Britain over 1,000,000 head of cattle, worth at 
least .$.50,000,000. (Fifth Report of Medical Officer of Privy Council.) In eighteen 
months of the prevalence of rinderpest, in 18G5-'G6, the same country lost about 
$10,000,000. It would be easy to go on at length with such statements of loss by differ- 
ent nations, but it will be more i)rofitable to particularize some of the diseases that 
prevail among us, or threaten us. 

Hog-cholera. — lu the absence of reliable statistics it is impossible to estimate our 
yearly losses ivoia preventable disease. But it is estimated that during last year one of 
our native-animal plagues — the so-called hog-cholera — swept off not less than .$20,000,- 
000 worth of stock, and that one-fourth of this loss occurred in Illinois. Several de- 
structive outbreaks occurred in this vicinity as the result of importing western hogs, 



144 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

and but for the comparative scarcity of hoga in this rogion, would have proved much 
more disastrous. Reports from diflereut counties in Illinois show the present season 
as almost equally pestiferous, and doubtless in the absence of preventive measures 
similar ravages will recur at frequent intervals, whereas the merest fraction of the 
loss would sustain an efficient system of prevention, and leave ample margin for main- 
taining a veterinary college and experimental station which would be a credit and 
safeguard to the country. I need not say more on this afiection, having recently fur- 
nished your department with an extended essay on the subject. (See Dejjartmeut Re- 
port, 187.^) 

Texas fever. — Next to hog-cholera perhaps the disease which at present most engages 
the public mind is the fever produced by cattle from the Southern States mingling 
with our northern herds. During the great excitement of 1868 measures were adopted 
to prevent the introduction of such southern cattle into our Northern States, excepting 
during the frosts of winter. But immunity soon bred carelessness, and now the sum- 
mer traffic has again acquired wide dimensions, and every year we snlier extensive 
losses in our Northern aud Eastern States. Within the last moTith I have traced no less 
than four outbreaks in New York — at North Bangor, Franklin County ; Watertown, 
Schenectady, and Brighton, Monroe Countj-. These are mere straws indicating the 
direction of the current, aud doubtless many other smaller outbreaks have occurred 
at other points, as they are rarely acknowledged so long as the parties interested can 
preserve the secret. It is only when, as at Cleveland, Ohio, the losses become so gen- 
eral that it is impossible to conceal them that the general public are api)rised of the 
occurrence. The losses at North Bangor up to date have been seventeen, at Cleveland 
one hundred and thirty-nine. The losses in such cases, however, are not to be esti- 
mated by the deaths occurring on the infected pastures, but also by the loss of fodder 
incident to the disease of such pastures by the stocking of them with horses or sheep, 
or to the fatal results occurring at a distance to which the hay from such fields has 
been sent. In all the above-mentioned cases the trouble has supervened on the im- 
portation of southern cattle, and the parasites (ticks) of these are found on their 
northern victims. 

Nothing can be simpler or more certain than the prevention of this disease, but it 
will never be permanently established by other authority than the general govern- 
ment. Safety consists in restricting the northern exodus of cattle to the winter season, 
and sometime before the last frosts. But it is not to be expected that the Middle States 
will prevent the through traffic which brings no danger to themselves, and the means 
can easily be found to ship and reship, so that the stock appears to come from a 
salubrious locality. (For description of Texas fever see department report on diseases 
of cattle, 1871; also report of New York board of health, 1868.) 

LurKj-Jever. — This is a much more redoubtable affection than Texas fever, which is 
limited in its prevalence to our northern latitudes by the appearance of frost. Lung- 
fever knows no limitation by winter or summer, cold or heat, rain or drought, higher 
low altitude. In Western Europe and America it is a purely contagious disease, depend- 
ent alone on the pre-existing virus, and never arising spontaneously. This is amply 
proved not only by the records of the invasion of Ireland, England, Scotland, America, 
Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, but also by the 
preservation of countries (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Schleswig Holstein, Oldenburg, 
Mecklenburg, Switzerland, the Channel Islands, Massachusetts, and Connecticut), 
which have treated it as an exotic, and even of such localities in plague-stricken coun- 
tries as breed their own stock and never import strange animals. Of the latter maybe 
particularly mentioned the Highlands of Scotland, certain portions of the Chev- 
iots, and parts of Normandy. This is the most insidious of all plagues, for the 
poison may be retained in the syslem for a period of one or two months, or evep 
more, in a latent form, and the infected animal may meanwhile be carried half 
way round the world in apparent health, yet bearing the seeds of this dread pes- 
tilence. And this malady we harbor on our eastern seaboard, where it is gradually 
but almost imperceptibly invading new territory, and preparing, when opportunity 
offers, to descend with devastating effect on our great stock range of the West. There 
is abundant evidence of the existence of this affection in Eastern New York, in New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. 
(See government report on diseases of cattle, 1871, and many instances in current 
agricultural journals.) Within tlie past year I have advised in the case of three 
outbreaks, one in Eiistern New York, one on Staten Island, and one in New Jersey. 
At present it creates little apprehension, but we are asleep over a smouldering volcano, 
which only wants a little more time to gather strength, when the general infection of 
the country will bo imminent. Spreading from the port of New York, it has already 
gained a substantial hold upon seven different States, including the District of Co- 
lumbia, and has invaded and been repeatedly expelled from two more, and it is only 
requisite that it should reach the sources of our stock supplies in the West to infect 
our railroad cars and Eastern States generally. It will create no such panic as did 
the Texas fever in 1868, but by its leisurely invasion of a herd, taking one victim now 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 145 

and aiiotbev next week or next niontli, and liy tlie general infection that will be es- 
tablished before its trne nature is suspected, it will prove far more destructive in the 
end than would an active invasion of Texas fever, or eveu rin(lcri)est. England has 
lost over $10,000,000 from rinderpest in the present century, but she has lost Imndreds 
of millions from the less dreaded lung-fever. To save ourselves from similar conse- 
<iuenees the government should see to it that this disease is arrested in its fatal course, 
and tlioronghly eradicated from our soil. If nothing is done the time will inevitably 
come when we will repeat the experience of Continental Europe, Great Britain, South 
Africa, and Australia, when our agriculture will be cri^ipled, and when the extinction 
of the plague will be a herculean, if not an impossible, task. 

A2>hthoi(S fever, rinderpest, roiereal disease of horses, and sheep-pox. — These are all for- 
eign plagues, and at present happily unknown to America. All are exceedingly con- 
tagious, and, excepting the first, cause a very high mortality. The first only, the least 
fatal of all, and the least likely to be imported because of its short period of latency, 
one to two days, has ever reached America, but the contingency which brought this is 
even more likely to bring the others and an incomparably more terrible devastation. 
One (the veneieal disease of horses) is almost as insidious and as long latent in the 
system as lung-plague, and hence as likely to reach our shores in the frequent impor- 
tation of horses from the continent of Europe. That our perils from such diseases are 
but poorly understood even by those who ought to know them best, I infer frona a 
recent article in one of our most popular agricultural weeklies, in which the veterin- 
ary (?) editor speaks of rinderpest and Texas fever as identical. If one who assumes 
thie title of V. S., and is upheld by a powerful newspaper, makes such a blunder, what 
are we to expect of the ordinary Congressman ? Unlike Texas fever, rinderpest is 
very highly contagious, spreads for some distance on the air, and is nnattected by any 
changes of climate, temperature, or management. Texan fever, as we well know, is 
limited to the pastures where the southern cattle have grazed, and is at once extin- 
guished by the accession of frost. To adopt similar precautionary measures for the 
two would be in the highest degree impolitic and prodigal. (For aphthous fever, see my 
paper in Journal of New York State Agricultural Society, January, 1«71. For rinder- 
pest, see report of Cattle Plague Committee of House of Commons, England, 18G6-'67.) 

Indiijenous animal contagia. — Among our native contagious diseases there are still 
four or live that demand special attention. These are, glanders and farcy, canine mad- 
ness, malignant anthrax, tuberculosis, milk-sickness, and contagious foot-rot. 

Glanders and farcy. — These are but one disease under different manifestations. 
Highly contagious and deadly not only to horses but to man, this affection is one that 
demands the most stringent measures for its extirpation. And yet we are doomed to 
see the victims of this disease freely exposed in public, kept in livery stables, watered 
at public drinking-troughs, worked on threshing machines which travel from farm to 
farm, where the diseased animals feed from the mangers and drink from the buckets 
of the other horses, and palmed off' upon unsuspecting customers, who little know that 
they are purchasing a deadly poison, which may cut oif their stock and themselves by a 
most loathsome and painful disease. And in this State of New York our only redress 
is by an action for damages against the vendor when the disease has wrought its dire 
work upon man or beast. This is truly a deep stain on our civilization. At frequent 
intervals over this region we find active centers of this dread disease, but are legally 
helpless to apply any efficient check. (See my report on glanders, in Journal of New 
York State Agricultural Society, July, 1869.) 

Ca7iine tnadness belongs to tlie same terrible list. Constantly fatal in its victims, 
human and brute, it imperatively demands such measures as will obviate its genera- 
tion and prevent its communication to man where it has been developed. 

Malignant anthrax, in all its numerous forms, is the third of this permanently obnox- 
ious group. It appears in the most varied shapes, but mainly as " black quarter" and 
splenic apoplexy ; attacks all animals without discrimination, and is fatal in a high de- 
gree. In man it appears as malignant pustule and intestinal mycosis, which are no 
less fatal than their congeries in the brute. Properly speaking, this is not a plague, but 
is developed only in particular localities, propagated only by direct contact, and tends 
to die out if removed from its native habitat. But it owns the most indestructible of 
all known animal poisons, and once developed is liable to be preserved in groves, soils, 
fodder, skins, hair, sheds, &c., for years, or even permanently. In an extended out- 
break in Western New York, in which upwards of one hundred cattle and three men 
suffered, the grounds, previously healthy, have retained the poison for over two years, 
and continue to claim new victims at intervals. The hay from such infected soil will 
convey the disease to a distance, and hides, hair, and horns have often convoyed it to 
man after they had been carried half way round the world. This disease, or group of 
diseases, therefore, though limited in their power of extension, are suitable suVijects for 
legislative control. 

Tuberculosis. — The fourth in this homicidal list is tuberculosis or consumption. That 
this is communicable by inoculation, or by feeding the discharges from tiie softened 
diseased masses, no longer admits of doubt. Tiie experiments of Klebs, Chauveau, 

S. Ex. 35 10 



146 DIbEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

Gorlach, and a uuuibcr of others, have supplied ample proof of this. There is even 
grounds for concludiuff that in certain cases it is conveyed iu the milk, a terrible idea, 
considering the number of infants to whom cows' milk is the staple diet. That this 
disease is common in our herds is with me a matter of frecjueut observation, and when 
the diseased have been allowed to min<;le with the healthy, and their discharges drop- 
ped upon the food have been consumed by others, the decimation of the herd has been 
common. 

Milk-nidcncsK is perhaps beyond the uepd of legislative control, being confined to 
-unreclaimed localities, yet ])hysicians in such distiicts claim that many fatal cases of 
this affection occur in distant cities as the result of eating cheese and butter made iu 
the unhealthy regions. 

ContaijioHH foot-vot in xlirrp. — This is to be classed with Texas fever. It is confined 
to the lands on which the diseased animals have been, but its prevalence is uot checked 
by the supervention of cold weather. At times, where tlie means of communication 
were abundant, as eight years ago iu Iowa, this disease has caused a wide-6i»read de- 
struction among flecks, and brought ruin on the llock-masters. Tlie disease should 
therefore be checked by, at the least, an interdict ou the sale of sheep from affected 
tiocks, excepting for immediate slaughter, and to be conveyed iron! infected p;istures iu 
wagons. 

rariixilic discritics. — Besides these there is a long list of diseases due to parasites, which 
it would unduly lengthen this communication to do more than glance at, but which 
are highly destructive to our live stock, and in some cases inimical to human life a^ 
well. There are the various forms of parasitic mange, and notably tlie scab in sheep, 
which prove the occasion of most extensive losses. There is the lluke or liver-rot, 
which frequently sweeps ott' over 0.000,000 sheep per annum from the snuill island of 
Great Britain, and is uow destroying the sheep of New South Wales, where it was iu- 
troduced iu the bodies of German rams. I have long sought iu vain for this ]»arasite 
ijn America, but Mr. Stewart speaks of it as already common on Long Island ; therefore 
we may look upon it as already in our midst. There are the luug-worms of cattle, 
horses, sheep, and pigs, which yearly cut oti" great numbers of our young stock, espe- 
cially in the case of sheep. An Iowa tiock-master writes me that his cunutry contains 
100,000 fewer sheep than it did seven years ago, though no one had found the real 
cause of the great mortality until he read an account of these worms which I had 
published iu the New York Tribune. Similar accounts come from Illinois. Intestinal 
worms produce destructive epizootics, notably iu horses, sheep, and swine, when they 
have been allowed to propagate fouly, and the eggs getting into wells and water- 
courses are often carried far fi-om the original habitat, and form centers for the deter- 
mination of new outbreaks. I know of several instances iu which laud has had to be 
evacuated because of the abundauce of such germs, which reuder it absolutely fatal 
to stock, 

If'onns in solid organs. — But it is not intestinal worms alone that demand attention. 
The hydalifh of the brains of cattle and sheep, derived from a tape-worm of the dog ; 
the ln'jdati(h of the liver, &c., of man and herbivora, also from a cauiue tape-worm ; 
the hydatids or measles of pigs and occasionally of man, from a tape-worm of n;an : 
the In/datids or measles of calves, also from a tape-worm of m;in ; the liver, fat, and 
kidney worm of swine, and the irichinaoi man and animals, should be rooted out wher- 
ever found, and noue left to develop a veritable ei)izootic, as has occasioually hap- 
pened. 

In conclusion, I submit, in ^ iew of the enormous value of our live stock, and of these 
multiform dangers that threaten them luore or less imminently, whether it is not our 
duty as a people io institute a system of sanitary administration for the exclusion and 
extinction of animal pestilences. No need of agriculture more urgently demands 
recognition than does that of protection from the ever-injreasiug danger to our live 
stock from fatal contagious and otherwise communicable diseases. The one danger- 
ous feature of such diseases, their connnnnicabtlity, is the best guarantee that they can 
be prevented, and imposes a duty which no people nor government can ignore with- 
out proving recreant to their trust, and perpetrating a crime against the future heirs 
of their national inheritance. 

Dr. Arthur Y. Wadgynear, Castroville, Medina County, Texas, 
says : 

Our horses are, in general, very healthy, and I have noticed only two prevalent 
diseases, viz : bots and distemper. The bots are produced by two different insects, 
Gastro})hihi8 and Chrysops metnllicus, which deposit their eggs on the hair of the horse, 
on the breast and foie legs mainly, and are bitten oft' and swallowed by the animal. 
They are carried into the stomach, where they remain until the following spring, 
when, having attained their full size as larviij, they are carried along the intestines 
and evacuated. The symptoms of a horse afflicted with the bots are uneasiness and 
apparent pain in the bowels. Tlie animal falls to the grouud, starts up again sud- 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 147 

(leuly, paAvs svitli the fore feot, and so on tintil oxLanshul. Reined ics are numerous, 
but i have found only one -wbieh never failed. It is as follows : Mix six ounces of 
epsoni salts with a pint of a stron<f decoction of worm-seed herb {('heiiopodii ^fcxkani), 
say eifjlit ounces of the weed to one quart of water, boiled down to a pint ; then mix 
with this solution about four ounces of oil of turpentine; put in a quart bottle, and 
drench the horse well -with it. At the ex[)irati()n of an hour give the animal a half 
pint of linseed-oil, which will soon cause the expulsion of the worms or bots. 

The symptoms of distemper are : Loss of appetite, swelling of the glands of the jaw 
and under the belly, sliglit fever, cough, and discharge from the nostrils. If these 
symptoms do not abate, emaciation, general dehility, and death soon ensues. The fol- 
lowing remedy is used : One-half ounce hlack sulphate of antimony, one ounce muriate 
ammonia, three-fourths of an ounce of saltpeter, four ounces powdered gentian-root, 
.and two and one-half ounces of powdered /ft'««/n gnveum seed, mixed, divided into 
eight doses, and given three times a day. The animal must he kept in a dry, warm 
sta])le where no other horses can come in contact with him. The disease generally 
yields within from five to seven days. 

The only disease which aliects cattle to any considerable extent in Western Texas is 
" hollow-horn, or " horn-distemper." The cause of this disease is a "hollow stomach " 
and an insufficient suj)ply of wholesome food. The symptoms are gradual decay of 
the pit of the horn, loss of appetite, sluggishness, swelling of the eyes and head, cold 
horns, urine bloody, costiveness, and swollen udder. The remedy is one-fourth pound 
each of powdered ginger and gentian-root, one ounce of saltpeter, and two ounces of 
ammonia, nuxed well, and a tablespooufnl given three times a day in food. If the 
disease is of long standing, remove the purulent matter, either by sawing off the ends 
of the horns or by boring them with a large gimlet. The hollow should be kept well 
cleaned by the injection of a solution of carbolic acid, soft-soap, and water ; say one 
ounce of carbolic acid, four ounces of soap, and one quart of water. In the early 
stages the disease may be cured by a generous feeding of corn-meal and good grass, 
and the application of the above solution to the head and neck. 

The "wolves" is a disease caused by a yellow, grayish-looking fly, of a species not 
known to me. It deposits its eggs under the skin above the hoof of the animal. In 
a few days it hatches, and the mite migrates all over the body, and finally lodges itself 
under the skiu, where it grows and undergoes its transformation as a larva. It then 
bores through the skin, emerging as a perfect "heel-fly." These flies appear early in 
the spring, and cause the death of thousands of cattle. No remedy is known. 

There is no Texas or Spanish fever among cattle in Western Texas. Ticks are plen- 
tiful, but they do no harm to native stock. 

Mr. M. GiLLis, CastrovillGj JMedina County, Texas, says: 

A disease is prevailing at this time among horses called " loin-distemper," which is 
very fatal. The first symptoms are observed in the hind limbs. The loins seem weak, 
and in a few days the animal is unable to stand, its hind legs failing to support it. By 
many the disease is thought to be contagious, while others regard it as an aftection of 
the kidneys. No remedy has been discovered. Colts, particularly those that come in 
late in the spasou, are attacked by ticks in such numbers that if they do not directly 
kill the animal they cause wounds which draw the blow-flies, which eat away the flesh 
and soon cause death. As a remedj- for ticks, we apply coal-oil, and for maggots 
chrysalic ointment. 

Among sheep there are several diseases, but scab causes more trouble and loss than 
all other diseases combined. Eighty per cent, of the flocks are afflicted with this 
disease. Tobacco is the common remedy, and if properly used will invariably prove 
beneficial. Of good tobacco twenty-five pounds to one hundred gallons of water, 
with a small quantity of lye or sal soda, will make a solution that will cure the dis- 
ease if applied at intervals of ten days. 

A disease known as "lumbers," which is a collection of worms in the stomach, some 
years kills almost all the lambs when but a few mouths old. A disease calleil " scours," 
a looseness and running off at the bowels, also proves quite fatal. 

Mr. W. W. Farnsworth, TVaterville, Lucas County, Ohio, says : 

There is some complaint of hog-cholera in our vicinity, but I have not been troubled 
with it. We keep our hogs in clover in the summer aud in clean covered pens in win- 
ter, and feed with corn-meal. We give pure water to drink. We select the best swine 
to breed from, and do not breed too young, as it weakens the constitution. 

]\rr. Will C. Eanney, Capo Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, ^Iis« 
souri, says : 

While I have no pretensions to a scientific knowledge of diseases of farm-animals or 
their treatment, it has been my misfortune fhiriug tlie last, twenty years to witnesfi 



148 DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 

luucli of ilie socalleil lio^-eliolera, ami tliat Icngtli of time will, I think, embrace the 
])eriod of its prevalence here, as prior to that time I heard nothinj; of it. I have had 
a residence here of fifty-three years. I have known the disease to rage here among 
swine nnder all circumstances and conditions in which swine are kept. I have known 
it to destroy droves of hogs of the common kind, others of no breed at all — such as run 
in the swamps and never saw corn. I have known the same breed and equality of hogs 
destroyed that run in the woods around the farm with free access to running water 
and corn sufficient to live on. I have known theiu to die in cleanly pens, where they 
were well cared for, as rapidly as in filthy stys. I have known them to die of tlie 
disease in woods lots, where tliey were fed regularly and abundantly twice a day on 
corn. I have known them swept off by the scores in a grass pasture, while others in 
an adjoining clover field escaped ; while at other times the clover pasture afforded no 
better protection than other places. Nor have those who pay the greatest attention 
to fine breeds of hogs and their cleanliness and comfort fared any better than those 
■who pay no attention to either. 

"When the disease lirst made its appearance among my hogs, I was in the habit of 
lilacing the diseased animal on its back and pouring a tablespoouful of powdered cop- 
peras down its throat. Every animal thus ti'eated at that time got well. The same 
treatment the past season was without any beneficial results. I know of but one ani- 
mal that recovered during the past summer, and it was treated to a copious adminis- 
tration of pine-tar poured down its throat. 

The hog-cholera presents itself under so many different phases that it would be diffi- 
cult indeed to describe it. Each farmer in this vicinity would no doubt give a different 
description of it as it pievails among his own stock. Sometimes the animal will vomit 
and purge j sometimes one of these symptoms will be prominent and the other entirely 
lacking ; sometimesneither will be observed, but the animal will apparently be affected 
with sore-throat. At other times sores will appear all over the body, occasionally caus- 
ing the loss of the animal's eyes or ears, and not unfrequently both. Sometimes the 
most prominent symptom will be thumping, as a horse affected with the thumps. 

I am satisfied that a knowledge of the cause or causes of the disease has not been 
discovered, and I can but hope that the investigations making by your department 
will result in findiug either a preventive or a cure for this frightful and fatal disease. 

Mr. J. .S. O. Beooks, Etna, Smith County, Texas, says : 

No disease particularly worthy of note exists here except among hogs, which is 
always called cholera. I can add nothing to the statements of the learned contribu- 
tor of Rhode Island, as published in Agricultural Report for 1H61, as it relates to a 
description of the disease, its progress and various phases. Cleanliness, pure air and 
water, which this writer deems so important, do not appear to reduce the death-rate 
of our hogs in the woods. 

Hundreds of remedies have enjoyed a high reputation for a time, only to be cast 
aside after repeated failure. The most discerning agree that nothing seems to cure. 
Some get well without any attention whatever. 

Whether the disease is atmospheric and contagious cannot be decided — some faots 
j)oint one way and just as many in another direction. It crawls slowly but surely into 
every nook and corner, and sometimes with very singular manifestations. The loss in 
1876 was 66 per cent. 

Mr. ^y. II. Denny, Crockett, Houston County, Texas, says: 

The domestic animals of our county, with the exception of hogs, are generally very 
healthy. Those that die, as a general thing, do so of old age, poverty, or accidental 
injuries. All hogs that die here are said to die of cholera. It matters not what the 
symptoms are, the duration of the disease, or anything else, whenever a hog gets sick 
one or more of the several remedies which are being daily published in the papers for 
hog-cholera are administered. It may be that the hog has quinsy, pneumonia, or en- 
teric inflammation — it is immaterial which — he is certain to get copperas, blue-stone, 
sulphur, salt, soft soap, turpentine, carbolic acid, ashes, charcoal, calomel, tannin, &c. 
Many of the remedies used must necessarily be liurtful, and some positively destruct- 
tive of life. Most of our farmers have no knowledge of the pathology of the disease 
of hogs or other farm-animals and are therefore not competent to give a correct diag- 
nosis of disease; consequently the treatment of sick animals is wholly empirical, 
routine, and frequently destructive of life. 

Mr. Laeayette IIoss, Tulij), Dallas County, Arkansas, says: 

My hogs were nearly all sick and about half of them died last fall. The symptoms 
were very different, but the results were about the same. Some would cough and lin- 



DISEASE AMONG SWINE AND OTHER DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 149 

ger for a week or so and (lieu die. Others ^Yo^lld breathe rapidly, as if greatly fatigued, 
while still others would be purged, &c. My neighbors generally suffered as badly or 
even vrorse than I did. Those that escaped in the fall are losing their hogs now (Feb- 
ruary 2). A great many remedies have been tried, but with little success. 

Mr. Cyeus Eice, Sardiuia, Erie County, New York, says : 

Occasionally during the ^last twenty years we have lost a few cattle by a disease 
which I think is diphtheria. Many have, no doubt, died for a lack of a knowledge of 
the disease, and others because remedies were not applied soon enough. The first 
symptoms are profuse weeping, quick and labored breathing, driveling, and, as the 
disease advances, the imlse quicken's. In the last stages of the disease the blood 
courses through the veins like a running stream. The animal refuses to either eat or 
drink, its tlanks settle in, and it wanders around until it finally falls down and dies. 
After losing six head by the disease, the writer saved several others by a free use of 
wliisky, giving saltpeter and borax in the first stages. The last-named articles (a 
tablespoonful of each) can be given in a bran mash once in every two or three hours, 
if the animal does not refuse to eat. If it refuses to take food, the throat should bo 
well swabbed. When the disease extends up the pharynx and into the cavities of the 
head, and a thick, yellow matter runs from the nostrils, it is questionable if the dis- 
ease can be reached so as to etiect a cure. A few years since a neighbor of mine cured 
a cow of the disease by feeding saltpeter and borax in the inside of potatoes, which 
she would eat. A year thereafter the cow had a second attack, which failed to yield 
to treatment, and she died. I do not doubt that any medicine that is efficacious in 
diphtheria in a person would be good in this disease in stock, providing it was used iu 
time. Perhaps a free use of sulphur might prove beneficial. 

There is another disease that, so far as I know, has always proved fatal, although 
of not very frequent occurrence. It usually attacks calves, yearlings, or two-year- 
olds. The first symptom noticed is seen in the animal lying down, a refusal to eat, 
and, in a short time, inability to get upon its feet. It generally dies within from 
twenty-four to forty-eight hours. On taking off the hide, the legs and body, on one 
side, appear as if bruised to a jelly. I think the jelly appearance is the result of 
inflammation, but the cause is unknown here. It is sometimes called murrain, but I 
doubt if that is the correct name of the disease. We have no remedy. 



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